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Results of industry conservation project data review

Description: Results are summarized of the combined efforts of the Division of Industrial Energy Conservation (INDUS) and independent reviewers to perform an evaluation of the existing and proposed INDUS energy conservation research, demonstration, and development projects. The purpose of the review was to obtain evaluations of the capital cost, energy savings, and operating costs for each project which would be used to upgrade the original proposal data currently in the threshold system. Section II contains the detailed summaries of the threshold evaluation data prepared by the members. Section III contains the risk analysis data submitted by the reviewers. (MCW)
Date: January 23, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

Description: Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L. & Reed, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

Description: Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: May, E. K. & Hooker, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity analysis of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest

Description: This report summarizes the results of a sensitivity analysis of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector of the Pacific Northwest. This study examines the sensitivity of estimates of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector generated in a previous study (Harrer et al. 1985c) to changes in various types of input data parameters: reductions in purchase, installation and operating/maintenance costs for irrigation-sector conservation measures. Increases in the amounts of irrigation pumping head savings that would result from the use of the measures were also implemented in the sensitivity analysis. The assumptions used in the sensitivity analysis cause the analysis to represent a ''best-case'' scenario for the amount of energy that can potentially be saved through the implementation of irrigation-sector conservation measures in the Pacific Northwest and the costs per kWh saved for obtaining these savings. Under these ''best-case'' assumptions, it is estimated that approximately 207 average megawatts of electricity can potentially be saved by the year 2003 through the implementation of low-pressure irrigation, pump fittings redesign, increases in mainline size, and improved irrigation scheduling on new and existing irrigated acres. The majority of these savings (70%) can be obtained for a cost of 20 mills per kWh saved or less.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Harrer, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for Conservation Project Data Base

Description: This User Manual describes the Conservation Project Data Base developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation (CE). Purpose of this data base is to provide a centralized storehouse of information on planned and ongoing projects funded by CE. The data base is a powerful analytical tool that will enable CE to quickly analyze the composition of their project portfolio. The data base uses dBase III on an IBM PC. Over 80 data items are stored for each project. A menu-driven applications program was developed as an alternative to using standard dBase III commands. The menu-driven program prompts the user to add data, edit data, perform on-screen searches of the data base, sort the data base by any variable or combination of variables, or print hard-copy reports of various data items.
Date: June 1, 1985
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A. & Fassbender, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tribological sinks in emerging industries: electronics and robotics

Description: This report describes a preliminary review of the impact of tribological effects - losses due to friction and wear - in two emerging industries: robotics and electronics. Major sources of tribological wear in the robotics industry include the chains used to drive the robots and the joints in the elbow and wrist. In the electronics industry, the largest source of tribological wear is the particulate wear of vacuum pumps used in corrosive environments. Other significant sources of wear are the conveyor belts, blowers, and fans used for clean rooms, and the slicing, lapping and polishing operations for silicon wafers. The major loss mechanisms are friction and abrasion (abrasion includes 2-body wear, 3-body wear, gouging, grinding, erosion, and cutting wear).
Date: August 1, 1986
Creator: Russell, J.A. & Hane, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The US textile industry: An energy perspective

Description: This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Badin, J. S. & Lowitt, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Threshold evaluations of industrial conservation technologies run in ISTUM base case

Description: The results of threshold evaluations performed on several INDUS technologies which were competed with other new and conventional industrial technologies in the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) developed by EEA are summarized. The ISTUM model is briefly described and includes the input technology categories and service sectors treated in the model, and the solution technique used. The input data specifications are summaried for the Industry Conservation Technologies run in the ISTUM base case. Included are listings of the technologies run in ISTUM, those not run in ISTUM, and a discussion of the absence of a retrofit algorithm in ISTUM and its resulting impact on conservation technologies. Also included is a discussion of the capital cost variability, maximum market fraction, size and load factors and data quality specifications for the conservation technologies in ISTUM. The results of the ISTUM base case run are presented, describing the important limitations and constraints of the base case run, the key assumptions inherent in the base case, and the summarized results of energy savings by year for different generic technology types. The technology characterization data developed for each INDUS technology run in the ISTUM base case are discussed in detail. The descriptions include the calculations and assumptions used in determining the service demand displacement, equipment cost, maximum market fraction, data quality, and size and load range for each technology.
Date: December 20, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

Description: Although pioneer settlements are often founded for political or ideological reasons distinct from short-term economic justifications, their survival and growth depend on economic factors. The settlers must be able to make a living, whether at subsistence, commercial farming, fishing, mining, manufacturing, trade, or in government service. Although most of this discussion is highly speculative, it does seem from the historical material that there are plausible ways in which an evolutionary lunar program could lead, step by step, to settlement. Once a lunar facility has achieved basic self-sufficiencies in the production of oxygen, food, and construction materials, crew rotation would become a dominant cost factor in continuing lunar operations. At such a point, establishment of a resident staff begins to make economic sense. Subsequent encouragement of private-sector economic activities through such mechanisms as resident bonuses, local purchase preferences, and transfer of responsibility of basic services and production capabilities might well reduce operating costs and significantly multiply the economic effects of the basic import capacity provided by the facility's local expenditures.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Jones, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of tribological sinks in six major industries

Description: Friction and material wear occur throughout all industries and are involved in many processes within each industry. These conditions make assessing tribological activity overall in industry very complex and expensive. Therefore, a research strategy to obtain preliminary information on only the most significant industrial tribological sinks was defined. The industries examined were selected according to both the magnitude of overall energy consumption (particularly machine drive) and the known presence of significant tribological sinks. The six industries chosen are as follows: mining, agriculture, primary metals, chemicals/refining, food, and pulp and paper. They were reviewed to identify and characterize the major tribology sinks. It was concluded that wear losses are greater than friction losses, and that reducing wear rates would improve industrial productivity.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Imhoff, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Erickson, R.; Merriman, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

Description: While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G. & Bruno, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary overview of innovative industrial-materials processes

Description: In evaluating the potential for industrial energy conservation, 45 candidate processes were identified. The chemical and the iron and steel industries presented the most well-developed candidates, whereas those processes identified in the pulp and paper and textiles industries were the most speculative. Examples of the candidate processes identified include direct steelmaking and ore-to-powder systems, which potentially require 30 to 40% less energy, respectively, than conventional steelmaking systems; membrane separations and freeze crystallization, which offer up to 90% reductions in energy use when compared with distillation; the cold processing of cement, which offers a 50% reduction in energy requirements; and the dry forming of paper, which offers a 25% reduction in the energy needed for papermaking. A review of all the industries revealed that the revolutionary alternatives often use similar concepts in avoiding current process inefficiencies. These concepts include using chemical, physical, or biological processes to replace thermally intensive processes; using specific forms of energy to minimize wasteful thermal diffusion; using chemical, biological, or ultrasonic processes to replace physical reduction; combining multiple processing steps into a single reactor; using a dry processing to eliminate energy needed for evaporation; and using sterilization or biotechnology to reduce the need for refrigeration.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Hane, G.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eakin, D.E.; Gurwell, W.E.; Williams, T.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

Description: This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S. & Bailey, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The US steel industry: An energy perspective

Description: This report investigates the state of the US steel industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. The specific objectives were: to update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1983; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1983), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2000); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. The results of this study concluded that in year 2000, there is a potential to save between 40% and 46% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. R and D needs and opportunities were identified for the industry. Potential R and D candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Azimi, S. A. & Lowitt, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

Description: This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE's expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R. & Kaae, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 1. Executive summary

Description: This document is a concise report of a study performed to build the groundwork for Office of Energy Systems Research (ESR) international monitoring efforts. The study explores the status of research and technology developments in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. Ten technology areas that can be applied to improving the efficiency of energy use and that are relevant to ESR research programs were examined.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B. & Willis, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

Description: At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P. & Szekely, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development in the textile industry

Description: Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.
Date: June 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy for agriculture: a computerized information retrieval system

Description: This bibliography contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Some of the subjects covered include: accounting, agriculture, animal production, conservation, drying, fertilizer, food processing, greenhouses, home, international, irrigation, organic, solar, storage, tillage, and wind. Author and keyword indexes are included. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Stout, B A & Myers, C A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation planning for industrial energy conservation: approach and methodology

Description: Details of an industry-specific Conservation Technology Implementation Branch implementation plan is described in detail. CTIB has conducted implementation planning in the steel, pulp/paper, and agriculture/food processing industries, but in FY 1981, CTIB plans to conduct planning for the chemicals, petroleum refining, aluminum, glass, cement, and textile industries. Guidelines are presented for each contractor for each industry toward a common methodology in terms of approach, areas of analysis, assumptions, and reporting. The major parts of the CTIB plan are: an implementation study consisting of technology selection, market demand analysis, and policy analysis, and a plan consisting of a detailed description and schedule of future CTIB actions, followed by a recommended system for monitoring market results when the plan is implemented. (MCW)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Alston, T.G.; Falk, G.; Grogan, P.J.; Katz, D. & Tatar, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

Description: USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.
Date: January 30, 1982
Creator: Williams, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy coservation status and needs: medium-sized commercial/industrial firms

Description: The potential for conserving energy by Seattle City Light's commercial/industrial customers is investigated. The results of the study will help SCL and others to provide energy- and money-saving help to their medium-sized business customers. Fifty in-person interviews of firms within the SCL area and 102 mailed questionnaires from customers outside the area in Washington and Oregon were analyzed. Researchers found that many steps requiring little cost have been implemented, but instituting further hard conservation measures such as new machinery, retrofitting, or changes in machine operations are lacking. (MCW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

Description: This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.
Date: July 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial fuel choice analysis model. Volume I: primary model documentation. First draft

Description: IFCAM is an energy-demand model developed in response to the need to evaluate fuel-choice decisions in the industrial sector over a 10- to 15-year forecasting horizon. The model generates complete model outputs for 1985, 1990, and 1995. These outputs, providing fuel-mix results in either absolute amounts or as distribution percentages, are available under several formats. The fuel-use figures can be presented by new or existing combustors, functional uses (boilers vs process heaters), nine industry sectors, and 10 regions. Boiler results can be broken down by size and capacity utilization. The model can provide outputs related to the cost, tax, and environmental impacts associated with an energy scenario. The basic outputs from the model are oil, gas, and coal demand after all the incentives and fuel-type constraints have been evaluated.
Date: January 8, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department