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Procedures for estimating nuclear fuel cycle costs

Description: Standard procedures for estimating capital and operating costs for the Environmental Control Technology Project are presented in this report. Two different procedures were used for estimating capital costs: (1) general order-of-magnitude estimates for those facilities which are invariant among environmental control technologies, and (2) detailed estimating procedures for those facilities and control systems expected to vary among comparisons of environmental control methods. The general approaches and procedures of NUS-531 (Guide for Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Plant Designs, NUS Corporation, Rockville, MD, January 1969) were used for detailed capital cost estimates. Detailed procedures are presented for operating cost estimates. These include estimating worksheets and specific procedures for each of the components of the operating costs. These also were based on the approach of NUS-531.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Young, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

Description: The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Shay, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conference on enrichment services marketing

Description: Purpose of the meeting was to discuss the draft terms and conditions of DOE's Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract, which was developed to implement the United States nuclear power policy objective of assured nuclear fuel supply on attractive terms and conditions. Nine presentations were made by representatives of both DOE Headquarters and DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office which co-sponsored the meeting. A question and answer session was held during the afternoon, and these are also presented in this document. Separate abstracts were prepared for eight of the presentations. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

Description: The economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic wastes are evaluated by comparing the costs of reduction of the wastes with the savings possible in transportation and disposal. A general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings is developed, an initial set of cost data is established, conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste are developed. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled, newly generated and retrievably stored DOE transuranic wastes. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal and transportation savings, and volume reduction techniques and costs. Section IV contains the results and conclusions of the study. The major conclusions drawn from the study are: For DOE sites with a small amount of waste requiring disposal (< 1000 m/sup 3//year) the cost of volume reduction is greater than the transportation and disposal savings from volume reduction provided the waste requires little additional preparation to meet transportation and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not meet these criteria require site specific economic analysis outside the general evaluations of this study. For Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, incineration and metal shredding are cost-effective, provided a facility is to be constructed as a consequence of repackaging the fraction of stored waste which may require repackaging and immobilizing chemical process waste to meet disposal criteria.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Brown, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foam is a decon waste minimization tool

Description: The use of foam in decontamination operations offers significant reductions in waste generation. Initial use has confirmed its effectiveness. Issues being resolved at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compatibility of foam generating solutions with decontamination solutions, waste disposal, and operational safety.
Date: April 18, 1991
Creator: Peterson, K.D.; McGlynn, J.F. & Rankin, W.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECON: a computer program for analyzing repository economics. Documentation and user's manual. Revision 1

Description: From 1981 through 1984 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been developing a computer model named RECON to calculate repository costs from parametric data input. The objective of the program has been to develop the capability to evaluate the effect on costs of changes in repository design parameters and operating scenario assumptions. This report documents the development of the model through September of 1984. Included in the report are: (1) descriptions of model development and the underlying equations, assumptions and definitions; (2) descriptions of data input using either card images or an interactive data input program; and (3) detailed listings of the program and definitions of program variables. Cost estimates generated using the model have been verified against independent estimates and good agreement has been obtained. 2 refs.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Clark, L.L.; Schutz, M.E. & Luksic, A.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economics of at-reactor spent fuel storage alternatives

Description: Estimates of costs that would be incurred by a utility providing enhanced storage capability for spent LWR fuel are presented. The cost data are arranged to assist in estimating and evaluating costs for specific storage situations. Estimated storage costs are provided in a series of tables providing cost factors or arrays for each alternative method of storage considered, and the additional costs involved in various options of pre-storage preparation of the fuel. Cost data are provided for (1) storage enhancement within an existing storage pool, by reracking and/or consolidation of fuel; (2) construction and use of an additional, separate water basin for storage; and (3) utilization of dry storage options. Costs are given for canning of integral assemblies and for consolidation and canning of fuel. In each case, the storage facilities are assumed to be located at an existing reactor site. If a separate site were to be utilized for storage, appropriate site development and maintenance costs would need to be added. The basic cost tables are tied togeter by a decision tree logic diagram designed to simulate the decision steps a utility planner might take in selecting from alternative storage technologies to best meet the requirements of his situation. Using the decision tree and its associated tables, example calculations were made to show the life cycle storage costs for a hypothetical case assuming a pressurized water reactor (PWR) site. The reactor was assumed to discharge 40 assemblies (18.4 MTU) of spent fuel each year; costs were estimated for storage periods of 1, 5, and 15 yrs, respectively. Discounted life cycle storage costs in thousands of dollars and unit costs in dollars per kilogram of initial uranium content are shown for this hypothetical site. Cost for spent fuel storage are dependent upon conditions at each reactor site and the most ...
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Merrill, E.T. & Fletcher, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

Description: Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Pond, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

Description: A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Carter, W. L. & Rainey, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

Description: The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.
Date: June 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

Description: The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.
Date: December 17, 1985
Creator: Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T. & Quindry, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

Description: In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program. V. Preconceptual designs and costs of partitioning facilities and shipping casks, Appendix 4. Final report

Description: This Appendix contains cost estimate documents for the Fuels Fabrication Plant Waste Treatment Facility. Plant costs are summarized by Code of Accounts and by Process Function. Costs contributing to each account are detailed. Process equipment costs are detailed for each Waste Treatment Process. Service utility costs are also summarized and detailed. Shipping cask costs are provided.
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

Description: The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

Description: This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people's perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Nieves, L.A. & Clark, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update of identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images: An annotated bibliography

Description: This annotated bibliography reviews selected literature published through August 1991 on the identification of perceived risks and methods for estimating the economic impacts of risk perception. It updates the literature review found in Argonne National Laboratory report ANL/EAIS/TM-24 (February 1990). Included in this update are (1) a literature review of the risk perception process, of the relationship between risk perception and economic impacts, of economic methods and empirical applications, and interregional market interactions and adjustments; (2) a working bibliography (that includes the documents abstracted in the 1990 report); (3) a topical index to the abstracts found in both reports; and (4) abstracts of selected articles found in this update.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E. & Wernette, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community development planning

Description: The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Gray, S.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

Description: This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Baker, E.G. & Hartley, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of solidified high level wastes: a cost comparison of solidification processes

Description: Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for five HLW Waste Solidification Alternates were developed. The annual operating and maintenance cost estimates included the cost of labor, consumables, utilities, shipping casks, shipping and disposal at a federal repository. The capital cost included the cost of the component, installation and building. The differential cost estimates do not include equipment and facilities which are either shared with the reprocessing facility or are common between all of the alternates. Total annual cost differential between the five waste form alternates is summarized in tabular form. The Borosilicate Glass Alternate has the lowest total annual cost. The other alternates have higher costs which range from $6.6 M to $7.4 M per year higher than the Glass alternate with the Supercalcine being the highest cost at $7.4 M per year differential. The major items in the cost estimates are then disposal costs in the operating cost estimates and the HLW Storage Tanks in the capital cost estimates. The Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate ships 180 canisters per year more than the other alternates and consequently has a significantly higher operating cost. However, off-setting this the Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate does not require HLW Storage Tanks for decay because of the high heat conductivity of this product and correspondingly the capital cost for this alternate is significantly lower than the other alternates. The radiological risk values are correlated with the cost evaluation normalized to cost ($)/MWe-yr.
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

Description: The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W. & Tisue, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of changes in DOE pricing policies for enrichment and reprocessing on research reactor fuel cycle costs

Description: Fuel cycle costs with HEU and LEU fuels for the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor are updated to reflect the change in DOE pricing policy for enrichment services as of October 1985 and the published charges for LEU reprocessing services as of February 1986. The net effects are essentially no change in HEU fuel cycle costs and a reduction of about 8 to 10% in the fuel cycle costs for LEU silicide fuel.
Date: November 3, 1986
Creator: Matos, J. E. & Freese, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost benefit analysis of waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: This report presents a cost benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors, or, of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. The cost benefit analysis was conducted to determine if increased compaction capacity at HWM might afford the potential for significant waste volume reduction and annual savings in material, shipping, labor, and disposal costs. In the following cost benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of increased HWM compaction capabilities are considered. Recurring costs such as operating and maintenance costs are estimated based upon detailed knowledge of system parameters. When analyzing the economic benefits of enhancing compaction capabilities, continued use of the existing HWM compaction units is included for comparative purposes. In addition, the benefits of using commercial compaction services instead of procuring a new compactor system are evaluated. 31 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado

Description: Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Teel, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projected costs for mined geologic repositories for dispoal of commercial nuclear wastes

Description: This documen reports cost estimates for: (1) the exploration and development activities preceding the final design of terminal isolation facilities for disposal of commercial high-level waste; and (2) the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of such facilities. Exploration and evelopment costs also include a separate cost category for related programs such as subseabed research, activities of the Transportation Technology Center, and waste disposal impact mitigation activities.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Waddell, J.D.; Dippold, D.G. & McSweeney, T.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department