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Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

Description: A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.
Date: October 20, 2003
Creator: Basher, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cover-gas seal program. Test report - sodium dip-seal wetting study. [at 450/sup 0/F]

Description: This report documents the tests conducted to find a reliable surface preparation method of treating the CRBRP dip seal blade (SA508 Class 2 steel) to insure its sodium wettability at 450F or less. Two techniques were established which depressed the sodium wetting temperature of SA 508, Class 2 dip seal blade material to 375F. These techniques were depositing an approx. 60 x 10/sup -6/ inch layer of tin on the blade surface by a brush-on plating process, and, by cleaning the blade surface with ultrasonics while it is immersed in sodium. The tin plating technique is recommended as the initial and primary surface preparation method and ultrasonics as a rewetting and backup technique. This work was conducted in support of the Sodium Dip Seal Feature Test, DRS 32.05.
Date: October 20, 1977
Creator: Carnevali, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

Description: The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.
Date: October 20, 1999
Creator: Milchikov, A.; Hund, G. & Davidko, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalting sea water and brackish waters: a cost update

Description: This report, based on first-quarter 1977 dollars, is an update of costs presented in ORNL/TM-5070 (Rev.), which gave cost estimates for desalting seawater and brackish waters based on first-quarter 1975 financial parameters. Cost estimates are given for desalting seawater by distillation and reverse osmosis and for brackish waters using reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Cost data were computed as a function of plant size and energy cost. The cost of generating steam and electrical energy on-site using coal-fired boilers as well as oil-fired boilers and dual-purpose electric/seawater distillation plants is included. While the costs of energy, equipment and labor have continued to rise, they have increased at a relatively modest rate compared with the two years prior to 1975. On an average, the cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased approximately 15%. Costs for desalting brackish waters by the membrance processes have increased about 7%.
Date: October 20, 1977
Creator: Reed, S. A. & Wilson, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department