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Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

Description: Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Lunsford, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

Description: Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Lumetta, GJ; Rapko, BM; Liu, J; Temer, DJ & Hunt, RD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

Description: Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.
Date: October 23, 1998
Creator: Mattigod, SV; Kaplan, DI; LeGore, VL; Orr, RD; Schaef, HT & Young, JS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

Description: This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Truex, M. J. & Wiemers, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

Description: This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Smith, HD; Jones, EO; Schmidt, AJ; Zacher, AH; Brown, MD; Elmore, MR et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AN-tank farm

Description: This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AN-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.
Date: March 6, 1997
Creator: Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L. & Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project W-320 tank 241-C-106 sluicing acceptance for beneficial use

Description: The purpose of this document is to identify the Project W- 320 documentation required to be turned over from the Projects organization to Tank Farm Operations as part of the acceptance of the new systems for beneficial use. The assigned responsibility for completion of each item is listed on the Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) in Appendix A in this document.
Date: October 31, 1996
Creator: Symons, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

Description: This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).
Date: December 11, 1996
Creator: Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inventory of miscellaneous streams

Description: On December 23, 1991, the U.S. Dep of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Consent Order) (Ecology and U.S. DOE 1991). The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (State Waste Discharge Permit Program) or WAC 173-218 (Washington Underground Injection Control Progam) where applicable. DOE-RL provided the U.S Congress a plan and schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site (DOE 1987). The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the into two phases. The Phase I streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase II streams. The actions recommended for the Phase I and II streams were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility A and Consent Order (Tri Party Agreement ) (Ecology, et al. 1994). Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams. Miscellaneous discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Streams (DOE/RL,93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of Miscellaneous Streams to satisfy one of the Consent Order requirements. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update the Miscellaneous Stream Inventory. The annual update will continue until September of 1998, at which time four categorical permit applications are scheduled ...
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Atencio, B. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

Description: An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) had been in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was mandated. Due to the high levels of radiation and contamination within the cells, a decontamination effort was necessary to provide an environment that permitted workers to enter the cells to perform refurbishment activities without receiving high doses of radiation and to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination. State-of-the-art decontamination methods, as well as time-proven methods were utilized to minimize personnel exposure as well as maximize results.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Rosenberg, K.E. & Coleman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

Description: The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.
Date: April 1999
Creator: Hunt, R. D.; Kauschinger, J. L. & Spence, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parametric Thermal Analysis for Codisposal Waste Package Canister

Description: The engineering viability of disposal of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the waste form. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the Mined Geologic Disposal System and as input to assess the chemical and physical behavior of the waste form within the waste package (WP).A thermal analysis methodology was developed to calculate peak temperatures and temperature profiles of Al-SNF in the DOE spent nuclear fuel canister within a codisposal WP. A two-dimensional baseline model with conduction and radiation coupled heat transport was developed to evaluate the thermal performance of Al-SNF directly stored in a canister in a codisposal WP over the range of possible heat loads and boundary conditions. In addition, a conduction model and a detailed model which includes convection were developed to identify the dominant cooling mechanism under the present WP configuration, to investigate physical cooling mechanism in detail, and to estimate the conservatism imbedded in the baseline model.The results of the baseline model showed that the direct disposal configuration with a helium-filled WP satisfied the present waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the WP design in terms of the peak temperature criterion, Tmax {lt} 350 degrees C, under the reference boundary conditions. A period of 10 years` cooling time for the decay heat loads of the SNF and the High-level Waste Glass Log (HWGL) regions was used as one of the reference design conditions.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Lee, S.Y. & Sindelar, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical modeling of backfill composed of quartz sand, lime and an Fe-phase

Description: The area adjacent to the waste package is an important component of the engineered barrier system in a high level radioactive waste repository. The combination of lime, quartz sand, and a phase containing reduced iron is investigated whether it can achieve reduction of oxygen in the waste emplacement drift (thereby reducin corrosion rates) and increase the pH. The simulations conducted to date have examined the following backfill options: Fe metal only, Fe metal and lime, and iron metal/lime/quartz sand in equal volume ratios. Each option was simulated under two environments: limited and unlimited air exchange with the atmosphere. Results suggest that the most important variable during the process of chemical conditioning is the amount of air exchange that occurs in the emplacement drift. The desired chemical conditioing (both oxidation potential and pH) will be far less effective in an emplacement that experiences an unlimited exchange of air with the atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Meike, A. & Glassley, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of retrieval methods for Westinghouse Hanford Corporation October 20, 1995

Description: Westinghouse Hanford Corporation has been pursuing strategies to break up and retrieve the radioactive waste material in single shell storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, by working with non-radioactive ``saltcake`` and sludge material that simulate the actual waste. It has been suggested that the use of higher volumes of water than used in the past (10 gpm nozzles at 10,000 psi) might be successful in breaking down the hard waste simulants. Additionally, the application of these higher volumes of water might successfully be applied through commercially available tooling using methods similar to those used in the deslagging of large utility boilers. NMW Industrial Services, Inc., has proposed a trial consisting of three approaches each to dislodging both the solid (saltcake) simulant and the sludge simulant.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford recycling

Description: This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be ...
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Leonard, I.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

Description: A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate and potassium fluoride (HAN) to a temperature between 40 and 70 C, then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not ore than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Karraker, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

Description: During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.
Date: August 6, 1997
Creator: Ebadian, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

Description: A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Cumbest, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Immobilization Rack and Magazine Preliminary Design

Description: The purpose of this report is to document our current preliminary design for the Can-in-Canister rack and magazine. Since this is a developmental project with testing still ongoing, these designs will probably change as we become more knowledgeable of the functions, reliability, and cost of these designs.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Stokes, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the Characterization and Dissolution Tests of Samples from Tank 16H

Description: Samples from Tank 16H annulus and one sample from the tank interior were characterized to provide a source term for use in fate and transport modeling. Four of the annulus samples appeared to be similar based on visual examination and were combined to form a composite. One of the annulus samples appeared to be different from the other four based on visual examination and was analyzed separately. The analytical results of the tank interior sample indicate the sample is composed predominantly of iron containing compounds. Both of the annulus samples are composed mainly of sodium salts, however, the composite sample contained significantly more sludge/sand material of low solublitity. The characterization of the tank 16H annulus and tank interior samples was hampered by the high dose rate and the nature of the samples. The difficulties resulted in large uncertainties in the analytical data. The large uncertainties coupled with the number of important species below detection limits indicate the need for reanalysis of the Tank 16H samples as funding becomes available. Recommendations on potential remedies for these difficulties are provided. In general, none of the reagents appeared to be effective in dissolving the composite sample even after two contacts at elevated temperature. In contrast to the composite sample, all of the reagents dissolved a large percentage of the HTF-087 solids after two contacts at ambient temperature.
Date: March 31, 1999
Creator: Hay, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Testing of Waste Glass and K-3 Refractory

Description: The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR's) on May 26 1998. The new regulation requires that any waste characteristically hazardous for the metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag will have to be treated to meet the LDR Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) for each metal prior to land disposal. Since EPA regulations continue to become more stringent, here-to-fore unpublished TCLP data generated during testing of simulated High Level Waste (HLW) glass, including the Evnironmental Assessment glass and K-3 melter refractory, will be reviewed. The refractory TCLP data compilation includes K-3 refractory in contact with DWPF simulated glass in a pilot scale melter and K-3 refractory in contact with actual mixed waste glass in a 5 ton a day GTS Duratek melter.
Date: April 23, 1999
Creator: Jantzen, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-Scale Test of a Non-Plugging Bubbler Used in Large Tanks Containing High Yield Stress Slurries

Description: As a follow-up to a bench-top experiment (1), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) carried out a full-scale test of a "large-diameter" bubbler (LDB) to measure liquid-level and density in high yield stress slurries. The test was the final step in a process to find an instrument that could effectively and economically operate in the existing mixing tank environments. Positive results would lead to implementation of the LDB. This new bubbler replaced two inadequate instruments: an expensive technology, a Holledge probe, which needed replacing twice a year and "standard bubblers," which plugged in as little as four hours of operation. Three LDBs, at different depths, were tested under highly prototypic conditions from November 27, 1996, to January 23, 1997, using the full-scale test facilities at SRS. The instruments were subjected to 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures. The results showed that the LDBs (6.7 cm inside diameter) operated successfully by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry, which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and at approximatley 102 degrees C during days of boiling. A recommendation was made to implement the LDB because none of the three bubblers plugged during the test period to the point of compromising liquid-level measurement. However, after a week's operation at boiling temperatures, several inches of a soft sludge built up within the bubbler tubes. This sludge was easily removed in place with high-pressure water. Since completion of this study, four LDBs have been installed in different tanks throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility at SRS. Their operation has been satisfactory to date.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Duignan, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Waste Forms for Oak Ridge Tank Wastes: Fiscal Year 1998 Report for Task Plan SR-16WT-31, Task B

Description: Using ORNL information on the characterization of the tank waste sludges, SRTC performed extensive bench-scale vitrification studies using simulants. Several glass systems were tested to ensure the optimum glass composition (based on the glass liquidus temperature, viscosity and durability) is determined. This optimum composition will balance waste loading, melt temperature, waste form performance and disposal requirements. By optimizing the glass composition, a cost savings can be realized during vitrification of the waste. The preferred glass formulation was selected from the bench-scale studies and recommended to ORNL for further testing with samples of actual OR waste tank sludges.
Date: May 10, 1999
Creator: Andrews, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department