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Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Description: This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Peinado, C.O. & Koutz, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of EPRI nuclear power division research topics supportive of HTGR technology

Description: For HTGR commercialization studies, an LWR/HTGR Technology Transfer program was devised. Candidate programs were identified out of a total of 208 EPRI NPD (Nuclear Power Division) projects. Of these, 26 project areas presented the highest probability for technology transfer. (DLC)
Date: October 6, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat. Interim design and cost status report, FY 1981

Description: Studies conductd on HTGR systems in FY 1980 were concluded in Application Study Reports to describe the preconceptual system designs to that point and discuss possible applications for three variations of the systems; the steam cycle/cogeneration plant, the higher temperature reformer plant, and the gas turbine concept. The HTGR-Reformer Application Study was conceived and directed to evaluate the HTGR-R with a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C as a near-term Lead Project and as a vehicle to long-term HTGR Program Objectives. The scope of this effort included evaluations of the HTGR-R technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-R markets, assesment of the economics of commercial HTGR-R plants, and the evaluation of the program scope and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-R technology through the completion of the Lead Project.
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outline and schedule for the HTGR-SC/C licensing plan

Description: The Licensing Plan is based on licensing a HTGR-SC/C lead plant in the near term. The plan also provides reference safety material and a basis (requirements, criteria, etc.) for licensing commercial follow-on plants. The plan is structured in two parts: program management and project management, and covers three sequences of licensing activities: pre-application, construction permit application, and operating licensing application. Major activities and a schedule of events are outlined in these three phases indicating the approach, the objective and the documentation involved. The Licensing Plan will be further developed in detail in FY 1982 as part of a Project Decision Package.
Date: September 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the United States National HTGR program

Description: The HTGR continues to appear as an increasingly attractive option for application to US energy markets. To examine that potential, a program is being pursued to examine the various HTGR applications and to provide information to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors. To date, this effort has identified a substantial technical and economic potential for Steam Cycle/Cogeneration applications. Advanced HTGR systems are currently being evaluated to determine their appropriate role and timing. The encouraging results which have been obtained lead to heightened anticipation that a role for the HTGR will be found in the US energy market and that an initiative culminating in a lead project will be evolved in the forseeable future. The US Program can continue to benefit from international cooperative activities to develop the needed technologies. Expansion of these cooperative activities will be actively pursued.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process gas and steam-electric system parameters and advanced reformer concept guidelines for 850/sup 0/C IDC and 950/sup 0/C monolithic HTGR concepts

Description: The following is a description of the endeavors being pursued at ARSD as potential means of directly reducing the reformer plant and/or product costs. Three broad areas are currently under evaluation to achieve the cost reduction objectives and they include: (1) reduced reformer cost by simplifying the design, (2) improving thermochemical performance by enhanced heat transfer and catalyst activity, and (3) modification of process condition assumptions.
Date: January 21, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

Description: The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR market assessment: interim report

Description: The purpose of this Assessment is to establish the utility perspective on the market potential of the HTGR. The majority of issues and conclusions in this report are applicable to both the HTGR-Gas Turbine (GT) and the HTGR-Steam Cycle (SC). This phase of the HTGR Market Assessment used the HTGR-GT as the reference design as it is the present focus of the US HTGR Program. A brief system description of the HTGR-GT is included in Appendix A. This initial report provides the proposed structure for conducting the HTGR Market Assessment plus preliminary analyses to establish the magnitude and nature of key factors that affect the HTGR market. The HTGR market factors and their relationship to the present HTGR Program are discussed. This report discusses two of these factors in depth: economics and water availability. The water availability situation in the US and its impact on the potential HTGR market are described. The approach for applying the HTGR within a framework of utility systems analyses is presented.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core seismic methods verification report. [HTGR]

Description: Information on HTGR reactor core seismic requirements is presented concerning element properties and code parameters; correlation and verification of the codes; sensitivity studies; and application to design.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core seismic methods verification report

Description: This report presents the description and validation of the analytical methods for calculation of the seismic loads on an HTGR core and the core support structures. Analytical modeling, integration schemes, parameter assignment, parameter sensitivity, and correlation with test data are key topics which have been covered in detail. Much of the text concerns the description and the results of a series of scale model tests performed to obtain data for code correlation. A discussion of scaling laws, model properties, seismic excitation, instrumentation, and data reduction methods is also presented, including a section on the identification and calculation of statistical errors in the test data.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of calculated results from two analytical models with measured data from a heat-exchanger flow test

Description: Predicted results from both a network flow model and a turbulent flow model were compared with measured results from an air flow test on a half-scale model of the auxiliary heat exchanger for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Measurements of both velocity and pressure were made within the heat exchanger shell side flow field. These measurements were compared with calculated results from both a network flow model and a turbulent flow model. Both analytical models predicted early identical results which, except for some minor anomalies, compared favorably with the measured data.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Carosella, D.P. & Pavlics, P.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

350 MW(t) MHTGR preassembly and modularization

Description: The Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) provides a safe and economical nuclear power option for the world's electrical generation needs by the turn of the century. The proposed MHTGR plant is composed of four 350 MW(t) prismatic core reactor modules, coupled to a 2(2 {times} 1) turbine generator producing a net plant electrical output of 538 MW(e). Each of the four reactor module is located in a below-ground level concrete silo, and consists of a reactor vessel and a steam generator vessel interconnected by a cross duct vessel. The modules, along with the service buildings, are contained within a Nuclear Island (NI). The turbine generators and power generation facilities are in the non-nuclear Energy Conversion Area (ECA). The MHTGR design reduces cost and improves schedule by maximizing shop fabrication, minimizing field fit up of the Reactor Internals components and modularizing the NI ECA facilities. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Venkatesh, M.C. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Jones, G. (Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates, San Diego, CA (USA)); Dilling, D.A. (Bechtel International Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)) & Parker, W.J. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

Description: This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Orvis, D.D. & Raabe, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine (HTGR-GT): dry cooled commercial power plant studies

Description: Combining the modern and proven power conversion system of the closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) with an advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) results in a power plant well suited to projected utility needs into the 21st century. The gas turbine HTGR (HTGR-GT) power plant benefits are consistent with national energy goals, and the high power conversion efficiency potential satisfies increasingly important resource conservation demands. Established technology bases for the HTGR-GT are outlined, together with the extensive design and development program necessary to commercialize the nuclear CCGT plant for utility service in the 1990s. This paper outlines the most recent design studies by General Atomic for a dry-cooled commercial plant of 800 to 1200 MW(e) power, based on both non-intercooled and intercooled cycles, and discusses various primary system aspects. Details are given of the reactor turbine system (RTS) and on integrating the major power conversion components in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: McDonald, C.F. & Boland, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR analytical methods and design verification

Description: Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Neylan, A.J. & Northup, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of stick-slip (chatter) phenomenon of HTGR thermal barrier attachment fixture sliding interfaces. Phase I test: Class A thermal barrier hardware and environment

Description: This test program was performed to investigate if significant chatter (stick-slip) would occur at the thermal barrier sliding surfaces. Given such conditions, cyclic loads could be induced in the thermal barrier attachment fixture and studs. A representative section of thermal barrier was tested with realistic HTGR temperature cycles in a high purity helium environment. No significant chatter was detected and there was no visible deterioration of the hardware after testing.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Middleton, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

Description: Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J. & Tiegs, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) experimental and analytical programs in the United States. [HTGR]

Description: During the past decade, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in a comprehensive program of experimental and analytical studies pertaining to the design and development of PCRVs. The program has been directed primarily toward the gas-cooled reactor since it has remained the only reactor concept currently utilizing PCRVs. However, interest has developed recently in potential applications to coal conversion systems. The purpose of the paper is to review the background and scope of the PCRV Research and Development Program and to summarize the status of the current studies.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Callahan, J P & Dodge, W G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim report on core physics and fuel cycle analysis of the pebble bed reactor power plant concept

Description: Calculations were made to predict the performance of a pebble bed reactor operated in a mode to produce fissile fuel (high conversion or breeding). Both a one pebble design and a design involving large primary feed pebbles and small fertile pebbles were considered. A relatively short residence time of the primary pebbles loaded with /sup 233/U fuel was found to be necessary to achieve a high breeding ratio, but this leads to relatively high fuel costs. A high fissile inventory is associated with a low C/Th ratio and a high thorium loading, causing the doubling time to be long, even though the breeding ratio is high, and the fuel cost of electrical product to be high. Production of /sup 233/U fuel from /sup 235/U feed was studied and performances of the converter and breeder reactor concepts were examined varying the key parameters.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Vondy, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbomachinery design considerations for the nuclear HTGR-GT power plant

Description: For several years, design studies have been under way in the USA on a nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine plant (HTGR-GT). Design aspects of the helium turbomachine portion of these studies are presented. Gas dynamic and mechanical design considerations are presented for helium turbomachines in the 400-MW(e) (non-intercooled) and 600-MW(e) (intercooled) power range. Design of the turbomachine is a key element in the overall power plant program effort, which is currently directed toward the selection of a reference HTGR-GT commercial plant configuration for the US utility market. A conservative design approach has been emphasized to provide maximum safety and durability. The studies presented for the integrated plant concept outline the necessary close working relationship between the reactor primary system and turbomachine designers.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: McDonald, C.F. & Smith, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-isotropic petroleum-coke based graphites for high temperature gas-cooled reactor core components

Description: The standard covers procurement requirements for extruded graphite logs, 15 in. (381 mm) or greater in diameter, manufactured with near-isotropic petroleum cokes and coal-tar pitch binders which are candidates or reference materials for replaceable fuel and reflector blocks for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The requirements are designed to produce the degree of lot-to-lot reproducibility which is required to ensure consistent and predictable properties and irradiation performance for specific graphite grades and to ensure traceability of the graphite logs to production processes and raw materials that affect performance. The standard is intended for use in the procurement of developmental and commercial grades of nuclear graphite which are to be evaluated on Department of Energy (DOE) funded programs for use as core components in HTGRs.
Date: October 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR-GT systems optimization studies

Description: The compatibility of the inherent features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and the closed-cycle gas turbine combined into a power conversion system results in a plant with characteristics consistent with projected utility needs and national energy goals. These characteristics are: (1) plant siting flexibility; (2) high resource utilization; (3) low safety risks; (4) proliferation resistance; and (5) low occupational exposure for operating and maintenance personnel. System design and evaluation studies on dry-cooled intercooled and nonintercooled commercial plants in the 800-MW(e) to 1200-MW(e) size range are described, with emphasis on the sensitivity of plant design objectives to variation of component and plant design parameters. The impact of these parameters on fuel cycle, fission product release, total plant economics, sensitivity to escalation rates, and plant capacity factors is examined.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Kammerzell, L.L. & Read, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR safety philosophy

Description: The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the US. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Joskimovic, V. & Fisher, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steamer cogeneration plant: design and cost study

Description: A conceptual design and cost study is presented for intermediate size high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for industrial energy applications performed by United Engineers and Constructors Inc., (UE and C) and The General Atomic Company (GAC). The study is part of a program at ORNL and has the objective to provide support in the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of a single unit 1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steam cycle cogeneration plant (referred to as the Steamer plant) for the production of industrial process energy. Inherent in the achievement of this objective, it was essential to perform a number of basic tasks such as the development of plant concept, capital cost estimate, project schedule and annual operation and maintenance (O and M) cost.
Date: August 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department