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Quality Assurance requirements - Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging. An effective approach in developing QA requirements

Description: Application of QA requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials should not be solely based on safety-related considerations. The operability of items, components, and systems must be considered as equally important. The nuclear industry has begun to recognize operability considerations along with safety concerns. This has resulted in a new approach in establishing QA requirements for packaging.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Fabian, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance program description for shipping packages of radioactive material

Description: This quality assurance plan describes the quality assurance program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), for shipping packages of radioactive material. The purpose of this report is to describe how PNL will comply with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 71, Appendix E. In compliance with the instructions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the 18 criteria from Appendix E are covered.
Date: June 30, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PATRAM symposia

Description: The series of Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM) symposia is nearing the completion of a second decade. There has been a marked growth in interest from its inception in 1965 to the present as shown by the increasing number of participants, the countries represented, and the variety of the subjects addressed. This paper presents highlights of the six symposia held during the period from January 1965 to November 1980.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Shappert, L.B. & Pryor, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design bases for U. S. Department of Energy storage basin

Description: Bases were developed for the conceptual design of a water basin to store 5000 MT of irradiated light water reactor fuel. The basin, which could be operational by 1983, is designed to receive over 2000 MT per year of spent fuel and to provide interim storage of US and some foreign fuel in support of U.S. policy of receiving and taking title to spent fuel rather than reprocessing this fuel. The bases for various design decisions are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: King, F.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel handling and packaging program. Management summary report

Description: Objective is to design, develop, and demonstrate a spent fuel package for geologic storage and disposal; to design, license, and construct the facilities to produce this package; and to develop and demonstrate technology for the dry, passive surface storage of spent fuel. Progress is reported on engineering and system studies, technical R and D studies, demonstrations, project support studies, spent fuel facility project, and program management.
Date: September 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

Description: This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).
Date: January 31, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent fuel storage installation

Description: A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Ludwick, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1986 Federal Interim Storage fee study: a technical and economic analysis

Description: JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for federal interim storage (FIS) services and concluded that the combined interests of the Department and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with Section 136(e) of the Act, and (5) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells or silos). The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under- or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee (including savings due to rod consolidation), and (2) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). The module costs were included in the Initial Payment to preclude the possible need to obtain appropriations for federal funds to support the purchase of the modules in advance of receipt of the Final Payment. Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at actual cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination.
Date: September 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in release probability by using an overpack. [Obsolete munitions]

Description: An analysis was performed to determine the probability of an unconfined release of hazardous material as a consequence of being involved in a severe transportation accident. Two packaging scenarios were considered: (1) material was palletized and placed in a standard aluminum sided trailer, and (2) the same material was placed in an overpackage. In addition to truck, both rail and air transport were also considered. Several release categories were defined ranging from minor to very large, and the effectiveness of the overpackage to reduce the probability of unconfined release was evaluated for each type of release category. The results are applicable to the transport of radioactive materials in similar overpackages. The potential accident scenarios for a pallet of obsolete munitions were identified using a fault-free methodology.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Rhyne, W.R.; Ashwood, T.L. & Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

Description: This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Dinneen, P.M.; Solomon, K.A. & Triplett, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fissile material storage vaults: Designing to enhance safety and efficiency

Description: There are several, sometimes conflicting, interests which must be accommodated in fissile material, storage vaults. These include criticality safety, radiation safety, fire protection, accountability, and safeguards in addition to the operational requirements of efficiency and, for automated vaults, reliability. A combination of these factors coupled with increasing demands on available vault space and the desire to minimize on-site transportation of special nuclear materials has resulted in current design and construction activities for three major fissile material storage vaults and the renovation of an existing vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two of these new vaults will be provided with automated stacker-retriever systems similar to those common in large warehouse operations while the third vault, being smaller and having less potential for radiation exposures will be operated in a hands-on mode.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: McLaughlin, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Further characterization of the B-1023 furnace for use in hypothetical thermal accident testing of shipping containers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71

Description: The B-1023 furnace is Building 9204-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, is used for hypothetical thermal accident (HTA) testing of shipping containers in accordance with 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3). That document requires that a very specific radiant (and convective) thermal environment be present during an HTA test. Experiments have been performed to determine the surface temperatures that are present within the furnace which thus determine the radiant thermal environment. Conclusions have been drawn based on these experiments, and it has been found that it is possible to perform conforming HTA tests in this furnace if a very specific test routine is carefully followed. Recommendations concerning the procedure to be used during future tests have been made.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Feldman, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) facility evaluation plan of the alternative storage concepts

Description: Concepts were evaluated for the storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in a retrievable surface storage facility. This document provides a systematic format for making a concept selection from the seven alternative concepts presented in RHO-LD-2. Results of the evaluation was that the Drywell concept was rated highest with the Water Basin Concept and the Sealed Storage Cask concept with multiple canisters of SURF coming in a close second and third. (DLC)
Date: February 9, 1978
Creator: Berry, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical bases for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

Description: The experience base for water storage of spent nuclear fuel has evolved since 1943. The technology base includes licensing documentation, standards, technology studies, pool operator experience, and documentation from public hearings. That base reflects a technology which is largely successful and mundane. It projects probable satisfactory water storage of spent water reactor fuel for several decades. Interim dry storage of spent water reactor fuel is not yet licensed in the US, but a data base and documentation have developed. There do not appear to be technological barriers to interim dry storage, based on demonstrations with irradiated fuel. Water storage will continue to be a part of spent fuel management at reactors. Whether dry storage becomes a prominent interim fuel management option depends on licensing and economic considerations. National policies will strongly influence how long the spent fuel remains in interim storage and what its final disposition will be.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wet storage in the USA: recent experience and directions

Description: Wet storage has been the only licensed option for spent fuel management for US commercial power reactor operators, except for a period of commercial reprocessing at the Nuclear Fuel Services facility, 1965-71. Developments are underway to bring dry storage to licensed status on the US by mid-1986. However, wet storage will remain the predominant storage method, at least beyond the turn of the century. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 establishes current US policy regarding responsibilities for spent fuel management. The Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking proceedings address the viability of extended wet storage for US reactors. US utilities have moved aggressively to implement optimized utilization of wet storage technology, assisted in some areas by federal programs. This paper summarizes US policy and regulatory aspects of wet storage and the status of several wet storage technology developments, including: dense racking, double tiering, credit for burnup in rack designs, transshipment, impacts of extended burnup, rod consolidation, and pool decommissioning.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Klein, K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr. & Bailey, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

Description: Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W. & Heaberlin, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COBRA-SFS predictions of single assembly spent fuel heat transfer data

Description: The study reported here is one of several efforts to evaluate and qualify the COBRA-SFS computer code for use in spent fuel storage system thermal analysis. The ability of COBRA-SFS to predict the thermal response of two single assembly spent fuel heat transfer tests was investigated through comparisons of predictions with experimental test data. From these comparisons, conclusions regarding the computational treatment of the physical phenomena occurring within a storage system can be made. This objective was successfully accomplished as reasonable agreement between predictions and data were obtained for the 21 individual test cases of the two experiments.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L. & Rector, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of minimum-weight highway transporters for spent nuclear fuel casks: Technical report

Description: There are federal and state limits on the maximum tractor-trailer- payload combination and individual axle loads permissible on US highways. These can generally be considered as two sets, i.e., legal-weight and overweight limits. The number of individual shipments required will decrease as the capacity of the spent nuclear fuel cask increases. Thus, there is an incentive for identifying readily available minimum-weight tractors and trailers capable of safely and reliably transporting as large a cask as possible without exceeding the legal gross combination weight (GCW) of 80,000 lb or selected overweight GCW limit of 110,000 lb. This study identifies options for commercially available heavy-duty on-highway tractors and trailers for transporting proposed future loaded spent nuclear fuel casks. Loaded cask weights of 56,000 and 80,000 lb were selected as reference design points for the legal-weight and overweight transporters, respectively. The technical data on tractor and trailer characteristics obtained indicate that it is possible to develop a tractor-trailer combination, tailored for spent nuclear fuel transportation service, utilizing existing technology and commercially available components, capable of safely and reliably transporting 56,000 and 80,000-lb spent nuclear fuel casks without exceeding GCWs of 80,000 and 10,000 lb, respectively. 4 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Hoess, J.A. & Drago, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel: prediction model development

Description: The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M. & Cantley, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

Description: This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)) & Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI). Annual report, FY 1978

Description: The prime objective of the subject program is the identification of technical aspects of the design, operation and maintenance of independent spent fuel storage installations which could contribute to technical bases for Regulations and Regulatory Guides issued by NRC for these facilities. Activities on the various tasks of the program for the FY 1978 period are discussed in this report.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Zima, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department