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Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project]

Description: Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a joint-cost allocation manual for integrated community energy systems. Phase II

Description: The distribution of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) project capital and operating costs among multiple ICES services is of prime concern for an ICES owner and/or operator. The maintenance of adequate revenues from individual services and the commercial viability of an ICES project is influenced significantly by the method chosen for cost allocation. An in-depth study is presented of the Alternative Justifiable Expenditure method (AJE). The advantages and disadvantages of the AJE are discussed and a framework is developed for application of the method to the thermal and electric services of an ICES plant. The method departs to some degree from the concepts and procedures used in the cost-of-service allocations by emphasizing the value of ICES services to ICES thermal and electric customers.
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling system for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report, Phase I

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting thermal power plants in Minnesota to accommodate both heat and power generation for district heating was examined and is discussed. Three communities were identified as viable sites for co-generation district heating. (LCL)
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trenton ICES. Volume I. Phase I, final report

Description: Phase I Preliminary Design and Evaluation for a Grid Connected Thermally Controlled Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) for Trenton, New Jersey has been carried out. The findings of the study are that: it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; it is economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; it will produce an overall reduction in fuel consumed of 32 to 43% when compared with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; it will consume 4 to 9% more oil than will conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; it should be owned and operated by Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE and G); and it can provide thermal energy 21 months after the start of Phase II and electrical energy 32 months after the start of Phase II. This study is site-specific and of a small-size project. Its installation will not alter the planned PSE and G capacity expansion program. The economic evaluation results of the report cannot be extrapolated for numerous co-generation installations that would affect the PSE and G planned capacity-expansion program.
Date: July 14, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

Description: Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.
Date: January 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of available computer programs for district heating/cooling distribution systems

Description: In an earlier phase of this study, a survey was conducted of 82 engineering and consulting firms, government agencies, universities, trade associations, and utilities to identify computer programs that would be useful in the analysis of district heating and cooling systems. Four of the programs identified were accepted by BNL for further tests and evaluations, namely: Hydraulic Distribution Network Analysis Program (Consumers Gas Co.); Gas Steady-State System GASSS (Stoner Associates); Liquid Steady-State System LIQSS (Stoner Associates); and SYNTHA III (SYNTHA Corp.). Brief descriptions of each program along with the names and addresses of the owners are provided in Appendix A. This report presents the results of the evaluation of these programs. The evaluation was performed by actually running sample distribution systems on each program. Appendix B and Appendix C contain the data for the hot-water system and the steam-distribution system, respectively. Appendix D presents samples of input and output.
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of reactor strategies to meet world nuclear energy demands

Description: A number of reactor deployment strategies for long-term nuclear system development are analyzed from a global perspective in terms of resource utilization and economic benefits. Two time frames are chosen: 1975 - 2025 and 1975 - 2050. Uranium demand for various strategies is compared with uranium supply assuming different production capabilities and resource base. The analysis shows that a given reactor deployment strategy could strongly influence the extent of uranium exploration and production. Power systems cost comparisons are made to identify clearly competitive or non-competitive reactors. The sensitivity of power cost to different uranium price projections and nuclear demands is also examined. The results indicate that breeders are necessary to support a long-term nuclear power system. Advanced converter-breeder symbiotic systems, particularly those operating on the Th/U-233 cycle, have clear advantages in terms of resources and economics.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Ligon, D.M. & Brogli, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

Description: This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System: Final Report, Volume 1. Executive Summary

Description: An Integrated Community Energy System Program in Independence, Missouri is described and results of Phase I are summarized. Five tasks of Phase I are: preliminary energy analysis and institutional assessment, conceptual design of ICES, firming-up of commitments, and work management plan. The program involves developing a small coal-fired unit that can be effectively integrated into the total community environment. (MCW)
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

Description: This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VII. Appendix C

Description: This volume contains: Hudson No. 2 Limited Retrofit Cost Estimates provided by Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (SWEC); backup data and basis of estimate for SWEC Heater Plant and Gas Turbine Plant (Kearny No. 12) cost estimates; and Appendices - Analysis of Relevant Tax Laws.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984

Description: The potential for district heating was examined in terms of a total (regional) system and two subsystems of overlapping scales. The basis of the economic analysis of district heating was that the utility's electric and gas customers would not be economically burdened by the implementation of district heating, and that any incremental costs due to district heating (e.g. district heating capital and operating costs, replacement electric power, abandonment of unamortized gas mains) would be charged to district heating customers.
Date: January 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market Penetration Model (MPM) user's guide

Description: This document describes a computer program which calculates the most probable Solar Total Energy System (STES) market penetration and forecasts of energy displacement by geographic location (50 states) and by industrial application (140 industries) for seven time periods (from 1985 to 2015 in five year increments). The program is written in Fortran for the FTN compiler on The Aerospace Corporation's CDC 7600 computer. It consists of approximately 750 cards, including comments. This document contains a description of the program, its inputs and its outputs. Examples of program input and output as well as a sample deck structure are provided. A source listing appears in the appendix.
Date: January 4, 1979
Creator: Timmer, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of a large district heating-cogeneration system for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area

Description: The Department of Energy, Minnesota Energy Agency, Northern States Power Company, and other local government and private organizations are cooperatively performing an in-depth application study to determine the feasibility of district heating for a large northern US city. A Swedish firm, Studsvik, has developed an overall scenario and has attempted to show the potential of a fully implemented system. The proposed system would be about 2600 MW(t) and cover a significant portion of both Minneapolis and St. Paul. This study has proceeded in parallel with more in-depth studies of particular issues, such as detailed piping network plans in central St. Paul and cogeneration plant conversion cost study - both sponsored by Northern States Power Company. The overall conclusions that can be drawn at the present time are: (1) the concept is technically feasible; (2) it has great value from the fuel conservation aspect; and (3) the economics are viable with an appropriate financing system.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Jaehne, H.; Karnitz, M.A.; Rubin, A. & Margen, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

Description: Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems (HP-ICES) are energy systems for communities which provide heating, cooling and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer significant potential for energy savings. By powering these heat pumps with nonscarce fuels, the use of which would be impractical in most conventional systems, less-abundant fuels including natural gas and oil can be conserved. Secondary benefits of HP-ICES include reduction of adverse environmental effects as compared to conventional systems, reliable production of services in contrast to the increasingly frequent utility curtailments and interruptions, and delivery of services to consumers at costs lower than those for conventional systems (including acquisition, operation, and maintenance costs). The objective of this multiphase HP-ICES project is development and demonstration of concepts leading to one or more operational systems by the end of 1984. The findings from the System Development Phase of the program are reported. Information is included on the HP-ICES concept; its application potential; variations in the basic HP-ICES concept which could lead to improved performance; applications of the concept to specific communities; design; economics; environmental impacts; and component testing requirements. (LCL)
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Crane, R.E. & Werden, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems

Description: The heat-pump-centered integrated community energy system (HP-ICES) supplies district heating and cooling using heat pumps and a thermal energy storage system which is provided by nature in underground porous formations filled with water, i.e., aquifers. The energy is transported by a two-pipe system, one for warm water and one for cool water, between the aquifers and the controlled environments. Each energy module contains the controlled environments, an aquifer, wells for access to the aquifer, the two pipe water distribution system and water source heat pumps. The heat pumps upgrade the energy in the distribution system for use in the controlled environments. Economically, the system shows improvement on both energy usage and capital costs. The system saves over 60% of the energy required for resistance heating; saves over 30% of the energy required for most air-source heat pumps and saves over 60% of the energy required for gas, coal, or oil heating, when comparing to energy input required at the power plant for heat pump usage. The proposed system has been analyzed as demonstration projects for a downtown portion of Louisville, Kentucky, and a section of Fort Rucker, Alabama. The downtown Louisville demonstration project is tied directly to major buildings while the Fort Rucker demonstration project is tied to a dispersed subdivision of homes. The Louisville project shows a payback of approximately 3 y, while Fort Rucker is approximately 30 y. The primary difference is that at Fort Rucker new heat pumps are charged to the system. In Louisville, either new construction requiring heating and cooling systems or existing chillers are utilized. (LCL)
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E. & Seppanen, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

Description: The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Riegel Textile Corporation, Ware Shoals cogeneration. Final technical report

Description: Riegel signed a cooperative cost sharing agreement with the Department of Energy to design, purchase, install, and operate a new cogeneration system in which a new turbine/generator unit exhausts steam at 225/sup 0/PSIG. The background of Riegel's previous cogeneration experience is presented; this project is described; and problems experienced in getting the boiler on-line and the turbine/generator up to speed are summarized. The project cost, operating cost, savings, and return on investment are presented. (MHR)
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature fluid-bed heat recovery for aluminum melting furnace

Description: The objective of the study was to establish whether technical problems would be encountered in increasing the inlet temperature of the fluid bed heat exchanger unit at Alcoa above the 1100/sup 0/F target of the current contract. Specifically, the temperature range of up to, and potentially above, 1600/sup 0/F were investigated to establish the benefits of higher temperature, trade offs required, and plans to achieve that technology goal. The benefits are tabulated and are very significant, particularly at the temperature range of 1600 to 1800/sup 0/F. Relative to 1100/sup 0/F the heat recovery is increased by 24 to 29% at 1600 and 1800/sup 0/F respectively.
Date: December 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network, city of Piqua, Ohio

Description: The feasibility analysis and evaluation of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration program is being conducted by the Piqua Municipal Power Co., the Piqua Law Dept., the Public Works Dept., a firm of economic analysts, and the Georgia Tech Engineering Dept. This volume contains information on the organization and composition of the demonstration team; characterization of the Piqua community; and the technical, environmental, institutional; financial, and economic assessments of the project. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1982-31 January 1983

Description: The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Cole, W.E.; DeSaro, R. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982

Description: The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G. & Gorges, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department