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Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

Description: Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. & Minnick, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

Description: Women from institutions such as LLNL, LBL, Sandia, and SLAC presented papers at this conference. The papers deal with many aspects of global security, global ecology, and bioscience; they also reflect the challenges faced in improving business practices, communicating effectively, and expanding collaborations in the industrial world. Approximately 87 ``abstracts`` are included in six sessions; more are included in the addendum.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: von Holtz, Erica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organization and operation of the sixth international symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE VI). Final report

Description: An important source of human exposure to radiation is the natural world including cosmic rays, cosmogonic radionuclides, natural terrestrial radionuclides, and radon isotopes and its decay products. Considerable effort is being expended on a worldwide basis to characterize the exposure to the natural radiation environment and determine the important pathways for the exposure to result in dose to tissue that leads to injury and disease. The problem of background exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity has been the subject of research since the initial discovery of the radioactivity of uranium and thorium. However, with the advent of artificial sources of radiation with both benefits (medical x-rays and nuclear medicine), and harm (Chernobyl fallout), the nature and magnitude of the natural radiation environment and the effects on various populations are important in the development of overall public health strategies as ALARA principles are applied. To facilitate the exchange of information and the review of uncertainties and scientific research priorities, a series of 5 international meetings on Natural Radiation Environment, 1963, 1987, 1991. This conference (Montreal, 1995) covers the range of natural radiation environments that give rise to human exposure and dose. This document is a program summary.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hopke, P.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ancillary-service details: operating reserves

Description: Operating reserves are the front lines in the defense of bulk-power systems against major generation and transmission outages. Operating reserves are provided by generating units that can increase their output rapidly to restore the system to generation/load balance after a major disturbance occurs. Dramatic changes are under way in the U.S. electricity sector, in particular the unbundling of generation from transmission and the increasingly competitive nature of bulk-power markets. Therefore, it is important to revisit the industry`s definitions of, procurement of, and payment for operating reserves. The procedures traditionally used by vertically integrated utilities may not serve the needs of an increasingly fragmented and competitive electricity industry. This report examines the past and current functions of, as well as the national and regional requirements for, operating reserves. We examine the data and analysis that support minimum-operating-reserve requirements. We obtained data on the number and severity of generator outages for three large U.S. electrical systems, including a power pool, a regional reliability council, and a utility. These limited data sets show a range of 15 to 40 major (>500 MW) outages a year for systems ranging in size from 20, 000 MW to 48,000 MW of peak demand. Finally, we discuss several emerging issues related to the underlying technical support for minimum operating-reserve requirements, alternative ways to pay for these reserves, the data needed to support the analysis of these requirements, and the mix of functions that are currently included within operating reserves.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hirst, E. & Kirby, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

Description: The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Brainard, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Laboratories and Internatioanl Partnering

Description: For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. ...
Date: December 7, 1998
Creator: Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L. & Jones, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science into art: A study of the creative process

Description: Objective was to examine the creative process, demonstrated by 5 student participants in a class at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena CA, from the germ of the creative idea through the final creative product. The students, drawn from classes sponsored by LLNL, were assigned the problem of representing ``big`` science, as practiced at LLNL, in a graphic, artistic, or multimedia product. As a result of this study, it was discovered that the process of creativity with these students was not linear in nature, nor did it strictly follow the traditional creativity 5-step schema of preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, and elaboration. Of particular interest were several emergent themes of the creative process: spontaneous use of metaphor to describe the Laboratory; a general lack of interest in ``school`` science or mathematics by the American art students; a well developed sense of conscience; and finally, the symbolism inherent in the repeated use of a single artistic element. This use of the circle revealed a continuity of thinking and design perhaps related to the idealistic bias mentioned above.
Date: March 14, 1997
Creator: Marchant, M. & Sesko, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Women`s Technical and Professional Symposium, San Ramon, CA, October 3-4, 1996

Description: This year`s symposium showcases women`s contributions to science and technology, provide opportunities to learn new skills, discuss barriers that restrict women`s contributions to science and technology, and target actions for change. This 2-day event features presentations from women with a broad range of experiences, and also panel discussions, workshops, seminars, professional development workshops, and an opportunity for networking.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Walling, R. & Norton, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

Description: Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M. & Welty, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Information Administration new releases. Volume 1

Description: This publication of the National Energy Information Center contains news items and information sources related primarily to electricity generation. News items reported on in this issue include utility compliance costs for the Clean Air Act, 1995 profits for major energy companies, and competition issues in the electric power and natural gas industries. A summary report on crude oil prices is also presented. Other information provided includes a listing of 1996 publications from the center, electronic information services, and energy data information contacts.
Date: April 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-of-season heating fuel report

Description: The year-end report notes that the 1991-92 heating season had lower average oil prices (retail home heating fuel) than the past two winters and prices remained relatively stable throughout the season. This year, the heating season average was $.87 per gallon, $1.05 for kerosene, and $1.33 for propane.
Date: April 13, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing potential future environmental legal events

Description: This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Tonn, B. & Petrich, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995

Description: Energy consumption in 1995 increased slightly for the fifth year in a row (from 89 to 91 quadrillion [10<sup>15</sup>Btu). U.S. economic activity slowed from the fast-paced recovery of 1994, even with the continued low unemployment rates and low inflation rates. The annual increase in U.S. real GDP dropped to 4.6% from 1994�s increase of 5.8%. Energy consumption in all major end-use sectors surpassed the record-breaking highs achieved in 1994, with the largest gains (2.5%) occurring in the residential/commercial sector. Crude oil imports decreased for the first time this decade. There was also a decline in domestic oil production. Venezuela replaced Saudi Arabia as the principal supplier of imported oil. Imports of natural gas, mainly from Canada, continued to increase. The demand for natural gas reached a level not seen since the peak levels of the early 1970s and the demand was met by a slight increase in both natural gas production and imports. Electric utilities had the largest percentage increase of n.atural gas consumption, a climb of 7% above 1994 levels. Although coal production decreased, coal exports continued to make a comeback after 3 years of decline. Coal once again become the primary U.S. energy export. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) consists of two phases. Phase I (in effect as of January 1, 1995) set emission restrictions on 110 mostly coal-burning plants in the eastern and midwestem United States. Phase II, planned to begin in the year 2000, places additional emission restrictions on about 1,000 electric plants. As of January 1, 1995, the reformulated gasoline program, also part of the CAAA90, was finally initiated. As a result, this cleaner-burning fuel was made available in areas of the United States that failed to meet the Environmental Protection Agency� s (EPA�s) ozone standards. In 1995, reformulated ...
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, H.; Mui, N. & Pasternak, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Private power development and environmental protection in India

Description: This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Das, S. & Wilbanks, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

Description: The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

Description: This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century jobs initiative - Tennessee`s Resource Valley. Final report

Description: Tennessee`s Resource Valley, a regional economic development organization, was asked to facilitate a two-year, $750,000 grant from the Department of Energy. The grant`s purpose was to make the East Tennessee region less dependent on federal funds for its economic well-being and to increase regional awareness of the advantages of proximity to the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge. The mission of Tennessee`s Resource Valley is to market the business location advantages of mid-East Tennessee to corporate decision makers and to facilitate regional initiatives that impact the creation of quality job opportunities. Tennessee`s Resource Valley represents fifteen (15) counties in East Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Campbell, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Jefferson, Knox, Loudon, Monroe, Morgan, Roane, Scott, Sevier and Union.
Date: December 23, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

Description: This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Colton, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible effects of competition on electricity consumers in the Pacific Northwest

Description: In part, the impetus for restructuring the U.S. electricity industry stems from the large regional disparities in electricity prices. Indeed, industry reforms are moving most rapidly in high-cost states, such as California and those in the Northeast. Legislators, regulators, and many others in states that enjoy low electricity prices, on the other hand, ask whether increased competition will benefit consumers in their states. This report quantifies the effects of increased competition on electricity consumers and producers in two regions, the Pacific Northwest and California. California`s generating costs are roughly double those of the Northwest. We use a new strategic-planning model called Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) to conduct these analyses. Specifically, we analyzed four cases: a pre-competition base case intended to represent conditions as they might exist under current regulation in the year 2000, a post-competition case in which customer loads and load shapes respond to real-time electricity pricing, a sensitivity case in which natural-gas prices are 20% higher than in the base case, and a sensitivity case in which the hydroelectric output in the Northwest is 20% less than in the base case. The ORCED analyses suggest that, absent regulatory intervention, retail competition would increase profits for producers in the Northwest and lower prices for consumers in California at the expense of consumers in the Northwest and producers in California. However, state regulators may be able to capture some or all of the increased profits and use them to lower electricity prices in the low-cost region. Perhaps the most straightforward way to allocate the costs and benefits to retail customers is through development of transition-cost charges or credits. With this option, the consumers in both regions can benefit from competition. The magnitude and even direction of bulk-power trading between regions depends strongly on the amount of hydroelectric power ...
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Hadley, S. & Hirst, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

Description: This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program Plan for Renewable Energy generation of electricity. Response to Section 2111 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

Description: A 5-Year Program Plan for providing cost-effective options for generating electricity from renewable energy sources is presented by the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The document covers the Utility-Sector situation, scope of the program, specific generating technologies, and implementation of the program plan.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico, Fiscal year 1995

Description: Central NM: funding was about $1.5 billion in FY95, yielding a total economic impact of $4.3 billion, about 10.5% of total economic activity in the region. Total personal income impact was over $1.1 billion in FY95, nearly 9% of personal income in the 4 counties. The employment multipler 3.90 means that the 8,118 average employment level resulted in a total impact of 31,643, and in effect, nearly one of every 10 jobs was created or supported by SNL. State of New Mexico: The $1.5 billion funding supported a total economic impact of $4.4 billion, about 5% of total economic activity. Total personal income imapcts were nearly $1.15 billion or nearly 4% of personal income in the state. The employment multipler of 3.97 for the state meant that the 8,153 average employment level supported a total impact of 32,339; thus, in effect, one of every 23 jobs in the state was created or supported by SNL. About 75% of the jobs created indirectly by SNL in the central region and in the state occurred in the trade, services, and finance/insurance/real estate sectors.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Lansford, R.R.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. & Ben-David, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department