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Tar sand

Description: Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: McLendon, T.R. & Bartke, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

Description: Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Jacobson, I.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

Description: A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

Description: Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J. & Hanson, F.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved solvent extraction recovery of shale oil. [DOE patent application]

Description: An improved process for solvent extraction of organic matter from shale by two extraction steps in sequence. The extraction steps are: (1) treating a kerogen-containing shale with a solvent system comprising a combination of water and an alcohol at a temperature of about 375 to 425/sup 0/C; and (2) treating the product of (1) with a solvent system comprising a combination of an alcohol and another organic solvent at an elevated temperature, but not above about 425/sup 0/C. The organic matter is recovered by separating the liquid which results from step (2) from the shale solids.
Date: July 20, 1981
Creator: McKay, J.F. & Chong, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

Description: Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Steger, J. E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M. & Nason, H. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat and mass transfer in porous media

Description: Field test data on the OOSI MR3 experiments are used as a basis for exhibiting the computational capabilities of the WAFE computer code, which is a generalized tool for the analysis of heat and mass transfer in multi-dimensional domains of porous geothermal materials.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Travis, B.J.; Bartel, T.J. & Tyner, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT Process. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980

Description: Objective is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process for both Eocene and Devonian shales. The program is divided into five major task areas: laboratory program, bench-scale program, process development unit tests, process environmental assessment, and process design and economics. (DLC)
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application

Description: This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Rao, R. & McMain, Jr., A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New electonic gain device for high-temperature applications. [Integrated thermionic circuit for instrumentation for geothermal application, shale oil retorting, and underground gasification of coal]

Description: This report deals with a new integrated thermionic device capable of withstanding ambient temperatures in excess of 500/sup 0/C, which eliminates the problems associated with earlier versions. The history of the ITC (Integrated Thermionic Circuit) is traced along with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) interests for geothermal instrumentation. The evolution of the new structure is discussed and a set of practical device design and performance equations are demonstrated.
Date: April 1, 1976
Creator: McCormick, J. B.; Depp, S. W.; Hamilton, D. J. & Kerwin, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and technology review

Description: Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures. (GHT)
Date: October 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

Description: Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Speight, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testimony presented to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's public hearing on environment and conservation in nonnuclear energy research and development, March 31, 1978, Washington, D. C

Description: The author cites Public Law 92-577, The Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as mandating this Public Hearing as a forum to review the adequacy of emphasis on energy conservation and environmental implications of the Federal energy R, D and D program. President Carter directed ERDA (now DOE) and EPA in May 1977 to jointly develop procedures for establishing environmental protection standards for all new energy technologies and asked that the procedures be agreed upon within one year. The author first discusses general issues before he specifically addresses the subject of oil shale and synthetic fuels from coal. Specific issues on availability of these fuel technologies, impacts of implementation, and management of synthetic fuel technologies are discussed. Two broader issues are discussed. One concerns our national difficulty in arriving at a broad consensus on acceptable tradeoffs between environmental protection and other goals of society such as the important ones of achieving energy independence and avoiding energy shortages. The second is the question of the Federal role in a situation where a vast number of impacts and decision makers are either local, state, or regional in scale. (MCW)
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Richmond, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

Description: This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer solutions for natural convection in porous media

Description: An approximate solution is developed for natural convection in porous media resulting from localized heat sources. The method is applicable for moderate levels of convection. Results of the method compare well with those of other calculational methods and with experimental data. The solution for a spherical source can be used as an indirect method for the determination of permeability in some cases.
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Hardee, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

Description: This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G. & Scott, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

Description: This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Marchant, L.C. & Westhoff, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

Description: Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.
Date: January 8, 1982
Creator: Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R. & Ricker, Y.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

Description: The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western Research Institute: Annual technical progress report, October 1986--September 1987

Description: Accomplishments for the year are presented for the following five areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuel research. Oil shale research covers: chemical and physical characterization of reference shales; oil shale retorting studies; and environmental base studies for oil shale. Tar sand covers: reference resource (tar sand deposits) evaluation; chemical and physical propeerties of reference tar sand; recovery processes; mathematical modeling; product evaluation; and environmental base studies. Underground coal gasification covers environmental impact assessment and groundwater impact mitigation. Advanced process technology includes advanced process analysis (contaminant control and new technology) and advanced mitigation concepts. Advanced fuels research is on jet fuels from coal. (AT).
Date: October 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department