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Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

Description: In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG&G Services) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

Description: Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Dunbar, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

Description: The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.
Date: September 30, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane Hydrate Field Program

Description: This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report
Date: December 31, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

Description: In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) ...
Date: January 31, 2014
Creator: Torres, Marta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

Description: Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as ...
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Hause, Jennifer; Lovett, Raymond; Johnson, David Locke Harry & Patchen, Doug
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

Description: The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest ...
Date: June 30, 2011
Creator: Trehu, Anne & Kannberg, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel

Description: During the duration of this sponsorship, we broadened our understanding of combustion instabilities through both analytical and experimental work. Predictive models were developed for flame response to transverse acoustic instabilities and for quantifying how a turbulent flame responds to velocity and fuel/air ratio forcing. Analysis was performed on the key instability mechanisms controlling heat release response for flames over a wide range of instability frequencies. Importantly, work was done closely with industrial partners to transition existing models into internal instability prediction codes. Experimentally, the forced response of hydrogen-enriched natural gas/air premixed and partially premixed flames were measured. The response of a lean premixed flame was investigated, subjected to velocity, equivalence ratio, and both forcing mechanisms simultaneously. In addition, important physical mechanisms controlling the response of partially premixed flames to inlet velocity and equivalence ratio oscillations were analyzed. This final technical report summarizes our findings and major publications stemming from this program.
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Lieuwen, Tim; Santavicca, Dom & Yang, Vigor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

Description: This study introduces a new type of “cumulative seismic attribute” (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.
Date: October 31, 2009
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

Description: We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Archer, David & Buffett, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology's Impact on Production

Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) ‐‐ entitled Technology’s Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level ‐ ‐ the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies ‐‐Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Amann, Rachel; Deweese, Ellis & Shipman, Deborah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

Description: This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project “Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.” The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.
Date: October 27, 2009
Creator: Thoma, Greg; Veil, John; Limp, Fred; Cothren, Jackson; Gorham, Bruce; Williamson, Malcolm et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station/Seafloor Observatory is in danger of lapsing into disuse. However, for the present, interest in the site ...
Date: July 31, 2013
Creator: Lutken, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Hydrate Characterization in the GoM using Marine EM Methods

Description: In spite of the importance of gas hydrate as a low-carbon fuel, a possible contributor to rapid climate change, and a significant natural hazard, our current understanding about the amount and distribution of submarine gas hydrate is somewhat poor; estimates of total volume vary by at least an order of magnitude, and commercially useful concentrations of hydrate have remained an elusive target. This is largely because conventional geophysical tools have intrinsic limitations in their ability to quantitatively image hydrate. It has long been known from well logs that gas hydrate is resistive compared to the host sediments, and electrical and electromagnetic methods have been proposed and occasionally used to image hydrates. This project seeks to expand our capabilities to use electromagnetic methods to explore for gas hydrate in the marine environment. An important basic science aspect of our work was to quantify the resistivity of pure gas hydrate as a function of temperature at seafloor pressures. We designed, constructed, and tested a highpressure cell in which hydrate could be synthesized and then subjected to electrical conductivity measurements. Impedance spectroscopy at frequencies between 20 Hz and 2 MHz was used to separate the effect of the blocking electrodes from the intrinsic conductivity of the hydrate. We obtained very reproducible results that showed that pure methane hydrate was several times more resistive than the water ice that seeded the synthesis, 20,000 {Ohm}m at 0{degrees}#14;C, and that the activation energy is 30.6 kJ/mol over the temperature range of -15 to 15{degrees}#14;C. Adding silica sand to the hydrate, however, showed that the addition of the extra phase caused the conductivity of the assemblage to increase in a counterintuitive way. The fact that the increased conductivity collapsed after a percolation threshold was reached, and that the addition of glass beads does not produce a similar ...
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Constable, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Aromaization of Methane

Description: The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.
Date: January 15, 1997
Creator: Marcelin, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on SAES(R) St909 Methane Cracking

Description: Methane/carbon dioxide cracking tests using a bench scale system have been performed using SAES(R) St909 getter. The report shows carbon dioxide reduced the St909 methane cracking efficiency under a variety of test conditions. These bench scale tests revealed the complex interactions between reactive species expected to be present in future plant operations.
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Klein, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department