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Low turbulence/high efficiency cyclone separators: Facility qualification results

Description: The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate the near-wall turbulent flow-fields characteristic of cyclone separators in order to determine the influence of wall-originating turbulence on the separation of fine particles. In particular, seven turbulence suppression concepts will be evaluated with reference to a well-established baseline condition. Concepts which appear attractive will be studied and characterized in more detail. The work accomplished to date is principally the design, construction, and qualification of two of the facilities that will be used to study the various concepts of turbulence suppression. The qualification of the primary facility, the Cyclonic Wind Tunnel (CWT), has required the development and adaptation of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to perform simultaneous two-dimensional turbulence measurements in a highly swirling flow. A companion facility to the CWT is the Curvilinear Boundary Layer (CBL) apparatus. The purpose of the CBL is to provide a thick, visually-observable near-wall flow region under dynamically similar conditions to the CWT to that a physical understanding of the turbulence suppression process can be obtained. 9 refs., 15 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Razgaitis, R.; Paul, D.D.; Bioarski, A.A.; Jordan, H. (Battelle Columbus Div., OH (USA)); Brodkey, R.S. & Munson-McGee, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of phased FGD implementation on power costs

Description: The cost of installing five fossil-fuel power plant scrubbers at the time when the plant is constructed are compared with a phased installation of scrubbers in which 2 scrubbers are installed initially and 3 more are installed one at a time in each of the succeeding 5 year periods. The operation of the flue gas desulfurization system and operating costs are described, and the method used for making the cost comparison is discussed. Results of this cost analysis show that for a given escalation and discount rate, the phased FGD costs represent between 76 to 84% of the corresponding one-step costs. It can also be seen that the lower the real escalation rate and the higher the discount rate, the more attractive the phased strategy looks. When the overall power cost is considered, the phased strategy represents savings of 2.0 to 2.8% compared to the one-step strategy. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas cleanup using ceramic cross flow membrane filters. Final report

Description: The single unresolved technical issue in the commercialization of pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PPBC) for electric power production is the hot gas cleaning problem. In this technology, high-temperature and -pressure (HTHP), dust-laden flue gases from the combustor must be cleaned enough to reduce expansion turbine blade erosion to an economically acceptable level. Additionally, the level of particulate emission must be compatible with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for environmental acceptability. The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a wide range of research and development programs directed at the solution of this problem. These programs were divided into two classifications, one dealing with more advanced concepts where testing was to be done at relatively large scale and a second group of less advanced, novel concepts where the testing was to be carried out at a bench scale. The cross-flow ceramic membrane filter program described in this report is a member of the small-scale, novel concept group.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Ciliberti, D.F.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Keairns, D.L. & Bachovchin, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter development program

Description: The design, fabrication, and installation of the cold flow test facility has been completed. The SMGBF test facility shown in Figure 2 consists of a solids feed hopper, a transparent test vessel, a screw conveyor, a 55-gal drum for solids storage, a dust feeder, a baghouse filter, and the associated instrumentation for flow and pressure control and measurement. The standleg is 11-in ID by 3-ft long, and also transparent to facilitate observation. The crushed acrylic particles of characteristics shown in Table 1 are used as the bed media. The bed particles were selected, by maintaining the particle size while reducing the particle density, to simulate the minimum fluidization velocity expected under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. By maintaining the particle size, the bed effectively simulates the bed packing and voidage in the moving bed which is directly related to the efficiency of particulate removal and pressure drop characteristics. The test facility performed as designed and no particular difficulties were encountered. The baseline data on pressure profiles across the stationary and the moving granular beds were obtained for gas face velocities up to 6 ft/s, higher than the minimum fluidization velocity of the bed material (5 ft/s), and no visible fluidization was observed at the base of the standleg. This confirms the operational feasibility of the compact SMGBF design.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C. & Smeltzer, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal/chemical stability of ceramic cross flow filter materials

Description: Westinghouse has undertaken a two phase program to determine possible long-term, high temperature influence that advanced coal-based power system environments may have on the stability of the ceramic cross flow filter elements. During the past year, we have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. The alumina/mullite cross flow liter material that has consistently been used throughout the flow-through gas phase alkali testing segment of this program, consists of mullite rods or needles that are embedded within an amorphous phase which contains corundum (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and anorthite (CaAl[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 8]). Due to the rapid cooling rate that was used to produce the alumina/mullite filter disc material from high fire, the matrix consists of 59.6 wt% mullite, 30.5 wt% amorphous, 5.1 wt% anorthite, and 4.8 wt% alumina. The relatively low, as-fabricated, hot strength of this material (841[plus minus]259 psi at 870[degrees]C) is a direct result of the high amorphous content which softens at temperatures of 870[degrees]C. Load versus deflection curves as a function of temperature indicate that this material is relatively brittle up to temperatures of 600[degrees]C. Both a loss of strength, as well as plastic deformation of the matrix occurs at [approximately]700[degrees]C. If cross flow filters are manufactured from an alumina/mullite matrix that contains an [approximately]30.5 wt% amorphous content, we suspect that the plastic nature of the glass phase could potentially serve as a substrate for fines collection during initial filter operation at 700[degrees]C. Similarly the plastic nature could potentially cause deformation of the liter under load.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Alvin, M.A.; Bahovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.; Tressler, R.E. & McNerney, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

Description: To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Zievers, J.F. & Eggerstedt, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO[sub x]/SO[sub 2] emissions control system

Description: This Quarterly Report summarizes the Integrated Dry NO[sub x]/SO[sub 2] Emissions Control System Project (DOE Agreement No. DE-FC22-91PC90550) progress for the months of April, May, and June 1992. Public Service Company of Colorado ( PSCC'') activities focused on construction of all systems for the project. The unit was off-line for installation of the project equipment from March 20, 1992 through May 30, 1992. A short summary of the items completed are listed. Construction activities centered on boiler modifications to install the new burners and the overfire air system. A major milestone was achieved when the boiler was successfully hydrotested on April 18, 1992. Gas burners were fired on May 27, 1992 and the unit was operating on coal May 30, 1992 at 5OMWe. Startup went was very smooth. with only minor modifications required. Significant progress was made on construction of the dry sorbent injection system this quarter. All equipment has been set and most piping is complete. All work on the humidification system, other than painting and insulation, was completed.
Date: September 29, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confined vortex scrubber

Description: The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards. This is to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS). The CVS consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via tangent slots in a central tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined with the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. In effect, each of the sub-millimeter diameter gas bubbles in the liquid layer acts as a micro-cyclone, inertially separating particles into the surrounding liquid. The CVS thus obtains efficient particle removal by forcing intimate and vigorous interaction between the particle laden flue gas and the liquid scrubbing medium.
Date: May 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic combustion and pollutant-formation processes for pulverized fuels. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, 1 July 1981-30 September 1981

Description: This contract study of basic combustion and pollutant formation processes for pulverized solid fossil fuels includes coal-water mixtures and chars derived from coal pyrolysis, liquefaction or gasification processes. The factors that affect the physical properties of coal-water mixtures (CWM) have been identified and characterization tests initiated to determine how these variables (e.g., solids loading, particle size, particle size distribution, additives) affect the coal slurries. A bench-scale apparatus consisting of a pressure vessel and an atomizing nozzle was designed and is being fabricated. This apparatus will assist in the development of handling and atomization techniques for the combustion tests. It will also aid in comparing viscosities of slurries of different solids loadings and coal types. Chars were obtained for characterization tests. A series of potential tests to characterize the chars was identified. Grading and sizing of the chars was begun as well as elemental analysis. Samples of the chars were sent to Phillips for CO/sub 2/ reactivity tests to be performed. Coding for incorporation of swirling flows into the two-dimensional coal combustion model (PCGC-2) was completed. Debugging was initiated and sample computations are performed for a gaseous, isothermal system for low swirl numbers. Convergence problems were encountered when attempts were made to complete runs at higher swirl numbers.
Date: October 15, 1981
Creator: Germane, G.J. & Smoot, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of a pre-charging pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control

Description: The objective of this test program is the performance and economic evaluation of a pre charged-pulse jet filter as the principal particulate control device for a commercial or industrial scale coal fired combustor. Performance factors that will be considered are the effects of particle charge, air/cloth ratio, fabric types, percent humidity and inlet particulate loading on fine particle collection efficiency, and pressure drop. Economic factors that will be considered are capital costs, energy and other operating costs, and maintenance costs. The program will result in a recommendation regarding the relative suitability of the pre charged pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control, as compared to other control devices. Fine particle control capability, ease of operation, and overall economics will be taken into consideration in making comparisons.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Quimby, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

Description: The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.
Date: January 9, 1992
Creator: Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P. & Snyder, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

Description: The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.
Date: January 9, 1992
Creator: Bush, P.V. & Snyder, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

Description: Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. Since most of these ESPs are collecting flyash generated from medium- and high-sulfur coal, they are not experiencing operational limitations which are common when treating high-resistivity particles and are performing at an efficiency that is as high as could be expected. However, there are indications that the collection efficiency could be improved with flue gas conditioning. Conditioning is commonly used for solving operational problems associated with high-resistivity dusts. The purpose of conditioning for low- and moderate-resistivity applications is to increase the adhesive characteristics of the dust. Flue gas conditioning that increases particle adhesion has the potential to improve collection efficiency because a large percentage of particulate emissions from a well-performing ESP is due to reentrainment. Improved ESP performance should result if particle reentrainment could be reduced by making the particles more adhesive. This could produce a significant reduction in emissions from and ESP from the Following mechanisms: reduced erosion-type reentrainment; reduced rapping emissions; reduced hopper reentrainment; increased agglomeration of fine particles.
Date: January 14, 1992
Creator: Durham, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electro-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

Description: Nitrogen oxides have been linked to a broad range of air pollution problems including acid rain and the atmospheric production of photochemical ozone. Over twenty million tons of nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere each year as a result of the high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Efforts to control nitrogen oxides emissions have lagged because of the generally low discharge concentrations of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust and because nitrogen oxides are more difficult to remove due to their lower reactivity. No catalyst has yet been found that will achieve significant reduction of nitrogen oxides in an oxidizing environment. Oxygen in the exhaust stream competes with nitrogen oxides for the active catalyst sites. Also, the dissociated oxygen atoms produced by decomposition of nitrogen oxides deactivate the surface of the catalyst. Externally applied electric fields have been used to control oxygen adsorption on metal and semi-conductor surfaces. In this investigation, a stream containing nitric oxide has been subjected to intense electric fields in the presence of catalyst materials including steel, stainless steel, and gold plated stainless steel wools and glass wool. The electric fields have been generated using DC, AC and rectified AC potentials in the range of 0--20 KV. The effect of parameters such as inlet nitric oxide concentration, oxygen and water content, gas residence time and temperature have also been studied.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: McLarnon, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion current densities produced by energetic electrons in electrostatic precipitator geometries

Description: A new laboratory test system for electron beam ionization in electrostatic precipitator geometries has been constructed to measure ion current densities as a function of voltage differences for clean (bare) plate conditions. The new system incorporates improved electrodes, which withstand a driving voltage of /sup + -/ 55 kV, a factor of 5 increase over the previous test system. A 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator produced ionizing electron beams of 1.2 and 2 MeV and currents of 10.5 and 21 ..mu..A in place of corona wire ionization. Current densities of up to 130 mA/m/sup 2/ were measured before breakdown between the plates, and no current saturation was observed. A comparison of I-V curves and sparkover voltages for various beam energies, currents, and collimation are discussed and the need for measurements with good beam geometry is reviewed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Finney, W.C.; Thanh, L.C. & Davis, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

Description: Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Tangsathitkulchai, M. & Austin, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

Description: The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Reethof, G. & McDaniel, O.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of high velocity separator for particle removal in coal gasification plants. Phase II report

Description: This report summarizes the results of Phase II of the High Velocity Particle Separator Program performed under Contract EF-77-C-01-2709. This high velocity wedge separator has the potential to reduce equipment size and cost of high temperature and pressurized particulate removal equipment for coal derived gases. Phase II has been directed toward testing and detailed conceptual design of an element suitable for a commercial scale high temperature, high pressure particle separator (HTPS). Concurrently, Phase IA has been conducted, which utilized the ambient analog method (AAM) for aerodynamic and collection performance investigation of each HTPS configuration prior and during hot testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase IA and II. The AAM effort established correlation of theoretical analysis and experiment for HTPS pressure drop, purge flow ratio and collection efficiency potential. Task I defined the initial test conditions to be the contract design point of 1800/sup 0/F and 350 psia. The 1800/sup 0/F, 350 psia testing represents the main high temperature testing with coal-derived particulates in the 2 to 10 micron range. Phase IA and Phase II have demonstrated efficient particle collection with acceptable pressure drop. In view of these encouraging results, it is reasonable to apply the developed technology toward future hot gas particulate cleanup requirements.
Date: January 15, 1980
Creator: Linhardt, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Winter study of power plant effects

Description: As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Patrinos, A.A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Collaborative coal project between the USA and India)

Description: Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification. (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.
Date: October 5, 1990
Creator: Krishnan, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control

Description: The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.
Date: October 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of setting new source performance standards for fluidized-bed combustion systems

Description: This study was undertaken for the US Environmental Protection Agency to examine the potential consequences of revisions in New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) on fluidized-bed combustor-based steam electric generators of greater than 250,000,000 Btu. A study of the appropriateness and differential effects of alternate regulatory approaches to the standards-setting process was made. Problems dealing with an emerging technology such as fluidized-bed combustion were emphasized. Finally, an examination was made of the potential benefits of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems relative to conventional coal-fired systems equipped with scrubbers. Information is included on the relative advantages and disadvantages of utility-sized fluidized-bed combustors, the technical consequences of NSPS alternatives, policy implications concerning NSPS for steam-electric generators, and cost models for atmospheric and pressurized FBC systems. (LCL)
Date: February 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

Description: This project will demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in a commercial application by the repowering of an existing City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Plant in Springfield, Illinois. The project duration will be 126 months, including a 63-month demonstration period. The estimated cost of the project is $270,700,000 of which $129,357,204 will be funded by DOE. The IGCC system will consist of CE's air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine modified to use low Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. An existing 25-MWe steam turbine and associated equipment will also be part of the IGCC system. The result of repowering will be an IGCC power plant with low environmental emissions and high net plant efficiency. The repowering will increase plant output by 40 MWe through addition of the combustion turbine, thus providing a total IGCC capacity of a nominal 65 MWe. 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive study of drift from mechanical draft cooling towers. Final report

Description: Drift from mechanical draft cooling towers was studied to establish a data base for use in drift deposition model validation. This objective was met by the simultaneous measurement of cooling tower source emission parameters, meteorological variables and drift deposition patterns during seven of eight test runs. Results from six of these test runs are presented and discussed. Source characterization measurements were made of cooling tower emission parameters such as updraft velocity and temperature profiles, liquid and mineral mass drift emission rates, and drift droplet size distributions. The meteorological measurements included wet- and dry-bulb temperature and wind speed and direction at various heights to provide information on the vertical structure of temperature, moisture and mass transport. Surface deposition measurements included both droplet and bulk mineral mass deposition rates. Substantial variation in drift emissions were noticed. Large day-to-day variations for a given cell and large cell-to-cell variations were observed. The problem of deriving a total droplet emission spectrum and rate from one or two towers is complicated and the modeler must decide on the amount of detail he needs to satisfactorily predict downwind deposition patterns. Meteorological conditions during the drift study were characterized by relatively high winds, warm temperatures and moderate humidities. The relatively high winds increased the uncertainty in the measured deposition patterns. In spite of the large (factor of 2 or 3) uncertainty in the measured deposition rates, preliminary calculations of drift deposition rates are in agreement with each other for test run 1. Although the present study did not meet all the requirements for complete validation of various drift models, it has contributed a unique set of data for that purpose.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Laulainen, N.S.; Webb, R.O.; Wilber, K.R. & Ulanski, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department