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Reconnaissance Feasibility Study: Hydroelectric Potential on Lowell Creek

Description: The feasibility of hydroelectric power development on Lowell Creek near Seward has been investigated at.a reconnaissance level. The study was. conducted because .the physical characteristics of the creek and surrounding terrain initially appeared suitable for hydroelectric power. The creek has a steep gradient (about 400 feet per mile), is fed from a large snowfield, and has two significant drops. One drop is formed by the presence of a dam that was constructed to divert the creek through a mountain and around the town. The second drop of about 65 feet is at the termination of-the diversion tunnel. Three alternative sites for hydroelectric plants were considered, one each at the two drops and one farther upstream at the site of an old abandoned intake and valve house. Two of the sites were considered for 250-kW plants and one for a 100-kW plant. All were limited to a low head, less than 66 feet. Use of an existing dam and tunnel and an abandoned diversion dam and valve house was considered as part of the project alternatives. None of the three alternatives approaches feasibility at this time. Major influencing factors are the high cost of energy at over 13 cents per kWh, the winter freezeup resulting in plant shutdown from November to April, and a large amount of rock sediment carried by the stream and requiring expensive intake structures to skim off the rocks. The most promising alternative (alternative C), which would have a capacity of 250 kW and would produce about 800,000 kWh per year, would fill less than 5 percent of the city's present energy needs. The plant would cost nearly $1 million and produce energy at about 137 mills per kwh. This alternative is the best of the three from the standpoint of its.lower cost, best access via existing ...
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote Monitoring of the Structural Health of Hydrokinetic Composite Turbine Blades

Description: A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blade applications. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs have advantages that include long life in marine environments and great control over mechanical properties. Experimental strain characteristics are determined for static loads and free-vibration loads. These experiments are designed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of hydrokinetic turbine blades. Carbon/epoxy symmetric composite laminates are manufactured using an autoclave process. Four-layer composite beams, eight-layer composite beams, and two-dimensional eight-layer composite blades are instrumented for strain. Experimental results for strain measurements from electrical resistance gages are validated with theoretical characteristics obtained from in-house finite-element analysis for all sample cases. These preliminary tests on the composite samples show good correlation between experimental and finite-element strain results. A health monitoring system is proposed in which damage to a composite structure, e.g. delamination and fiber breakage, causes changes in the strain signature behavior. The system is based on embedded strain sensors and embedded motes in which strain information is demodulated for wireless transmission. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs provide a medium for embedding sensors into the blades for in-situ health monitoring. The major challenge with in-situ health monitoring is transmission of sensor signals from the remote rotating reference frame of the blade to the system monitoring station. In the presented work, a novel system for relaying in-situ blade health measurements in hydrokinetic systems is described and demonstrated. An ultrasonic communication system is used to transmit sensor data underwater from the rotating frame of the blade to a fixed relay station. Data are then broadcast via radio waves to a remote monitoring station. Results indicate that the assembled ...
Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Chandrashekhara, J.L. Rovey K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Absorption in Pd-based Nanostructures - Final Report

Description: Pd is known to absorb hydrogen. Molecules are normally chemisorbed at the surface in a process where the molecule breaks into two hydrogen atoms, and the protons are then absorbed into the bulk. This process consists of electron filling holes in the Pd 4d band near the Fermi energy, which due to the high density of states at the Fermi energy, is an energetically favorable process. Our aim with this project was to determine possible changes in magnetic properties with Pd nm-length-scale thick layers intercalated by magnetic materials. Before the start of this work, the literature indicated that there were several possible scenarios by which this could happen: i) the Pd will be magnetized due to a proximity effect with nearby magnetic layers, resulting in changes in the magnetization due to H2 absorption; ii) some H will be absorbed into the magnetic layers, causing a change in the magnetic exchange interactions; or iii) absorption of H2 will cause an expansion of the lattice, resulting in a magnetoelastic effect which changes the magnetic properties.
Date: October 22, 2012
Creator: Lederman, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

Description: On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was ...
Date: May 29, 2013
Creator: Stephens, Jessica D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

Description: Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage systems and develop more refined models ...
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Fickeisen, DH.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

Description: This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.
Date: July 20, 2009
Creator: Terraqua, Inc. (Wauconda, WA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

Description: The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.
Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom & Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

Description: The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom & Cotter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

Description: Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Skalski, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.

Description: This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Bottum, Edward & Mikkelsen, Anders
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

Description: This report covers calendar year 2001 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate for construction losses associated with Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, Deadwood, Minidoka and Palisades hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Bottum, Edward & Mikkelsen, Anders
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

Description: This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Bottum, Edward & Mikkelsen, Anders
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

Description: This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.
Date: November 12, 2008
Creator: Leitzinger, Eric J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department