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Radiological planning and implementation for nuclear-facility decommissioning

Description: The need and scope of radiological planning required to support nuclear facility decommissioning are issues addressed in this paper. The role of radiation protection engineering and monitoring professionals during project implementation and closeout is also addressed. Most of the discussion focuses on worker protection considerations; however, project support, environmental protection and site release certification considerations are also covered. One objective is to identify radiological safety issues that must be addressed. The importance of the issues will vary depending on the type of facility being decommissioned; however, by giving appropriate attention to these issues difficult decommissioning projects can be accomplished in a safer manner with workers and the public receiving minimal radiation exposures.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Valentine, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of forced-ventilation fires

Description: Fire hazard descriptions and compartment fire models are assessed as input to airflow network analysis methods that simulate the exposure of ventilation system components to fire products. The assessment considered the availability of hazard descriptions and models for predicting simultaneous heat and mass release at special compartment openings that are characterized by a one-dimensional and controllable volumetric flux.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Krause, F.R. & Gregory, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)

Description: A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Koponen, B.L. & Hampel, V.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Worst source term determination for radionuclides of given ranges

Description: In determining the source term for radiological consequence analysis of non-reactor operations, safety analysts sometimes are given a range of weight or curie fractions for the radionuclides in a process stream. Because the worst radiological dose is of most interest to safety analysts, the worst source term from the given ranges of radionuclide composition must be determined. This paper presents a methodology which can be used by safety analysts for the determining the isotopic distribution to yield the maximum radiological consequences when a range of weight or curie compositions are possible. Use of this methodology eliminates any unnecessary. safety and/or environmental concerns because safety analysts no longer have to make overly conservative assumptions to simplify the worst source term determination. The method uses a relative-dose concept which overcomes the tediousness of the traditional trial-and-error approach. Depending on the location of receptors, two relative-dose equations are derived: one for the operating personnel inside a building and the other for workers outside the building. Example problems will be used to illustrate the methodology for the determination of the worst source term.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Huang, J.C. & DelGenio, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of injury/illness recordkeeping pilot course taught in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 23, 1992

Description: This section summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Injury/Illness Recordkeeping'', which was conducted September 23, 1992 at Westinghouse Environmental Management Company in Cincinnati, Ohio. This class was designed to acquaint attendees with DOE Orders 5484.1, 5484.IA, draft 3 and the OSHA regulations found in 29 CFR 1904. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Section 1.3 summarizes the trainees written comments on the course and Section 1.4 provides examination results. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments and Appendix B presents the trainee evaluation form which students were asked to complete.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Wright, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

Description: This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological assistance program: Region I. Part I

Description: The purpose of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is to make DOE resources available and provide emergency assistance to state and local agencies in order to control radiological hazards, protect the public health and safety, and minimize the loss of property. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of radiological assistance established by the US DOE, and is implemented on a regional basis. The Brookhaven Area Office (BHO) Radiological Assistance Program is applicable to DOE Region I, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The BHO RAP-1 has been developed to: (a) ensure the availability of an effective radiological assistance capability to ensure the protection of persons and property; (b) provide guidelines to RAP-1 Team personnel for the evaluation of radiological incidents and implementation of corrective actions; (c) maintain liaison with other DOE installations, Federal, State and local organizations which may become involved in radiological assistance operations in Region I; and (d) encourage development of a local capability to cope with radiological incidents.
Date: July 15, 1985
Creator: Musolino, S.V.; Kuehner, A.V. & Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

Description: There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L. & Selby, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of current practices at several DOE facilities for maintaining exposures to as low as practicable

Description: The results of a study initiated by Battelle-Northwest to determine the extent of the development and use of As Low As Practicable (ALAP) guidelines at several DOE facilities show a wide variance in methods for attempting to achieve a good ALAP program. The information obtained from interviews and on-site visits was collated and found to contain several areas where greater attention may be required. These areas range from a need for identification of risks assumed by management to an improved method for data feedback. The various approaches to achieving ALAP and areas requiring greater attention, together with a forthcoming manual, A Guide to Good ALAP Practices, will be discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Gilchrist, R.L.; Selby, J.M. & Wedlick, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of ventilation systems subjected to explosive transients: initial analysis and proposed approach. [Deflagration; detonation; transition from deflagration to detonation]

Description: This report describes an initial study of explosive pressure transients and their propagation through ventilation systems. The objective of this study is to organize the required calculations into a computer code that is highly user-oriented and will predict explosive-induced gas dynamics within a ventilation system. The explosive process is subdivided into three regimes - deflagration, detonation, and transition from deflagration to detonation. Equations describing each process and suggested procedures for solving these equations are presented. The proposed organization of the explosion code capitalizes on the desirable aspects of the previously developed TVENT code, which predicts tornado-induced pressure transients within ventilation systems. The explosion code will include both near- and far-field analyses. The near-field analysis will use detailed models to describe the combustion process near the explosive event, and provide parametric driving potentials for flow in the regions that are removed from the explosive event (far-field). The far-field analysis will include the combustion wave as it propagates through the rest of the system.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.; Bolstad, J.W. & Duerre, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic risk analysis for the Westinghouse Electric facility, Cheswick, Pennsylvania. [Plutonium fuel development facility]

Description: This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Westinghouse Electric plutonium fuel development facility at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. This report focuses on earthquakes. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. For example, allowance was made for both the uncertainty in predicting maximum possible earthquakes in the region and the effect of the dispersion of data about the best fit attenuation relation. The attenuation relationship is derived from two of the most recent, advanced studies relating earthquake intensity reports and acceleration. Results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Westinghouse facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site.
Date: October 21, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic risk analysis for the Atomics International Nuclear Materials Development Facility, Santa Susana California

Description: This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) operated by Atomics International at Santa Susana, California. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases including the USGS, California Institute of Technology and NEIS data bases. The resulting seismic record, covering the period 1969 to 1977, was used to identify all possible sources of seismicity that could affect the site. The best estimate curve indicates that the facility will experience 30% g with a return period of 55 years and 60% g with a return period of 750 years.
Date: December 29, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

Description: A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Fullwood, R. & Jackson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Factors Review Plan

Description: ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Paramore, B. & Peterson, L.R. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of shielding data and methods for fuel reprocessing applications

Description: A survey was conducted to determine the present status of nuclear data, computational methods, and integral data applicable to shielding design for fuel reprocessing plants. It was concluded that the general status of the data and methods is good, and that many of the improvements which have resulted from reactor programs serve equally well for reprocessing applications. However, a few additional areas of concern were identified which are generic to reprocessing applications and some of which are specific to particular design concepts.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Ingersoll, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standards for remedial action: How clean is clean

Description: The particular cleanup standards applied at a remedial action site will depend upon a variety of site-specific factors as well as which of the hazardous waste statutes is jurisdictionally applied. Parties who are currently participating in remedial action planning activities should be aware that applicable cleanup standards may be in large part open to negotiation with regulators.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Sharples, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic effects on modularized spent fuel storage facilities. [Earthquake resistance]

Description: Large pools are being considered to provide additional storage capacity for spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Because of the large size, modularization of the pool into cells would enhance operational safety and convenience in terms of isolating trouble spots and performing localized clean-up. However, the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance were not clear. An investigation of these effects was made and the results are presented. The findings indicate that modularization may or may not be advantageous in terms of structural loads, depending on the pool configuration and installation. 5 fig.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Dong, R. G. & Tokarz, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project]

Description: This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

Description: The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M. & Schumann, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

Description: Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system.
Date: August 13, 1992
Creator: Duke, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical aspects of determining compliance with radiation standards

Description: Radiation surveys are an important tool used to monitor the safety of operations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as well as determining if contaminated sites require remedial action before license termination or unrestricted release. It is important that radiation surveys are carefully designed to provide the right quantity and quality of useful information for making valid decisions concerning public safety. The validity of survey information is especially important when low-level radiation detection techniques are required such as for environmental radiation monitoring. Thus, statistical aspects of radiation surveys are important in demonstrating compliance with radiation guidelines and for deciding when remedial action or cleanup is required. In this paper, we discuss the statistical aspects of evaluating whether guidelines are, in fact, being exceeded.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Kinnison, R.R.; Gilbert, R.O. & Watson, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source term and radiation dose estimates for postulated damage to the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center

Description: Three scenarios representing significant levels of containment loss due to moderate, substantial, and major damage to the 102 Building at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center are postulated, and the potential radiation doses to the general population as a result of the airborne releases of radionuclides are estimated. The damage scenarios are not correlated to any specific level of seismic activity. The three scenarios are: (1) Moderate damage scenario--perforation of the enclosures in and the structure comprising the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. (2) Substantial damage scenario--complete loss of containment of the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory and loss of the filters sealing the inlet to the Radioactive Materials Laboratory hot cells. (3) Major damage scenario--the damage outlined in (2) plus the perforation of enclosures holding significant inventories of dispersible plutonium in and the structure comprising the Advanced Fuels Laboratory.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Mishima, J.; McPherson, R.B.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Watson, E.C. & Ayer, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

Description: A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T. & Williams, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of construction safety in DOE course taught in Aiken, South Carolina August 4--August 7, 1992

Description: This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety and Health Training Section course, Construction Safety in DOE'' which was conducted August 4--7 at Westinghouse Savannah River, in Aiken, South Carolina. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Handwerk, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department