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Conservation and the contributions from advanced energy sources

Description: Even if conservation efforts are very effective, this nation cannot be energy self-sufficient by 1985. This paper discusses the advanced energy sources being developed by ERDA, predicts a contribution of 1 Q (quadrillion Btu) or less in 1985, and estimates perhaps optimistically that these new technologies can contribute as much as 25 Q of our energy needs by 2000 A.D.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Beall, Jr., S. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

Description: This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A. & Silversmith, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

Description: This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Ashworth, J.H. & Neuendorffer, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIFSA: Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment Project: Volume 1, Executive summary

Description: The Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction-linac heavy-ion accelerators to generate economical electrical power from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Cost/performance models of the major fusion power plant systems were used to identify promising areas in parameter space. Resulting cost-of-electricity projections for a plant size of 1 GWe are comparable to those from other fusion system studies, some of which were for much larger power plants. These favorable projections maintain over an unusually large domain of parameter space but depend especially on making large cost savings for the accelerator by using higher charge-to-mass ratio ions than assumed previously. The feasibility of realizing such savings has been shown by (1) experiments demonstrating transport stability better than anticipated for space-charge-dominated beams, and (2) theoretical predictions that the final transport and pulse compression in reactor-chamber environments will be sufficiently resistant to streaming instabilities to allow successful propagation of neutralized beams to the target. Results of the HIFSA study already have had a significant impact on the heavy-ion induction accelerator R and D program, especially in selection of the charge-state objectives. Also, the study should enhance the credibility of induction linacs as ICF drivers.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. & Saylor, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar radiation resource assessment

Description: The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.
Date: November 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

Description: Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Meunier, R. & Silversmith, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PACER revisited

Description: This paper discusses a modified version of the PACER concept for power and nuclear material production, which changes the working fluid in the cavity from steam to the molten salt, LiF + BeF/sub 2/. In the PACER concept, a 20-kt peaceful nuclear explosion is contained in a cavity about 200 m in diameter, filled with 200 atm of 500/degree/C steam. Energy from the explosion is used to produce power, and the neutrons are used to produce materials such as /sup 233/U, Pu, /sup 60/Co, and T. The present idea is to modify the PACER concept in three ways, to improve the practicality, predictability, and safety of power production from this technology and thus improve public acceptance of this power source. These improvements are line the cavity with steel; replace the steam with molten salt; and reduce the explosive yield to about 2 kt. This concept is the only fusion power concept where the underlying technology is proven and in hand today. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 4, 1988
Creator: Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for the Chautauqua Radio Workshop Project. July 1, 1980-October 30, 1981

Description: Energy conservation education must reach millions of Americans in order to see any real and immediate decrease in energy consumption. Since our society gets much of its information from the media, this seems like a most effective vehicle for disseminating energy conservation information to the American Public. Radio is listened to by the vast majority of Americans each day of their lives. Radio as a communications medium is an extremely cost effective method of mass communication and education, and is perceived as a personal medium which has great potential to affect a change in the daily energy consumption habits of the public. Call-in radio programs centering around energy conservation are an effective method of presenting informative, energy education programming that provide instantaneous access for listener/consumer participation. The linking of available telephone and radio technology (via call-in radio shows) allows people all over the US, including remote rural areas, access to the latest energy conservation information and renewable energy technolgy.
Date: January 25, 1982
Creator: Renz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility requirements for fusion

Description: This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Vondrasek, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Are the alternative energy strategies achievable

Description: The constraints on penetration of energy technologies are time and information, net energy, and capital cost. As D. Spreng (ORAU/IEA-78-22(R)) has pointed out, time, energy, and information constitute a triad: energy can be substituted for time, information can be substituted for energy. That energy can save time follows from irreversible thermodynamics, but the principle can be extended to the social sphere. Related to the energy/time exchange is the economic cost of intermittency of energy supply. Renewable energy sources, particularly solar sources, are characteristically intermittent. To eliminate intermittency imposes a cost that must be considered in planning energy futures based on renewable sources. Two other constraints on penetration of energy technologies - net energy and capital cost - are briefly considered. As for net energy, estimates of energy paybacks for solar thermal electric converters differ by factors of three; this introduces large uncertainties in the energy subsidy required for this technology. As for capital cost, the Peterka theory of technological change is shown to place limits on the amount of subsidy required to introduce a new energy technology.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

Description: The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa

Description: American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Shupe, J.W. (USDOE San Francisco Operations Office, Honolulu, HI (USA). Pacific Site Office) & Stevens, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

Description: Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100{degrees}C currently exit within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near-term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100{degrees}--350{degrees}C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long-term planning horizon with well-defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life-cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Williams, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

Description: This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

Description: Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Ashworth, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing common information elements for renewable energy systems: summary and proceedings of the SERI/AID workshop

Description: This report describes the activities, conclusions, and recommendations of the Workshop on Evaluation Systems for Renewable Energy Systems sponsored by the Agency for International Development and SERI, held 20-22 February 1980 in Golden, Colorado. The primary objectives of the workshop was to explore whether it was possible to establish common information elements that would describe the operation and impact of renewable energy projects in developing countries. The workshop provided a forum for development program managers to discuss the information they would like to receive about renewable energy projects and to determine whether common data could be agreed on to facilitate information exchange among development organizations. Such information could be shared among institutions and used to make informed judyments on the economic, technical, and social feasibility of the technologies. Because developing countries and foreign assistance agencies will be financing an increasing number of renewable energy projects, these organizations need information on the field experience of renewable energy technologies. The report describes the substance of the workshop discussions and includes the papers presented on information systems and technology evaluation and provides lists of important information elements generated by both the plenary sessions and the small working groups.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Ashworth, J.H. & Neuendorffer, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International development assistance for renewable technologies: current programs and institutional requirements

Description: Within the last several years, foreign-assistance donor agencies have begun to provide significant aid for the search for renewable energy sources for developing nations. This paper reports preliminary results from a survey of development--assistance projects in renewable energy sources, indicating which areas are extensions of traditional assistance areas and which are new areas of involvement. The last two portions of the paper indicate certain shortcomings in the current effort, and linkages that must be emphasized in order to incease the effectiveness of the range of donor activities.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Ashworth, J. H. & Meunier, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perspective on photovoltaic amorphous silicon

Description: Amorphous silicon is a thin film option that has the potential for a cost-effective product for large-scale utility photovoltaics application. The initial efficiencies for single-junction and multijunction amorphous silicon cells and modules have increased significantly over the past 10 years. The emphasis of research and development has changed to stabilized efficiency, especially that of multijunction modules. NREL has measured 6.3%--7.2% stabilized amorphous silicon module efficiencies for US products, and 8.1% stable efficiencies have been reported by Fuji Electric. This represents a significant increase over the stabilized efficiencies of modules manufactured only a few years ago. An increasing portion of the amorphous silicon US government funding is now for manufacturing technology development to reduce cost. The funding for amorphous silicon for photovoltaics by Japan over the last 5 years has been about 50% greater than that in the United State, and by Germany in the last 2--3 years more than twice that of the US Amorphous silicon is the only thin-film technology that is selling large-area commercial modules. The cost for amorphous silicon modules is now in the $4.50 range; it is a strong function of plant production capacity and is expected to be reduced to $1.00--1.50/W{sub p} for plants with 10 MW/year capacities. 10 refs.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Luft, W.; Stafford, B. & von Roedern, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

Description: The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy Resource Assessment Program 5-year plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

Description: The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Resource Assessment Program produces scientific descriptions and assessments of the nation's renewable energy resources, such as solar energy. Information about the resources --- for example, how solar energy varies with location and climate --- is required to develop energy conversion technologies, design and site systems, and forecast the systems' performance. With information about resource availability and renewable energy system performance, DOE can assess the potential for renewable energy to contribute to the nation's energy supply as part of the long-term national energy strategy. This 5-year plan for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995 gives the strategy to produce solar radiation resource characterizations and assessments under the DOE project at SERI. It is consistent with the mini-multiyear plan for resource assessment prepared by DOE in 1989 and incorporates the comments received at a project overview held in April 1990 at DOE Headquarters. 7 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the energy impacts of the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology Small Grants Program: methods and results

Description: The study outlines methods for assessing the energy savings of projects funded by DOE in the Appropriate Technology Program (AT) and the way to apply these methods to obtain estimates of energy impacts. The energy savings potential was assessed for 57 projects from a national population of 584. Program energy savings were estimated from project savings using statistical inference. Details of the approach are discussed. Chapter 2 presents and discusses estimates of direct energy savings and Chapter 3 discusses methods and results of the economic analysis. Chapter 4 examines the indirect energy savings. Chapter 5 presents estimates of program energy savings and the methods used to obtain them. The report concludes with a discussion of how improved project selection can increase program energy savings and presents two approaches for conducting future energy impact studies. (MCW)
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Lucarelli, B.; Kessel, J.; Kay, J.; Linse, J.; Tompson, S. & Homer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decentralized Energy Studies: compendium of U. S. studies and projects

Description: This compendium was prepared as a part of the Decentralized Energy Studies task at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies, programs, and projects that involve decentralized energy systems. The purpose is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. A contact person or address is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Quinn, J. & Ohi, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

Description: The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kriz, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project: Phase 1 subcontractors

Description: The Phase I portion of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project, the problem identification phase, was completed in mid-1991. This work involved competitive bidding that was open to any US firm with existing manufacturing capabilities, regardless of material or module design. In early 1991, subcontracts were awarded to 22 of approximately 40 bidders. Each subcontract was funded at a level of up to $50,000 and a duration of three months. The problems identified by the research in this phase of the program represent opportunities for industrial participants to improve their manufacturing processes, reduce manufacturing costs, increase product performance, or develop a foundation for scaling up US-based manufacturing plant capacities. Many of these opportunities have since been detailed in the approaches that these organizations suggested for Phase 2 (the problem solution phase) research and development (R D). It is not. anticipated that any additional Phase I solicitation will be issued because Phase I was intended to help the US Department of Energy (DOE) characterize the status and needs of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry and encourage the industry to examine and prioritize required manufacturing line improvements. Phase I subcontracted research included five subcontractors working on flat-plate crystalline silicon technology, eleven working on flat-plate thin-film modules (one in thin-film crystalline silicon, six in amorphous silicon. and four in polycrystalline thin films), six working on concentrator systems, and two working on general equipment/production options. (Two of the participants each worked in two areas).
Date: July 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department