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Supercritical Solubility of Binders Used in Explosive Formulations

Description: The dissolution of polymers in supercritical carbon dioxide was measured using in-situ ultraviolet absorbance. This research was carried out to provide data to support the development of a new process to produce plastic-bonded explosive molding powder. Estane 5703, the polymer used to bind PBX 9501, was insoluble at the tested conditions. The dissolution of Kraton FG 1901 was tested at 27 to 100{degrees}C and 29 to 65 MPa. Only a small fraction of this polymer dissolved, and the quantity that dissolved increased with the polymer sample size. The tested polymer was polydisperse, and it is thought that the lowest molecular weight fraction of the polymer preferentially dissolved. Based on this observation, dissolution of the polymer prior to molding powder synthesis is recommended to obtain a uniform molding powder product. The dissolution of nearly monodisperse samples of polyethylacrylate were tested at 27 to 90{degrees}C and 10 to 65 MPa. The resulting solutions were very dilute, on the order of 100 mg/liter, and the solutions did not reach saturation during the 90 hour test period. The slow approach to saturation indicates that mass transfer rates may significantly affect process performance.
Date: September 14, 2002
Creator: Bell, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Soil Parameters on Earth Penetration of Projectiles

Description: The purpose of this study can be divided into the three following parts: 1) to present complete sets of data obtained for projectile penetration into soil targets of precisely known properties, and to describe how to build and test these targets; 2) to present a numerical method of data analysis for empirically determining the force on a projectile, during penetration; and 3) to demonstrate how physical soil parameters, as well as impact velocity and a projectile property influence penetration.
Date: July 1, 1969
Creator: Thompson, L J; Ferguson, III, G H; Murff, J D & Cetiner, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Miniaturized Gap Test

Description: A test arrangement and procedure has been devised for a miniaturized gap test in which the donor is essentially a length of hypodermic needle tubing loaded with an exploslve. The particular size used in the work reported hereln had an explosive column charge diameter of 33 mils. The procedure was used to determine gap sensitivities of several explosives including tetryl, RDX, PETN, HMX, and PBXN-5. Several of the explosives were tested of more than one particle size and loaded at more than one density. Within the group of explosives tested, both particle size and loading density had more affect upon sensitivity, as measured in these tests, than did composition. The coarser materials were found to be both less sensitive and more variable than the fine explosives. The fine explosives were found to become less sensitive as the loading density increased. This trend was apparently reversed for the one coarse explosive (RDX, Class a) for which data was obtained. The test arrangement and procedure is a promising tool for the acquisition of data for the design of fuzes of minimum dimensions.
Date: June 1, 1969
Creator: Stresau, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Casey, Leslie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE Project 6.12 DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT OF BURST AND GROUND ZERO

Description: The purpose of this series of experiments was to test methods available to the field army for tactical determination of atomic burst location and yield over enemy-held terrain. Preliminary analysis indicated that the systems that should be tested were sound ranging, seismic height of burst determination, photographic flash ranging, and Bhangmeter type systems for yield determination. Sound ranging was accomplished using standard equipment with modified techniques. Microphone arrays of dimensions which were small compared to the range were used to eliminate hyperbolic curvature corrections and to simplify meteorological corrections. A new system of meteorological corrections was employed. This system was based on approximating the maximum height reached "by the sound vhich ultimately passes across the microphone array. It was determined that this technique gave far greater accuracy than conventional techniques at these long ranges. Most accurate locations were obtained on air bursts. For air bursts at ranges from 20,000 to 60,000 meters, angular standard deviations of 13.8 minutes of arc were obtained. For air bursts, the average radial location error expressed as per cent of range was 0.61 per cent. It was estimated that in a tactical situation these locations could he computed in less than 30 minutes. Seismic height of burst determinations were attempted hy the heat seismic and the seismic velocity methods. Both methods depended upon the travel time of the shock wave from the point of origin to ground zero. The heat seismic method used in addition a seismic signal generated hy the heat radiated from the nuclear detonation, as postulated hy earlier investigators. The velocity seismic method utilized additional seismic shocks for a determination of seismic propagation constants. Conclusive evidence as to the feasibility of either seismic method was not obtained. Photographic flash ranging was accomplished using pinhole cameras and Polaroid film. The tactical requirement for ...
Date: May 1, 1955
Creator: Tiede, Roland V.; Kelly, Daniel F. & Burger, Kenneth C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of the Shock Wave From an Underground Nuclear Explosion in Granite

Description: The capability of calculating the close-in effects of the shock wave from an underground nuclear explosion has been demonstrated. Agreement was obtained between calculation and measurements using .a spherically symmetric, hydrodynamic, elastic-plastic code called SOC for the Hardhat event, a 5-kiloton nuclear detonation in granite. This capability is dependent upon having a more or less complete de scription of the elastic and dynamic properties of the materials involved. When this information is available, agreement within the limits of uncertainty of the measurements can be calculated for peak pressures, peak particle velocities, shock wave time of arrival, and pressure pulse shapes.
Date: May 7, 1964
Creator: Butkovich, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

Description: Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.
Date: September 30, 1987
Creator: Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L & Sasser, L B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

Description: The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B. & Rausch, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Lewisite in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

Description: The mutagenic potential of lewisite was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation method and by the preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TAlOO and TA102. All strains were tested with activation (20 and 50 {micro}l/ plate) and without activation. The lewisite was screened initially for toxicity with TA98 over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 250 {micro}g of material per plate. However, concentrations selected for mutagenicity testing were adjusted to a range of 0.001 to 5 {micro}g/plate because of the sensitivity of tester strain TA102, which exhibited cytotoxicity at 0.01 ug/plate. No mutagenic response was exhibited by any of the strains in either method used. All other tester strains showed evidence of cytoxicity (reduction in mutagen response or sparse background lawn) at 5.0 {micro}g/plate or lower.
Date: July 31, 1989
Creator: Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K. & Sasser, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

Description: The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).
Date: July 31, 1989
Creator: Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K. & Sasser, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

Description: Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.
Date: June 30, 1989
Creator: Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L. & Cushing, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

Description: Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early “warning type” detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DETAILS - AVOIDING BOX CANYONS, ROACH MOTELS, AND WRONG TURNS

Description: The United States is concurrently pursuing the goals of reducing the size of its nuclear weapons force – strategic and non-strategic, deployed and non-deployed – and of modernizing the weapons it continues to possess. Many of the existing systems were deployed 30 to 50 years ago, and the modernization process can be expected to extend over the next decade or more. Given the impossibility of predicting the future over the lifetime of systems that could extend to the end of this century, it is essential that dead ends in force development be avoided, and the flexibility and availability of options be retained that allow for • Scalability downward in the event that further reductions are agreed upon; • Reposturing to respond to changes in threat levels and to new nuclear actors; and • Breakout response in the event that a competitor significantly increases its force size or force capability, In this paper, we examine the current motivations for reductions and modernization; review a number of historical systems and the attendant capabilities that have been eliminated in recent decades; discuss the current path forward for the U.S. nuclear force; provide a view of the evolving deterrence situation and our assessment of the uncertainties involved; and present examples of possibly problematic directions in force development. We close with our thoughts on how to maintain flexibility and the availability of options for which a need might recur in the future.
Date: August 9, 2013
Creator: Swegle, John A. & Tincher, Douglas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

Description: Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Cunningham, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

Description: The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bird, E.L. & Clift, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface polymerization agents

Description: This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Taylor, C. & Wilkerson, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontaminating the DOE-STD-3013 Inner Container to Meet 10-CFR-835 Appendix D Requirements

Description: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has published a standard that specifies the criteria for preparation and packaging of plutonium metals and oxides for safe long-term storage (DOE-STD-3013-96). This standard is followed for the packaging of materials resulting from the disassembly of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Advanced Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project. Declassified plutonium metal or oxide material from the ARES project is packaged into doubly contained and welded type 304L stainless steel containers that comply with the DOE standard. The 3013-96 standard describes requirements for maximum contamination limits on the outer surface of the sealed inner container. These limits are 500 dpm per 100 cm2 for direct measurements and 20 dpm per 100 cm2 for removable contamination. For containers filled, welded, and handled inside a highly contaminated glovebox line, these limits are difficult to obtain. Simple handling within the line is demonstrated to contaminate surfaces from 10,000 to 10,000,000 dpm alpha per 100 cm2. To routinely achieve contamination levels below the maximum contamination levels specified by the 3013-96 standard within a processing operation, a decontamination step must be included. In the ARIES line, this decontamination step is an electrolytic process that produces a controlled uniform etch of the container surfaces. Decontamination of the 3013-96 compliant ARIES inner container is well demonstrated. Within 30 to 50 minutes electrolysis time, tixed contamination is reduced to hundreds of dpm generally occurring only at electrode contact points and welds. Removable contamination is routinely brought to non-detectable levels. The total process time for the cycle (includes electrolysis, rinse, and dry stages) is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours per container. The ARIES inner container decontamination system highly automated and consists of a plumbing loop, electronic controls and process monitors, and a decontamination chamber or ...
Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.M.; Wedman, D.E. & Weisbrod, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging

Description: The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess stockpile reliability, but have been used extensively in various forms outside Sandia ...
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Robinson, David G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department