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Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

Description: This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE/solar export opportunities workshop

Description: The workshop was conducted to bring together persons from government agencies and the US solar industry to initiate dialogue needed to create and implement programs facilitating the export of US solar technology, hardware, and services. A separate abstract was prepared for 23 individual presentations, all of which will appear in Energy Research abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy's solar update. Four regional conferences highlighting the objectives, plans, and experience of the National Commercial Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program and the National Solar Data Program

Description: These proceedings represent the overview and project papers made available to all the participants at each of the regional conferences. Papers not available at time of publication, and additional materials, including a summary and analysis of the Workshop/Panel Sessions are included in the complete proceedings CONF-780701--(Rev.) for which individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assistance to small businesses in international market development for solar thermal technology. Final technical report, 15 April 1979-15 July 1979

Description: Grants were awarded to eight manufacturers of concentrating solar thermal collector systems. These grants were for the purpose of assisting small businesses in exhibiting solar thermal systems at the 1979 International Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES).
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Walton, J.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical evidence of importance to the industrialization of flat-plate silicon photovoltaic systems: executive summary

Description: The results of a study which analyzes the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) plans with respect to the industrialization of new production technologies expected to be forthcoming as a result of the project's technology development efforts. In particular, LSSA's mandate to insure an annual production capability of 500 MWp for the photovoltaic supply industry by 1986 is critically examined. Conclusions from the analysis are utilized in a discussion of LSSA's industrialization plans, particularly the plans for pilot, demonstration, and commercial scale production plants. Specific recommendations for the implementation of an industrialization task and the disposition of the project quantity goal are derived.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Smith, J.L.; Gates, W.R. & Lee, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication strategy to commercialize passive solar energy

Description: Although certain technical and economic issues remain to be clarified, passive solar market development is increasingly dependent upon communications such as information dissemination, education, training and promotional activities. Target audiences are identified as both recipients and disseminators of passive solar communications. Form and quality of information are discussed in terms of the stages of an innovation adoption decision-making process. Several communication-related barriers which impede the commercialization of passive solar are discussed and general information and education responses are suggested. The paper ends with a statement of precepts which should guide passive solar communication programs.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wolcott, D. R. & Shoemaker, F. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision analysis for evaluating and ranking small solar thermal power system technologies. Volume I. A brief introduction to multiattribute decision analysis

Description: Multiattribute decision analysis is a methodology for providing information to a decision maker for comparing and selecting between complex alternatives. A brief introduction to the principal concepts of the Keeney and Raiffa approach to multiattribute decision analysis is presented. The concepts of decision alternatives, outcomes, objectives, attributes and their states, attribute utility functions, and the necessary independence properties for the attribute states to be aggregated into a numerical representation of the preferences of the decision maker for the outcomes and the decision alternatives are presented. 50 references.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Feinberg, A. & Miles, R.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

Description: Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamentals of solar access

Description: The following aspects of solar access are discussed: solar geometry, topography, orientation, trees and vegetation, design options, and legal questions. (MHR)
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Levin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National solar heating and cooling programs

Description: This document is a compilation of status reports on the national solar heating and cooling programs of seventeen countries participating in the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society's Solar Energy Pilot Study. These reports were presented in two special sessions of the 25th Congress of the International Solar Energy Society held in May 1979, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This information exchange activity was part of the two-year follow up (1978-1980) of the Solar Energy Pilot Study, which ended in October 1978.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Blum, S & Allen, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

Description: Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated solar utilization rate with the proper incentives. In the first example the consumer's utility function guarantees some purchases of solar energy. In the second example, the consumer's utility function allows for no solar purchases because utility is derived only from the amount of energy used and not from the source of the energy. The two examples discuss both subsidy and tax incentives, with the best control over control use coming from fossil fuel taxes dependent upon the amount of solar energy used. Future work will expand this static analysis to develop time varying incentives along a time and quantity dependent learning curve for the solar industry.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Sharp, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Licensing arrangements and the development of the solar energy industry

Description: The process by which technology and information related to technology are transferred within industry is explored. Property rights in technology are part of the broader field of intellectual property. The general contours of legal protection for knowledge are explored. The four basic forms of intellectual property - patents, trade secrets (or know-how), trademarks, and copyrights - are covered in varying degrees of depth, depending on their relative applicability to the development of the solar industry. Once this background has been established, the legal aspects of licensing are examined. A license is a legal arrangement whereby a party (licensor) who controls the right to use an idea, invention, etc. shares the right to use the particular intellectual property with someone else (licensee). The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are described from the point of view of potential licensees and licensors. Barriers to licensing are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Green, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic measurement of environment damages

Description: The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Krawiec, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

Description: The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential solar home resale analysis

Description: One of the determinants of the market acceptance of solar technologies in the residential housing sector is the value placed upon the solar property at the time of resale. The resale factor is shown to be an important economic parameter when net benefits of the solar design are considered over a typical ownership cycle rather than the life cycle of the system. Although a study of solar resale in Davis, Ca, indicates that those particular homes have been appreciating in value faster than nonsolar market comparables, no study has been made that would confirm this conclusion for markets in other geograhical locations with supporting tests of statistical significance. The data to undertake such an analysis is available through numerous local sources; however, case by case data collection is prohibitively expensive. A recommended alternative approach is to make use of real estate market data firms who compile large data bases and provide multi-variate statistical analysis packages.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Noll, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

Description: The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Krawiec, F. & Flaim, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar information user priority study

Description: This report identifies for each solar technology those members or potential members of the solar community who, either currently or in the future, will require solar information. In addition, it rates each user's relative need for information within the next three years. This information will be used as input for subsequent studies that will identify specific user needs information. These studies, in turn, will be the basis for information product and data base development for the Solar Energy Information Data Bank (SEIDB). In addition, they will be input for the Technical Information Dissemination (TID) Program.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Belew, W.W. & Wood, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)
Date: November 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-use matching of solar energy systems

Description: The choice among available energy sources for a given task requires technical and economic tradeoffs on the part of the individual investor. From the national perspective, however, the effectiveness with which available energy sources are utilized may well become an overriding consideration. End-use matching is a procedure for introducing solar energy into the national energy infrastructure. The result of end-use matching is an identification of the most cost-effective combination of process energy needs, solar collector technology, geographic location, and economics by matching currently available solar system hardware with particular industrial processes and their locations. End-use matching is not intended to be a design tool for a specific plant, but rather a planning tool for determining where and for what general applications solar systems appear economically viable in the near- to immediate-term. This paper discusses the end-use matching methodology and illustrates first and second law thermodynamics analyses applied to a solar system producing process steam.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Kreith, F.; Kearney, D. & Bejan, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey and analyze the business conditions of the solar industry, April-May 1981. Task I

Description: The response to seminars on Making Market Regulations Work For You are described. The administration and analysis of solar system product certification are discussed. The state-of-the-art in photovoltaics is reviewed. Recommendations on photovoltaics are made concerning regulatory initiatives, system experiments, patent policies, tax policies, procurements, and DOE operations. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercialization survey for the Department of Energy's Solar Building Demonstration Program

Description: The National Solar Heating and Cooling Program for commercial buildings has been in place for approximately seven years. In the drive to create a viable solar heating and cooling industry in an unprecedented short period of time (5 years), mistakes have been made but many lessons have been learned. The biggest mistake was the belief that the time was ripe for a demonstration program instead of an applications test program. This has led to the following: forcing of the technology before it was fully ready; lack of follow-up programs to correct the problems in the field; inadequate use of instrumentation on the projects to give the necessary performance information and diagnostic tools; and consequently, disarray of the dissemination program to get the lessons learned out to the appropriate industry and user community. Despite the shortcomings, many lessons have been learned and documented: (1) manufacturing, design and installation capability exists; (2) those systems with better performance capability and potential have been identified; and (3) the R and D needs for further progress have been identified. The current need is to complete the program so that the huge investment can provide greater returns. This completion involves gathering the necessary performance data on all of the promising projects, repairing those projects where it is beneficial to do so, documenting performance and cost data, applying the lessons learned to the Federal Building Program projects, conducting a PR Program to disseminate the information gathered to the industry and user community and continuing an R and D Program which will allow for more reliable and cost effective equipment and applications.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department