196 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

Description: Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K. & Conover, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a cavitating descaling technique for on-line geothermal pipe and component cleaning and scale removal. Final report

Description: The use of cavitation for cleaning and removing geothermal scale from pipes and system components is discussed. A study of the technical feasibility of using cavitation to remove scale is described including the preliminary fold test, the GLEF in-plant field demonstration, a production line cleaning trial, and recommendations. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Howard, S.C. & Bohli, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastomer liners for geothermal tubulars Y267 EPDM Liner Program:

Description: The elastomer, Y267 EPDM, has been identified as a hydrothermally stable material which can operate at temperatures in excess of 320/sup 0/C. The goal of the Y267 Liner Program was to demonstrate the feasibility of using this material as a liner for mild steel tubulars to prevent or mitigate corrosion. If successful, the usage of EPDM lined pipe by the geothermal community may have a significant impact on operating costs and serve as a viable alternative to the use of alloyed tubulars. Tooling procedures were developed under this program to mold a 0.64 cm (0.25'') thick Y267 EPDM liner into a tubular test section 61 cm (2') in length and 19.1 cm (7.5'') in diameter (ID). A successful effort was made to identify a potential coupling agent to be used to bond the elastomer to the steel tubular wall. This agent was found to withstand the processing conditions associated with curing the elastomer at 288/sup 0/C and to retain a significant level of adhesive strength following hydrothermal testing in a synthetic brine at 260/sup 0/C for a period of 166 hours. Bonding tests were conducted on specimens of mild carbon steel and several alloys including Hastelloy C-276. An objective of the program was to field test the lined section of pipe mentioned above at a geothermal facility in the Imperial Valley. Though a test was conducted, problems encountered during the lining operation precluded an encouraging outcome. The results of the field demonstration were inconclusive. 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Hirasuna, A.R.; Davis, D.L.; Flickinger, J.E. & Stephens, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Elastomeric Materials Technology-Transfer (GEM-TT) Program. Final report

Description: The primary objective, to promote broad use of the earlier developed elastomers technology appears to have been successfully accomplished. The expertise was transferred to three rubber products manufacturers, and is currently commercially available. Significant substantiation of the viability of the technology was fostered through supporting and tracking numerous test efforts in various industry laboratories and out in the field. Numerous papers were presented on the technology and information was also disseminated verbally and by providing data packages. The formal and informal technology transfer effort are described. Several secondary spin-offs also resulted. Steps toward a better understanding of the complex technology transfer process were achieved. The experience provides a data point illustrating one way that technology transfer can be accomplished and a data point which can be used to evaluate its effectiveness. And finally studies were made assessing the potential of elastomers to perform at even higher temperatures.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Hirasuna, A.R.; Friese, G.J. & Stephens, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New fluorocarbon elastomers for seals for geothermal and other aggressive environments. Final report

Description: Saturated ethyllenic elastomers having a range of methyl group substitution, and a range of partial fluorine substitution were screened. Elastomers based on vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene (VDFHFP) and those based on tetrafluoroethylenepropylene (TFEP) (alternating) were successfully cross-linked by electron-beam radiation and fluorinated to yield elastomeric products, but those based on ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) elastomer became brittle after fluorination. The best products were evaluated using tensile strength, elongation at break, solvent swelling, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared. A wide range of carbon-black filled compositions using the TFEP elastomer were cross-linked. The compositions were then fluorinated at or near room temperature for extended periods of time. After fluorination the samples were subjected to geothermal brine at 300/sup 0/C. The best carbon-black filled composition again lasted at least 100 days in the geothermal brine. This filler-elastomer composition was chosen for use in the production of 0-rings. The 0-rings were produced by compression molding using a 30 ton hydraulic press. Various sizes of 0-rings were produced ranging fro 0.8 to 2.0 inches in diameter and from 1/16 to 3/16 inches in width. The final 0-rings were cross-linked at 40 Mrad and fluorinated under the optimized conditions developed for the samples.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Lagow, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

Description: Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. Polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass-filament-wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than Schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low-pressure applications and flanged joints for high-pressure applications.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Schroeder, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high temperature pH electrode for geothermal fluids. Final report, Task III and year end summary

Description: This report summarizes work done to demonstrate the applicability of a stabilized zirconia pH sensor to high temperature measurements on brines containing as much as 20 weight percent NaCl and 100 ppM hydrogen sulfide. Throughout the program stable operation was achieved, and measured pH values were in good agreement with calculated values. Differences were generally less than 0.5 pH unit at 285/sup 0/C, and it is not yet certain whether the discrepancies are associated with the measured or calculated values of the pH. While some sensors failed through cracking or because of uperfected seals, no signs of chemical degradation of the ceramic were detected during tests at 285/sup 0/C covering a range of pH between 3 and 9. Two sensors were operated at 285/sup 0/C for periods of 11 days, and one was employed in successive tests for a total of 37 days. At the end of this period the sensor was still satisfactory, and it was forwarded to the sponsoring laboratory, PNL, for further tests. Although most of the work was performed at 285/sup 0/C a limited amount of testing was done at lower temperatures: 95, 150, and 225/sup 0/C. Sensors prepared from in-house tubes and from tubes obtained from a new supplier performed well at 95/sup 0/C for extended periods, in spite of earlier difficulties with the standard ceramic at this temperature. There is still, however, some uncertainty concerning the adequacy of our seals particularly in cycling between 285/sup 0/C and lower temperatures.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Niedrach, L.W. & Stoddard, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring the materials and chemistry of a geothermal plant

Description: The components of geothermal brines that cause corrosion and scaling problems are reviewed, especially brine pH, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, oxygen (from air), silicia, calcium, sulfides, and suspended particulates. Instrumental methods for on-line measurement are discussed to show how to keep costs low by operating a geothermal plant from a position of knowledge of what is occurring to the plant materials. The US Department of Energy research and development program in brine chemistry and on-line instrument development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is discussed along with the strategy for commercial availability of new instruments to the geothermal industry.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Shannon, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Niland Test Facility Startup Evaluation Task Force

Description: Task force recommendations that are considered essential for proper start up of the Niland Test Facility are presented, along with those desirable for start up, but not essential and those desirable during operation but having no direct effect on start up. (MHR)
Date: February 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal analytical report

Description: Two samples were precracked by fatigue and exposed to separated geothermal brines in a closed autoclave. Final load and crack length were measured and a fractographic examination performed on compact double cantilever beam samples. The fractographs are shown. (MHR)
Date: December 10, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short and long-term tests of elastomers with hot hostile fluids. Environmental Compatibility Test Program final report

Description: Equipment manufacturers and elastomer houses were called to find the best currently available high-temperature elastomers. Tensile specimens of 46 such compounds were immersion tested for five days in six 190C fluids of interest: isobutane, brine, ASTM No. 1 oil, ASTM No. 3 oil, Pacer DHT-185M synthetic oil, and Chevron Cylinder Grade 460X oil. The best eight were selected based upon the least change in mechanical properties. These eight were then simultaneously tested (a) by immersion in five 190C fluids for six months and (b) as 0-rings for 46 hours at 190C, 230C, and 265C (accelerated ageing) in three fluids and at a differential pressure of 21 MPa. Based upon these 0-ring tests, four compounds were selected for testing as 0-rings in three 204C fluids at 21 MPa differential pressure. The data were evaluated and conclusions were drawn. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. There was immersion testing of primarily L'Garde compounds in brine and CL3 mineral oil for 6 months at 190C. L'Garde had formulated several compounds specifically for 260C brine, and their applicability to a specific problem was assessed early in the program.
Date: December 30, 1982
Creator: Friese, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant monitoring techniques and second generation designs

Description: Chemical and instrumental monitoring techniques suitable for geothermal use are described in a manner to relate them to plant operational problems and downtime avoidance. The use of these techniques permits the detection of scaling, the onset of scaling, corrosion loss, current corrosion rates and incipient heat exchanger failure. Conceptual advances are noted which simplify the research techniques to approaches that should be usable even in some low-capital well-head type power plants. 10 refs., 8 figs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Kindle, C.H.; Shannon, D.W.; Robertus, R.J.; Pierce, D.D. & Sullivan, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the improved corrosion rate meter and evaluation of commercially developed high-temperature pH electrodes. Interim report for period ending September 1981

Description: The continued development of the improved corrosion rate meter (ICR) and the initial laboratory evaluation of commercially developed pH electrodes are discussed. The objective of this work is to develop a more flexible instrument that would respond with correct corrosion rates under a wider range of conditions. The ICR was successfully tested in the field and in the laboratory. Although commercial corrosion rate meters (CCRs) are adequate for many situations, the ICR is the most versatile instrument and gives more accurate corrosion rate measurements. Glass and ceramic pH electrodes were tested at 85/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/. None of the electrodes performed well at 95/sup 0/C, and the glass pH electrodes either failed or had no pH response at 200/sup 0/C. The ceramic electrode performed well at 200/sup 0/C and is worthy of further development.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Danielson, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of a scaling rate meter for geothermal systems

Description: A research project was conducted to investigate an experimental technique for measuring the rate of formation of mineral scale and corrosion in geothermal systems. A literature review was performed first to identify and evaluate available techniques for measuring scale in heat transfer equipment. As a result of these evaluations, a conceptual design was proposed for a geothermal Scaling Rate Meter (SRM) that would combine features of certain techniques used (or proposed for use) in other applications. An analysis was performed to predict the steady-state performance and expected experimental uncertainty of the proposed SRM. Sample computations were then performed to illustrate the system performance for conditions typical of a geothermal scaling application. Based on these results, recommendations are made regarding prototype SRM construction and testing.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Kreid, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field tests to determine scaling tendency of some moderate-temperature geothermal brines

Description: Several field tests were completed to determine the scaling tendency of moderate-temperature geothermal brines. Data were taken on the Heber as well as the East Mesa Known-Geothermal-Resources-Areas (KGRA's). The test results most directly benefit the Heber Geothermal Binary Demonstration Plant, but some have been generalized to be useful for other moderate-temperature (302 to 460/sup 0/F (150 to 239/sup 0/C)) geothermal reservoirs also. Field experiments determined conditions under which calcite, silica, and metal sulfides are likely to form. The calcite tests determined pressures which must be maintained to prevent gas-breakout and ensuing calcite deposition. Required pressures varied from one reservoir to the next and were strong functions of non-condensable gas content. The brine cooling tests tried to quantify the amount of silica which would drop out of the Heber brine by incrementally cooling it below a design set point of 150/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/C). The conclusion was that no detectable increase in silica occurred in times relevant to plant operations when the brine was cooled to 120/sup 0/F (49/sup 0/C). Although the cooling tests showed no detectable increase in silica formation, other materials did form in small amounts. The list includes magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/), calcite (CaCO/sub 3/), and mixtures of lead, zinc, and arsenic sulfides. Even for the lowest outlet temperature (120/sup 0/F) the particulate loading increased only about 50% over inlet conditions. Thus, for the Heber brines, the majority of material entering an injection well comes in the form of sand from the production wells. This same conclusion was supported by earlier work on the East Mesa KGRA.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Robertus, R.J.; Sullivan, R.G. & Shannon, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate materials of construction for geothermal applications. Progress report No. 17, October--December 1978

Description: A program to determine if non-metallic materials such as polymers, concrete polymer composites, and refractory cements can be utilized as materials of construction in geothermal processes is in progress. To date, several high temperature polymer concrete systems have been formulated, laboratory and field tests performed in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500{sup 0}F), and economic studies started. Laboratory data for exposure times > 2 years are available. Results are also available from field exposures of up to 24 months in four geothermal environments. Good durability is indicated. Work at five of these sites is continuing and plans to initiate other tests are being implemented.
Date: December 30, 1978
Creator: Steinberg, M. & Kukacka, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment methods for geothermal brines

Description: A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K. & Garrison, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing of high salinity brines for subsurface injection

Description: Different chemical pretreatments and filtration methods were evaluated as a possible means of clarifying and improving the injectivity of hypersaline brines. Six different downflow media combinations were evaluated over three geopressurized sites, using test data from 4 inch diameter filters. Also, tests were conducted with one hollow fiber ultrafilter unit and two types of disposable cartridge filters. The test procedures are mentioned briefly. (MHR)
Date: August 6, 1979
Creator: Thompson, R.E. & Raber, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress and future directions in chemical methods for the control of scale at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

Description: Using a pilot-sized brine handling system at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, a series of field tests have been conducted in which various chemical compounds were examined as possible scale control agents. Results of these tests are mentioned with reference to publications on them. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Harrar, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department