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Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

Description: A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.
Date: November 19, 1997
Creator: Nielsen, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose enhancement in a room cobalt-60 source

Description: A room Co-60 source was characterized using TLDs and pMOS RADFETs. Dose enhancement was measured using RADFETs with and without gold- flashed kovar lids. A methodology was developed to predict dose enhancement vs position and test configuration.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simons, M.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R. & Krzesniak, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oak Ridge Isotope Products and Services - Current and Expected Supply and Demand

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been a major center of isotope production research, development, and distribution for over 50 years. Currently, the major isotope production activities include (1) the production of transuranium element radioisotopes, including 252 Cf; (2) the production of medical and industrial radioisotopes; (3) maintenance and expansion of the capabilities for production of enriched stable isotopes; and, (4) preparation of a wide range of custom-order chemical and physical forms of isotope products, particularly in accelerator physics research. The recent supply of and demand for isotope products and services in these areas, research and development (R&D), and the capabilities for future supply are described in more detail below. The keys to continuing the supply of these important products and services are the maintenance, improvement, and potential expansion of specialized facilities, including (1) the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), (2) the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and Radiochemical Development Laboratory (RDL) hot cell facilities, (3) the electromagnetic calutron mass separators and the plasma separation process equipment for isotope enrichment, and (4) the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) equipment for preparation of specialized chemical and physical forms of isotope products. The status and plans for these ORNL isotope production facilities are also described below.
Date: August 29, 1999
Creator: Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Cline, R.L.; Collins, E.D.; Klein, J.A.; Knauer, J.B., Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial recommendations for restricting gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of radionuclides for on-site inspections

Description: The US paper �Radionuclide Sampling, Sample Handling and Analytical Laboratory Equipment for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspections,� CTBT/PC/V/OSI/WSII/PR/29 identified the radionuclides of interest to an OS1 as <sup>144</sup>Ce, <sup>147</sup>Nd, <sup>141</sup>Ce, <sup>149</sup>Ba<sup>140</sup>La), <sup>95</sup> Zr(<sup>95</sup>Nb), <sup>131m</sup>Xe, <sup>133m</sup>Xe, <sup>133g</sup>Xe, <sup>135g</sup>Xe, and <sup>37</sup>Ar. All of these nuclides (except <sup>37</sup>Ar) can be measured via some form of conventional or coincidence-based gamma-ray spectrometry. The non-gaseous radionuclides [<sup>144</sup>Ce, <sup>147</sup>Nd, <sup>141</sup>Ce, <sup>140</sup>Ba(<sup>140</sup>La), and <sup>95</sup>Zr(<sup>95</sup>Nb)] can be measured via conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a shielded, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The gaseous radionuclides <sup>131m</sup>Xe, <sup>133m</sup>Xe, <sup>133g</sup>Xe, and <sup>135g</sup>Xe are best measured (after separation from their homologous elements) via a gamma & beta/electron coincidence technique such as that described in CTBT/WGB/TL-11/5 which could utilize either a HPGe or low-resolution (NaI(TI)) gamma-ray spectrometer to detect the gamma-ray/x-ray and a plastic scintillator to detect the beta particle/electron from the decay of the various Xe isotopes. The US paper CTBT/PC/V/IOSI/WSII/PR/29 (and other papers) identified a need to limit the information that can be extracted from high-resolution gamma-ray spectra to ensure that only information relevant to an OSI is accessible. The term �blinding� has been used to describe the need to limit the information available to the Inspection Team from the high-resolution gamma-ray measurement. A better term is �measurement restriction�; the need for restricting the information is particularly relevant to conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements, but not to the gamma & beta/electron coincidence-type measurements envisioned for Xe isotopes because the separation process for these radionuclides will likely eliminate any other observables. The purpose of this paper is to define functional requirements for restricting measurements via conventional high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems to ensure that only the nuclides of interest to an OSI can be identified and quantified. Options discussed below include 1) acquisition and analysis of the entire high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum combined with ...
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Buckley, W. F.; Kreek, S. A. & Wild, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography

Description: A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Gouge, M.J. & Fisher, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)

Description: The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.
Date: February 12, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test Facility

Description: The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) Facility will employ two electron linear induction accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography with sub-millimeter spatial resolution of very dense (attentuations>10{sup 5}), dynamic objects. We will produce an intense x-ray pulse using a 19.75-MeV, 3.5-4 kA, 60-ns flattop electron beam focused on a tungsten target. A 3.75-MeV injector with either a cold velvet cathode or a laser-driven photocathode will produce a beam to be accelerated through a series of 64 ferrite-loaded induction cells with solenoid focusing. Accelerator technology demonstrations have been underway for several years at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand and results including beam energy, emittance, and beam breakup measurements are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Burns, M.J.; Allison, P.W.; Carlson, R.L.; Downing, J.N.; Moir, D.C. & Shurter, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the national spallation neutron source with emphasis on the target station

Description: The technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N. & Charlton, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed {sup 252}Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the {sup 252}Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R. & Knauer, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H1616 Shipping Container Radiographic Inspection Report

Description: The HI616 shipping container is a certified type B(U) packaging used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship tritium in support of defense programs. During the 1997 recertification of the container, DOE became concerned about the possible cracking of the polyurethane foam in the overpacks of the 2300 containers currently in service. In response, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a radiographic inspection program to determine if cracking of the foam was occurring in the H1616 overpacks. SNL developed the radiographic technique for inspecting the foam and contracted the Savannah River Site's Tritium Engineering division to inspect a representative sample of overpacks in service. This report details the development process and the results of all of the radiography performed both at SNL and Savannah River.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Tipton, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion source requirements for pulsed spallation neutron sources

Description: The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high- power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor for a large class of experiments. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 KW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H{sup {minus}} source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The 1 to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. A workshop held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H{sup {minus}} source technologies, and identified necessary R&D efforts to bridge the gap.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Alonso, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report of the NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate control and accountability of licensed devices

Description: US NRC staff acknowledged that licensees were having problems maintaining control over and accountability for devices containing radioactive material. In June 1995, NRC approved the staff`s suggestion to form a joint NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate the problem and propose solutions. The staff indicated that the Working Group was necessary to address the concerns from a national perspective, allow for a broad level of Agreement State input, and to reflect their experience. Agreement State participation in the process was essential since some Agreement States have implemented effective programs for oversight of device users. This report includes the 5 recommendations proposed by the Working Group to increase regulatory oversight, increase control and accountability of devices, ensure proper disposal, and ensure disposal of orphaned devices. Specifically, the Working Group recommends that: (1) NRC and Agreement States increase regulatory oversight for users of certain devices; (2) NRC and Agreement State impose penalties on persons losing devices; (3) NRC and Agreement States ensure proper disposal of orphaned devices; (4) NRC encourage States to implement similar oversight programs for users of Naturally-Occurring or Accelerator- Produced Material; and (5) NRC encourage non-licensed stakeholders to take appropriate actions, such as instituting programs for material identification.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

Description: The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of Pu{sup 239} sources

Description: The Separations Technology Laboratory has prepared four sources to be used for calibrating a waste assay system (Passive/Active Neutron Assay) in Building 724-8G (Burial Ground). The four sources contain 0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 grams Pu{sup 239}, respectively. The sources were prepared using aliquots from a single solution provided by the Quality Control (QC) group of Laboratories Department. The solution contained weapons-grade plutonium dissolved in nitric acid. Final solution acidity was 3M. Coulometry had been used to obtain a total plutonium content per unit volume. The weight percent of the plutonium isotopes present was obtained via mass spectrometry.
Date: August 5, 1988
Creator: Holcomb, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The advanced neutron source research and development plan

Description: The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world (an order of magnitude more intense than beams available from the most advanced existing reactors). The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of 330-MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of >7 {center_dot} 10{sup 19} {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science as well as applied research leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The top level work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. As noted in this figure, one component of the project is a research and development (R&D) program (WBS 1.1). This program interfaces with all of the other project level two WBS activities. Because one of the project guidelines is to meet minimum performance goals without relying on new inventions, this R&D activity is not intended to produce new concepts to allow the project to meet minimum performance goals. Instead, the R&D program will focus on the four objectives described.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Selby, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

Description: A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.
Date: October 10, 1995
Creator: Osborne-Lee, I.W. & Alexander, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Spallation Neutron Source Collaboration: Towards a new pulsed neutron source in the United States

Description: The US Department of Energy has commissioned Oak Ridge National Laboratory to initiate the conceptual design for a next-generation pulsed spallation neutron source. Current expectation is for a construction start in FY 1998, with commencement of operations in 2004. For this project, ORNL has entered into a collaborative arrangement with LBNL, BNL, LANL (and most recently ANL). The conceptual design study is now well underway, building on the strong base of the extensive work already performed by various Laboratories, as well as input from the user community (from special BESAC subpanels). Study progress, including accelerator configuration and plans for resolution of critical issues, is reported in this paper.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Appleton, B.R.; Ball, J.B.; Alonso, J.R.; Gough, R.A.; Weng, W.T.; Jason, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

Description: This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.
Date: January 5, 1998
Creator: Miller, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-power linac for a US spallation-neutron source

Description: We present status of high-power linac design studies for a proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), based on a linac/accumulator-ring accelerator system. Overall project is a collaboration involving 5 national laboratories. ORNL will be responsible for the target, facilities, and conceptual design; BNL will be responsible for the ring; LBNL will be responsible for the injector, including the RFQ and a low-energy chopper in front of the RFQ; LANL will be responsible for the main linac; and ANL will be responsible for the instrumentation. The facility will be built at Oak Ridge. In the first phase, the dual-frequency linac with 402.5 and 805 MHz frequencies must deliver to the accumulator ring an H{sup -} beam near 1 GeV, with about 1 ms pulse length, a repetition rate 60 Hz, and average beam power {ge} 1 MW. The linac can be upgraded by a factor of 4 in beam power by increasing the dc injector current, and by funneling the beams from two 402.5 MHz low-energy linacs into the 805-MHz high-energy linac. Requirements for low beam loss in both linac and ring have important implications for linac design, including the requirement to provide efficient beam chopping to provide low-loss extraction for the ring. Linac design options and initial parameters are presented together with initial beam-dynamics simulation results.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Wangler, T.P.; Billen, J.; Jason, A. Krawczyk, F.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Staples, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of neutron focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source. Final report

Description: Funds were received for the first year of a three year DOE Nuclear Engineering Research Grant, ``Study of Neutron Focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source`` (FGO2-92ER75711). The purpose of this three year study was to develop a neutron focusing system to be used with the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) to produce an intense beam of neutrons. A prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility was also to be designed, setup, and tested under the three year project. During the first year of the DOE grant, a new procedure was developed and used to design a focusing converging guide consisting of truncated rectangular cone sections. Detailed calculations were performed using a 3-D Monte Carlo code which we wrote to trace neutrons through the curved guide of the TCNS into the proposed converging guide. Using realistic reflectivities for Ni-Ti supermirrors, we obtained gains of 3 to 5 for the neutron flux averaged over an area of 1 {times} 1 cm.
Date: March 6, 1995
Creator: Wehring, B.W. & Uenlue, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The RF system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos

Description: To develop and demonstrate the crucial front end of the APT accelerator and some of the critical components for APT, Los Alamos is building a CW proton accelerator (LEDA) to provide 100 mA at up to 40 MeV. LEDA will be installed where the SDI-sponsored Ground Test Accelerator was located. The first accelerating structure for LEDA is a 7-MeV RFQ operating at 350 MHz, followed by several stages of a coupled-cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) operating at 700 MHz. The first stage of LEDA will go to 12 MeV. Higher energies, up to 40 MeV, come later in the program. Three 1.2-MW CW RF systems will be used to power the RFQ. This paper describes the RF systems being assembled for LEDA, including the 350 and 700-MHz klystrons, the High Voltage Power Supplies, transmitters, RF transport, window/coupler assemblies, and controls. Some of the limitations imposed by the schedule and the building itself are addressed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Lynch, M.T.; Rees, D.; Tallerico, P. & Regan, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UV Curable Materials Development

Description: Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Parker, B. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Qualification tests of materials for spallation neutron sources

Description: Several existing and planned facilities, worldwide, use protons at 650-2000 MeV to produce neutrons by spallation reactions. In the advanced spallation neutron sources, materials in the target and blanket structures will be exposed to high-energy proton fluences at 10{sup 25}-10{sup 26}/m{sup 2} per year. Information obtained in fusion reactor studies are being applied to the design of spallation neutron sources. The APT project is sponsoring a materials qualification program including irradiations in the proton beam and neutron field at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Damage Facility.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Sommer, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department