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The Effect of Soil Parameters on Earth Penetration of Projectiles

Description: The purpose of this study can be divided into the three following parts: 1) to present complete sets of data obtained for projectile penetration into soil targets of precisely known properties, and to describe how to build and test these targets; 2) to present a numerical method of data analysis for empirically determining the force on a projectile, during penetration; and 3) to demonstrate how physical soil parameters, as well as impact velocity and a projectile property influence penetration.
Date: July 1, 1969
Creator: Thompson, L J; Ferguson, III, G H; Murff, J D & Cetiner, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Miniaturized Gap Test

Description: A test arrangement and procedure has been devised for a miniaturized gap test in which the donor is essentially a length of hypodermic needle tubing loaded with an exploslve. The particular size used in the work reported hereln had an explosive column charge diameter of 33 mils. The procedure was used to determine gap sensitivities of several explosives including tetryl, RDX, PETN, HMX, and PBXN-5. Several of the explosives were tested of more than one particle size and loaded at more than one density. Within the group of explosives tested, both particle size and loading density had more affect upon sensitivity, as measured in these tests, than did composition. The coarser materials were found to be both less sensitive and more variable than the fine explosives. The fine explosives were found to become less sensitive as the loading density increased. This trend was apparently reversed for the one coarse explosive (RDX, Class a) for which data was obtained. The test arrangement and procedure is a promising tool for the acquisition of data for the design of fuzes of minimum dimensions.
Date: June 1, 1969
Creator: Stresau, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Casey, Leslie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE Project 6.12 DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT OF BURST AND GROUND ZERO

Description: The purpose of this series of experiments was to test methods available to the field army for tactical determination of atomic burst location and yield over enemy-held terrain. Preliminary analysis indicated that the systems that should be tested were sound ranging, seismic height of burst determination, photographic flash ranging, and Bhangmeter type systems for yield determination. Sound ranging was accomplished using standard equipment with modified techniques. Microphone arrays of dimensions which were small compared to the range were used to eliminate hyperbolic curvature corrections and to simplify meteorological corrections. A new system of meteorological corrections was employed. This system was based on approximating the maximum height reached "by the sound vhich ultimately passes across the microphone array. It was determined that this technique gave far greater accuracy than conventional techniques at these long ranges. Most accurate locations were obtained on air bursts. For air bursts at ranges from 20,000 to 60,000 meters, angular standard deviations of 13.8 minutes of arc were obtained. For air bursts, the average radial location error expressed as per cent of range was 0.61 per cent. It was estimated that in a tactical situation these locations could he computed in less than 30 minutes. Seismic height of burst determinations were attempted hy the heat seismic and the seismic velocity methods. Both methods depended upon the travel time of the shock wave from the point of origin to ground zero. The heat seismic method used in addition a seismic signal generated hy the heat radiated from the nuclear detonation, as postulated hy earlier investigators. The velocity seismic method utilized additional seismic shocks for a determination of seismic propagation constants. Conclusive evidence as to the feasibility of either seismic method was not obtained. Photographic flash ranging was accomplished using pinhole cameras and Polaroid film. The tactical requirement for ...
Date: May 1, 1955
Creator: Tiede, Roland V.; Kelly, Daniel F. & Burger, Kenneth C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of the Shock Wave From an Underground Nuclear Explosion in Granite

Description: The capability of calculating the close-in effects of the shock wave from an underground nuclear explosion has been demonstrated. Agreement was obtained between calculation and measurements using .a spherically symmetric, hydrodynamic, elastic-plastic code called SOC for the Hardhat event, a 5-kiloton nuclear detonation in granite. This capability is dependent upon having a more or less complete de scription of the elastic and dynamic properties of the materials involved. When this information is available, agreement within the limits of uncertainty of the measurements can be calculated for peak pressures, peak particle velocities, shock wave time of arrival, and pressure pulse shapes.
Date: May 7, 1964
Creator: Butkovich, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

Description: Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.
Date: September 30, 1987
Creator: Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L & Sasser, L B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

Description: The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B. & Rausch, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Lewisite in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

Description: The mutagenic potential of lewisite was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation method and by the preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TAlOO and TA102. All strains were tested with activation (20 and 50 {micro}l/ plate) and without activation. The lewisite was screened initially for toxicity with TA98 over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 250 {micro}g of material per plate. However, concentrations selected for mutagenicity testing were adjusted to a range of 0.001 to 5 {micro}g/plate because of the sensitivity of tester strain TA102, which exhibited cytotoxicity at 0.01 ug/plate. No mutagenic response was exhibited by any of the strains in either method used. All other tester strains showed evidence of cytoxicity (reduction in mutagen response or sparse background lawn) at 5.0 {micro}g/plate or lower.
Date: July 31, 1989
Creator: Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K. & Sasser, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

Description: The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).
Date: July 31, 1989
Creator: Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K. & Sasser, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

Description: Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.
Date: June 30, 1989
Creator: Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L. & Cushing, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

Description: Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early “warning type” detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DETAILS - AVOIDING BOX CANYONS, ROACH MOTELS, AND WRONG TURNS

Description: The United States is concurrently pursuing the goals of reducing the size of its nuclear weapons force – strategic and non-strategic, deployed and non-deployed – and of modernizing the weapons it continues to possess. Many of the existing systems were deployed 30 to 50 years ago, and the modernization process can be expected to extend over the next decade or more. Given the impossibility of predicting the future over the lifetime of systems that could extend to the end of this century, it is essential that dead ends in force development be avoided, and the flexibility and availability of options be retained that allow for • Scalability downward in the event that further reductions are agreed upon; • Reposturing to respond to changes in threat levels and to new nuclear actors; and • Breakout response in the event that a competitor significantly increases its force size or force capability, In this paper, we examine the current motivations for reductions and modernization; review a number of historical systems and the attendant capabilities that have been eliminated in recent decades; discuss the current path forward for the U.S. nuclear force; provide a view of the evolving deterrence situation and our assessment of the uncertainties involved; and present examples of possibly problematic directions in force development. We close with our thoughts on how to maintain flexibility and the availability of options for which a need might recur in the future.
Date: August 9, 2013
Creator: Swegle, John A. & Tincher, Douglas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical Solubility of Binders Used in Explosive Formulations

Description: The dissolution of polymers in supercritical carbon dioxide was measured using in-situ ultraviolet absorbance. This research was carried out to provide data to support the development of a new process to produce plastic-bonded explosive molding powder. Estane 5703, the polymer used to bind PBX 9501, was insoluble at the tested conditions. The dissolution of Kraton FG 1901 was tested at 27 to 100{degrees}C and 29 to 65 MPa. Only a small fraction of this polymer dissolved, and the quantity that dissolved increased with the polymer sample size. The tested polymer was polydisperse, and it is thought that the lowest molecular weight fraction of the polymer preferentially dissolved. Based on this observation, dissolution of the polymer prior to molding powder synthesis is recommended to obtain a uniform molding powder product. The dissolution of nearly monodisperse samples of polyethylacrylate were tested at 27 to 90{degrees}C and 10 to 65 MPa. The resulting solutions were very dilute, on the order of 100 mg/liter, and the solutions did not reach saturation during the 90 hour test period. The slow approach to saturation indicates that mass transfer rates may significantly affect process performance.
Date: September 14, 2002
Creator: Bell, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

Description: I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.
Date: December 16, 2008
Creator: French, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHASE II CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE USNS BRIDGE (T AOE 10), MILITARY SEALIFT FLEET SUPPORT COMMAND, NAVAL STATION, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA DCN 5180-SR-01-0

Description: In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.
Date: August 30, 2012
Creator: ALTIC, NICK A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grant No DE-FG02-03ER83720 Report for US Department of Engery

Description: Effective and reliable nuclear monitoring requires discrimination between small magnitude explosions and earthquakes based on the use of limited regional data. Lg is generally the largest seismic phase from both explosion and earthquake sources recorded at regional distances. For small events, Lg may sometimes be the only well-recorded seismic phase so that discriminants based only on the use of Lg are especially desirable. Recent research has provided significantly better understanding of Lg by demonstrating that the explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to the low-frequency S or Lg from explosions. Near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg appears to be a viable mechanism for generating low-frequency(< 2 Hz) Lg waves from explosions. Detailed knowledge of the complex scattering process is, however, still incomplete and is in fact the subject of several ongoing studies. Our analysis of regional data from nuclear explosions from both Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and nearby earthquakes in Phase I has suggested that there are several reliable source discrimination methods only based on the use of Lg at regional distances. These discriminants should be. especially useful for small magnitude seismic events for which Lg may be the only well-recorded seismic phase. Our results suggest four possible regional discriminants: (a) frequency-amplitude-time analysis of spectrograms, (b) Lg(low frequency)/Lg(high frequency), (c) Lg spectral slopes, and (d) skewness of Lg spectra. Remarkable similarity of discrimination results from both NTS and KTS nuclear explosions and nearby earthquakes, with entirely different geological settings, indicates that our results should be applicable to other regions of the world.
Date: April 22, 2004
Creator: Chan, Winston & Wagner, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Targeted and comprehensive space-environment sensors: description and recommendations

Description: We discuss the roles of the two classes of space-environment sensors on operational space systems: (1) Targeted sensors capable of measuring the environment and effects at a level sufficient for providing situational awareness for the host spacecraft and (2) Comprehensive sensors capable of providing detailed environment measurements that can be mapped to a broad region of near-Earth space, providing global situational awareness and quantitative characterization of the environment. Our purpose is to show the usefulness of a heterogeneous architecture with both classes of sensors for the near-term and long-term needs of National Security Space
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Reeves, Geoffrey; O'Brien, Paul; Mazur, Joe & Ginet, Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department