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SDG and E/ERDA Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Brine reinjection pump report

Description: The physical description of the pump and its history of operation and maintenance from May through December, 1976 are presented. A detailed discussion of modifications made to the pump is included. Summaries regarding the compatibility of the pump with the GLEF operation are included. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Bishop, H.K; Bricarello, J.R.; Enos, F.L.; Hodgdon, N.C.; Jacobson, W.O.; Li, K.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ferruginous hawks and geothermal development. Annual report

Description: The effects on nesting ferruginous hawks of impact treatments was studied. These treatments were undertaken as follows: 3 nests were visited on foot; 3 were visited by vehicle; 3 were disturbed by discharging firearms; and 2 were disturbed by placing continuously operating engines near them. Data recorded include the general behavior of adults, their presence or absence, time of visit, and conspicuous environmental conditions. Nest failures and young per attempted nesting are given and compared with controls. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: White, C.M. & Thurow, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines manual for surface monitoring of geothermal areas

Description: The following are covered: preliminary investigation, design of monitoring system, and monitoring operations. Included in appendices are: characteristics of geothermal subsidence, guidelines for specifications for monitoring subsidence, instruments for monitoring, formats for data presentation, and statistical analyses. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Van Til, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality control and assurance applied to the analysis of environmental samples collected from known geothermal sites. Final report

Description: The components of an analytical quality control and assurance program for the analysis of trace toxic and priority pollutants are reviewed in general. It is recommended that these principles be applied to develop increased confidence in a laboratory's analytical accuracy by establishing validated standard operating procedures with built in controls and internal cross checks and developing an approved standard operating procedure for quality assurance consisting of audits and appropriate documentation. It is recommended that interlaboratory comparisons be considered as a means of continually documenting analytical accuracy.
Date: January 31, 1978
Creator: Cooper, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsidence due to fluid withdrawal: a survey of analytical capabilities. [1225 citations]

Description: An extensive review of the literature was conducted in the area of land subsidence due to the withdrawal of fluids. A method of categorizing the citations was developed to facilitate identification of references relating to specific fields of interest. A brief review of the materials represented by the bibliography indicates the state-of-the-art within this area. The bibliography (containing 1225 citations) is presented in its categorized form. 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Engi, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of summer winds in Geysers area prior to ASCOT 1979 experiment

Description: Statistical analytical techniques were tested on 73 days and 16 stations of hourly data for the summer of 1977. These stations were located in the region surrounding the Geysers geothermal area. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to define typical wind patterns in the region and to determine typical days for each station. Power spectral analysis was used to quantify the temporal variation of winds at Anderson Ridge and Anderson Springs (two stations included in the ASCOT 1979 study in the local region of Anderson Creek with very different terrain exposures). These results will help determine year to year difference in the wind fields in the ASCOT study region of complex terrain.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Porch, W.M. & Walton, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal Injection Program: Raft River (KGRA) Idaho, 1982 test data index

Description: Presented is an index for the Hydrothermal Injection Program test data collected over a three-month testing and monitoring period, starting September 1, 1982 at the Raft River Geothermal Site located in Southern Idaho. The test program consisted of injecting tracer solutions into a geothermal well, and the withdrawing the fluid from the same well, either immediately, or after a quiescent period. These data, stored on tape at the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, consist of concentrations of injected tracer solutions, natural water chemistry, wellhead temperature, pressure and flow, downhole temperature and conductivity, caliper and spinner data along with wellhead pressure responses of the monitoring wells. The stored data have been screened to ensure that they are reasonable and internally consistent.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Freiburger, R.M.; Hull, L.C. & Clemo, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

Description: A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injection into naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can be used to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in such systems. The results obtained using the model show that initially the cold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away from the well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blocks will retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventually uniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweep conditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injection well will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximum energy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time of uniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection well where it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, but independent of the fracture aperture.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Boedvarsson, G.S. & Lai, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal effects of reinjection in geothermal reservoirs with major vertical fractures

Description: Possibilities for characterizing the thermal properties of fast paths by means of different types of tests (tracers, pressure transients, non-isothermal injection) are discussed. Thermal breakthrough in vertical fractures is examined in some detail, using an idealized model for which an analytical solution is available. The model shows that rapid tracer returns are not necessarily indicative of rapid thermal interference. Thermal breakthrough predictions can be made from tracer data only, if both fluid residence time and tracer dispersion are taken into account. However, due to the geometric simplifications necessary in analyzing the tracer data, thermal interference estimates on this basis appear questionable. Pressure transient tests can provide additional parameters for thermal interference predictions, but they cannot resolve the problem of non-uniqueness. A more reliable determination of thermal characteristics of fast paths appears possible from non-isothermal injection tests, combined with numerical simulation. A mixed numerical/semi-analytical approach is employed to model the three-dimensional fluid and heat flow in injection-production systems in vertical fractures, with heat transfer to and from the adjacent rock matrix. Illustrative calculations of thermal recovery after different injection periods suggest that shutting-in an injection well can prevent unacceptable temperature declines at production wells.
Date: October 1, 1983
Creator: Pruess, K. & Bodvarsson, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring crustal deformation in The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California

Description: Geodetic surveys since 1972-1973 reveal significant crustal deformation in The Geysers-Clear Lake region. Resurveys of precise control networks are measuring both vertical and horizontal ground movement, with most of the change continuing in the area of geothermal fluid withdrawal. Preliminary evidence suggests right-lateral horizontal movement on northwest-trending fault systems and vertical and horizontal compression of the deep geothermal reservoir system. A direct correlaton is suggested between ground-surface deformation and subsurface pressure changes in the reservoir system. Although surface changes appear too small to be of environmental concern in The Geysers-Clear Lake region, they indicate hydrodynamic changes in the reservoir of significant import.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Lofgren, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal environmental overview project

Description: The basic purpose of the Geothermal Environmental Overview Project is to summarize and assess the state of environmental issues of the top priority KGRAs from among the 37 KGRAs currently identified by the Division of Geothermal Energy as having possibility for commercial development. The objectives of the Overview Project are inventory of available data, assessment of available data, identification of data gaps, and identification of key issues. (JGB)
Date: October 25, 1977
Creator: Anspaugh, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

Description: The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation study for the Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

Description: Potential cumulative impacts on the transportation system are assessed and recommendations are made as to options for handling future transportation development. The area is served by state highways, county roads, and an internal network of private roads. Access into the area is limited, and the roads must handle a variety of traffic including an unusually high percentage of heavy trucks transporting construction equipment and materials, hazardous chemicals, and toxic wastes. In conducting the transportation study public documents on geothermal power plant developments were researched and field trips to inspect the transportation facilities were made. People who have a special interest in the transportation system were also interviewed. In addition, traffic, accident, and road data were analyzed. Traffic forecasts based on projected geothermal resource develpoment were made. All access roads are of substandard design and efficient in structural adequacy. With projected traffic at 40% above the current level for most of the next six years, it is expected that cumulative impacts will cause accelerated degradation of the existing roads.
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental baseline monitoring in the area of general crude oil - Department of Energy Pleasant Bayou Number 1 - a geopressured-geothermal test well, 1978. Volume IV. Appendix III. Noise survey, Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. Annual report

Description: Results are presented of a study to determine the acoustical noise distribution and impacts of the geothermal/geopressure well drilling operation near Chocolate Bayou in South Texas. Detailed noise survey data were included in a part of the study for computer simulations to develop representative and worst-case drilling operation noise predictions. Also conducted were baseline noise measurements throughout the Peterson Landing residential area. (MHT)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gustavson, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental constraints on geothermal energy

Description: The environmental impacts of DOE's major geothermal programs and more than 15 projects at specific sites have been assessed. Site characteristics conducive to potentially severe environmental impacts and which tend to recur at site after site were identified. These characteristics are discussed. (MHR)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Craig, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental baseline monitoring in the area of general crude oil-Department of Energy Pleasant Bayou Number 2: a geopressured geothermal test well, 1980. Annual report

Description: A description of baseline air and water quality of the test well site, a summary of microseismic activity before and during 1980, and a description of the monitoring of a liquid tiltmeter at the test well site are included.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Gustavson, T.C.; Howard, R.C. & McGookey, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earthquake monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

Description: A three-week study in spring 1978 revealed more moderate earthquake activity (one or two events/day, M/sub L/ greater than or equal to 1) in the Cerro Prieto production zone. Plotting these events on a Wadati diagram we estimated an 0.4 Poisson's ratio for the upper 1 to 2 km of the field. The events were centered near the western edge of the production zone, near well M-6, and indicated strikeslip movement on north-south faults. To monitor the earthquake activity and propagation characteristics within the production zone, a five-station, semi-permanent array was put into operation in September 1979. The stations are closely spaced (1 to 2 km), surrounding a central station at M-6. Each station consists of a three-component 4.5-Hz geophone in a 100-m well connected to a 12-bit triggered-digital-cassette recorder. Although each station operates independently, they are interconnected via a hard-wire link to a central site. The purpose of this link is twofold: first, to allow telemetry of any selected station to the central site for visual monitoring; second, to provide an automatic daily time calibration to keep inter-station errors to less than 5 ms. The data from these stations will be used to monitor earthquake activity and wave propagation characteristics associated with fluid withdrawal and/or injection in the geothermal reservoir.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Majer, E.L. & McEvilly, T.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality as the limiting factor on development of the Geysers geothermal resources

Description: An air quality problem exists at the Geysers California as a result of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions from geothermal power generation. The policy and legal issues engulfing the air quality problem and efforts to mitigate the problem are examined. Estimates are made of the air quality impacts of future generation capacity based on utility electricity supply plans as submitted to California Energy Commission (CEC). The status of current and developing H/sub 2/S abatement technologies is examined for availability and technical characteristics. Analysis is provided on the prospect and consequences of inadequate control of H/sub 2/S emissions. H/sub 2/S control efficiencies of less than 95 percent may ultimately be ineffective if full field development is to be achieved at the Geysers.
Date: August 16, 1978
Creator: Fontes, R.A. & Joyce, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental analysis for geothermal energy development in the Geysers Region: executive summary

Description: The following are summarized for the Geysers--Calistoga KGRA: geothermal resource development, highlights of the master environmental assessment, control technology for hydrogen sulfide emissions, meteorological/climatological data base for hydrogen sulfide predictions, and future research needs. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Dorset, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

Description: Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Bodvarsson, G.S. & Stefansson, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department