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WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

Description: The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.
Date: March 26, 2012
Creator: NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric & Hand, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDEX-SUMMARIZED WIND DATA

Description: This Index provides a description of all wind summaries available at the National Climatic Center.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Changery, M. J.; Hodge, W. T. & Ramsdell, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element for the Period April 1976 Through June 1977

Description: The Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) is a service element to provide meteorological information to other parts of the Wind Energy Conversion Program. In this role, the WCPE has as its general objective acceleration of the development, commercialization and utilization of reliable and economically viable wind energy conversion systems (WECS). This report discusses the work undertaken in the areas of design and performance evaluation, site selection, and presiting evaluation from April 1976 through June 1977. A systematic evaluation of wind descriptors has begun in the Design and Performance Evaluation Program Areas and is leading to the preparation of handbooks of meteorological information for use in design and performance evaluation. A conceptual framework has been established within the Site Selection Program Area that clearly defines the relationships between siting tools. The Presiting Evaluation Program Area is involved in the identification of large areas of high wind energy potential throughout the United States, and in the determination of wind characteristics related to the economic viability of wind energy conversion within these areas.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Elderkin, C. E. & Ramsdell, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Wind Data from Nuclear Power Plant Sites

Description: This study was undertaken to provide a summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Verholek, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WIND CHARACTERISTICS PROGRAM ELEMENT FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1976 THROUGH DECEMBER 1976

Description: The Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) provides wind information, through the Wind Energy Conversion Program (WECP), for those involved in: energy program planning, design and evaluation of performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), selection of sites for WECS instal lation, and WECS operations. Battell e, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) , provides the ERDA Wind Systems Branch (WSB) with technical and management support for the WCPE. A framework has been established to develop and disseminate needed wind information, and a Program Development Plan has been prepared and is continuously being updated to ensure that the needs of the WECP are met. Two invitational workshops have been held to obtain planning input and to encourage and facilitate information exchange. Currently the technical work within the WCPE is divided among four program areas. These areas are to provide wind characteristics for: Design and Performance Evaluation; Site Selection; Resource Assessment; and Operations. Work is being undertaken in the first three areas.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Elderkin, C. E. & Ramsdell, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of National Wind Energy Assessments

Description: The objective of this study is to perform a synthesis of existing national wind energy assessments t o develop an improved consistent assessment of the geographical distribution of the available wind power over the United States. Previous national wind energy assessments have been reviewed with respect to techniques, assumptions, data sets/summaries, and interpolation schemes used. The overall representativeness of the resource maps produced has been evaluated Discrepancies exist among 'previous assessments with regard to geographical variations and the estimated values of wind power. Information from the existiqg national wind energy assessments and various other sources has been selectively used to form a synthesized national assessment. As part of the synthesis, additional research was performed to further improve the national assessment. This included a more detailed examination of some of the inherent problems with respect to the representativeness and reliability of the surface and rawinsonde wind data, techniques employed in the vertical extrapolation of wind power, in the estimation of wind power over mountainous and offshore areas and areas of sparse data, and in the analysis and interpolation of the values.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Elliott, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KANSAS WIND POWERING AMERICAN STATE OUTREACH: KANSAS WIND WORKING GROUP

Description: The Kansas Wind Working Group (WWG) is a 33-member group announced by former Governor Kathleen Sebelius on Jan. 7, 2008. Formed through Executive Order 08-01, the WWG will educate stakeholder groups with the current information on wind energy markets, technologies, economics, policies, prospects and issues. Governor Mark Parkinson serves as chair of the Kansas Wind Working Group. The group has been instrumental in focusing on the elements of government and coordinating government and private sector efforts in wind energy development. Those efforts have moved Kansas from 364 MW of wind three years ago to over 1000 MW today. Further, the Wind Working Group was instrumental in fleshing out issues such as a state RES and net metering, fundamental parts of HB 2369 that was passed and is now law in Kansas. This represents the first mandatory RES and net metering in Kansas history.
Date: October 27, 2010
Creator: HAMMARLUND, RAY
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Reprot

Description: This report is the summary of research and a written report conducted by Energy Northwest with consultant Rhyno Stinchfield.
Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Knighten, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

Description: The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.
Date: September 30, 2013
Creator: Stearns, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

Description: This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.
Date: October 9, 2012
Creator: Bailey, Brent & Hansen, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SODAR DATA FROM OYSTER BAY AT WINYAH BAY NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

Description: The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler‐shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet ‐ Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.
Date: April 29, 2013
Creator: Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E. & Gayes, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF FIXED FOUNDATION WIND TURBINES

Description: Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.
Date: October 14, 2013
Creator: Nichols, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional Community Wind Conferences, Great Plains Windustry Project

Description: Windustry organized and produced five regional Community Wind Across America (CWAA) conferences in 2010 and 2011 and held two CWAA webinars in 2011 and 2012. The five conferences were offered in regions throughout the United States: Denver, Colorado “ October 2010 St. Paul, Minnesota “ November 2010 State College, Pennsylvania “ February 2011 Ludington, Michigan (co-located with the Michigan Energy Fair) June 2011 Albany, New York October 2011
Date: February 28, 2013
Creator: Daniels, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

Description: The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.
Date: October 11, 2012
Creator: Vego, Fernando
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department