79 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Review of the ORNL engineering evaluation of IITRI Project on Design, Engineering, and Evaluation of Refractory Liners for Slagging Gasifiers. [Criticism of ORNL evaluation of IITRI slagging gasifier design with respect to inadequate hazard analysis]

Description: This report is a brief review of the ORNL Engineering Evaluation of IITRI Project on Design, Engineering and Evaluation of Refractory Liners for Slagging Gasifiers, and is limited to safety and hazard analysis. The major finding is that the existing project cannot provide a safe operating environment chiefly due to inadequate documentation and safety and hazard analysis.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Hurley, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on SARS backfit evaluation, Catalytic, Inc. Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant, Wilsonville, Alabama

Description: A site visit was made in company with the DOE-OPTA-EA Safety and Health Official for the purpose of providing that official with technical assistance in evaluating the validity of an earlier DOE-OPTA recommendation exempting this facility from the Safety and Analysis and Review backfit requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. A further purpose of the visit was to assess and evaluate the occupational safety and health program at this facility, as compared with the criteria and guidelines contained in ASFE Order 5481.1. Adequate documentation regarding compliance with codes, standards, and regulations were observed at this facility. There is in existence an ongoing continuous safety analysis effort for both modifications or additions to this facility. Adequate environmental safeguards and plans and procedures were observed. The SARS backfit exemption is appropriate. The occupational safety and health program is in many ways a model for the scope of work and nature of hazards involved, and is consistent with ASFE guidelines and statutory requirements.
Date: July 2, 1980
Creator: Meyer, A.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

Description: This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.
Date: March 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable fluorometric monitor to detect polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of work area surfaces

Description: A hand-held fluorometric monitor for detection of surface contamination by polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds is described. The instrument will indicate the presence of microgram quantities of PNA in the workplace at distances less than or equal to 1 m. Laboratory test data using coal liquefaction products and wastes are presented. It is anticipated that this type of spotter will be used extensively in monitoring for PNA contamination of the clean areas of coal conversion facilities, such as lunch rooms, shops, changing facilities, the control room, etc. Actual field evaluation of two spotter units at several coal conversion pilot plants is scheduled to begin during FY 1980.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Schuresko, D D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

Description: The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Hulburt, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of radioactive aerosols in United States underground coal mines

Description: Radon and its alpha-radiation-emitting daughter products are known to present a health hazard in a wide variety of nonuranium underground mines. In order to provide information necessary for a complete summary of th occurrence of radioactive aerosols in US coal mines, several coal mines were sampled during the period September 1974-March 1975. Although not all underground coal mines were sampled, an attempt was made to evaluate representative mines from each coal producing district and major coal seam. This paper describes the general health problems investigated, evaluation methods employed, and summarizes the data obtained.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Rock, R.L.; Svilar, G.; Beckman, R.T. & Rapp, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the mouse micronucleus test as compared with the in vivo cytogenics test for mutagenicity of synthetic fuel materials. Topical report

Description: This brief topical report, provides information on a comparison of the mouse micronucleus mutagenic test proposed by a DOE contractor (FMC) for coal derived chemicals; as compared with the in vivo cytogenic test. The latter procedure is repotedly preferred by EPA authorities connected with implementation of the toxic substances control act (TOSCA). This evaluation was performed at the request of Headquarters DOE program management staff. The mouse micronucleus test takes less time and costs approximately one-fourth that of the in vivo cytogenetic procedure. This topical report is written to the extent possible in non-technical language to present conclusions associated with the evaluation rather than a detailed scientific dissertation.
Date: March 9, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

Description: This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Batterman, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of US Department of Energy health and environmental research and development program support to SRC-II technology development

Description: This document outlines the technical framework of DOE's overall synthetic fuels health and environmental characterization program. Current project environmental activities directly associated with SRC-II technology development are summarized for the convenience of the Environmental Impact Statement reviewers. An extended, technically detailed statement of the SRC-II health and environmental program, activities, and plans was released in late 1980, as part of the final Environmental Impact Statement of the SRC-II Demonstration Project. Program development is necessarily iterative. Early screening results on a small scale equipment suggest the need for further screening studies on a larger-scale system. Results of screening studies set the priorities for more extensive and costly long-term baseline biological and ecological studies. Parametric studies establish the sensitivity of measured screening and baseline characteristics to changes in processing conditions and also provide a basis for correlating low- and high-tier biological and ecological test information. Monitoring system development is stimulated by findings in screening and baseline characterization efforts. Choice of monitoring systems is dependent upon screening and baseline biological and ecological test results and results of initial site analyses. As a result, the overall characterization program necessarily emerges in phases, each with a distribution of activities in the four component areas. Characterization efforts on PDU- and pilot-scale equipment focus on screening and baseline studies of steady state and non-steady state production. At the demonstration scale, these activities are expanded to include extensive monitoring and the investigation of large-scale steady state and non-steady state effluent production and control characteristics.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Massey, M.J.; Fillo, J.P.; Kreisher, J.H. & Sgro, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

Description: The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Warshawsky, D. & Schoeny, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials. Progress report, July 31-September 1, 1980

Description: Samples ETTM-05 and ETTM-12 (powdered coal) were re-evaluated and found to be marginally mutagenic. Organic solvent fractions prepared from these have also been shown to be slightly mutagenic. Upon fractionation of ETTM-18, a highly active methylene chloride component was noted when assayed with Aroclor-induced S9.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Warshawsky, D. & Schoeny, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process]

Description: The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.
Date: June 30, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: methane from coal seams

Description: Potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from the recovery of gas from coalbeds are identified and examined. The technology of methane recovery is described and economic and legal barriers to production are discussed. (ACR)
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Ethridge, L.J.; Cowan, C.E. & Riedel, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecotoxicity of materials from integrated two-stage liquefaction and Exxon Donor Solvent processes

Description: Coal-derived materials from two coal conversion processes were screened for potential ecological toxicity. We examined the toxicity of materials from different engineering or process options to an aquatic invertebrate and also related potential hazard to relative concentration, composition, and stability of water soluble components. For materials tested from the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) process, only the LC finer (LCF) 650/sup 0/F distillate was highly soluble in water at 20/sup 0/C. The LCF feed and Total Liquid Product (TLP) were not in liquid state at 20/sup 0/C and were relatively insoluble in water. Relative hazard to daphnids from ITSL materials was as follows: LCF 650/sup 0/F distillate greater than or equal to LCF feed greater than or equal to TLP. For Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) materials, process solvent produced in the bottoms recycle mode was more soluble in water than once-through process solvent and, hence, slightly more acutely toxic to daphnids. When compared to other coal liquids or petroleum products, the ITSL or EDS liquids were intermediate in toxicity; relative hazard ranged from 1/7 to 1/13 of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC)-II distillable blend, but was several times greater than the relative hazard for No. 2 diesel fuel oil or Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Although compositonal differences in water-soluble fractions (WSF) were noted among materials, phenolics were the major compound class in all WSFs and probably the primary contributor to acute toxicity.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Dauble, D.D.; Scott, A.J.; Lusty, E.W.; Thomas, B.L. & Hanf, R.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental research program for slagging fixed-bed coal gasification. Status report, November 1981

Description: A collaborative environmental research program to provide information needed to assess the health and environmental effects associated with large-scale coal gasification technology is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC). The objectives are to: investigate the toxicology and chemical composition of coal gasification by-products as a function of process variables and coal feed; compare the characteristics of isokinetic side-stream samples with those of process stream samples; identify the types of compounds responsible for toxicity; evaluate the chemical and toxicological effectiveness of various wastewater treatment operations; refine methodology for the collection and measurement of organic vapors and particulates in workplace air; and obtain preliminary data on workplace air quality. So far the toxicities of a set of process stream samples (tar, oil, and gas liquor) and side-stream condensates from the GFETC gasifier have been measured in a battery of cellular screening tests for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Preliminary data on the effects of acute and chronic exposures of laboratory animals to process tar have been obtained. The process tar has been chemically fractionated and the distribution of mutagenicity and compound types among the fractions has been determined. Organic vapors and particulates collected at various times and locations in the gasifier building have been characterized.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Wilzbach, K. E.; Stetter, J. R.; Reilly, Jr., C. A. & Willson, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials. Progress report for period March 1, 1980 to June 1, 1980

Description: Samples ETTM-05 and ETTM-12 (powdered coal) were not mutagenic for any of 4 Salmonella strains. ETTM-18 (solid residual) was mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98, and TA100 when assayed with Aroclor-induced S-9.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Warshawsky, D. & Schoeny, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

Description: This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mutagenicity of CTC No. 11 in the Ames Salmonella/Microsomal Assay

Description: NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of seven mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. The Ames assay is widely used as a short-term test for the detection of possible genotoxic agents and potential carcinogens. Bacterial tester strains used in the Ames assay contain specific mutations (frameshift or base pair substitution) the amino acid histidine. The assay was performed on CTC No. 11, a mild gasification product with a liquid/tar consistency, using a DMSO and Tween 80. CTC No. 11 displayed significant mutagenic activity in all conditions tested. The high response was noted on TA98with microsomal activation. Although both solvents allowed a strong response to be evident, the mutagenic activity was higher when DMSO was the solvent. Significant response under these conditions indicates thepresence of potent, indirect-acting, frameshift mutagens. Moderate significant mutagenic activity was also noted on TA98 without microsomal activation indicating the presence of a direct-acting frameshift mutagen. In this case, the response was slightly higher when Tween 80 was used the solvent. Mutagenic activity on TA100, which indicates base-pair substitutions, was moderate with microsomal activation and weak without.
Date: July 15, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

Description: A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.
Date: December 8, 1981
Creator: Rhyne, W.R. & El-Bassioni, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

Description: The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.
Date: January 1, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process: health programs. Research and development report No. 53, Interim report No. 39. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 4: Industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report of subcontract No. 10, June 1, 1976-June 9, 1978

Description: This report summarizes the toxicological studies on SRC-I materials completed under Subcontract No. 10 as part of the Health Programs under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract during the total period of the subcontract, June 1, 1976 through June 9, 1978. The studies were conducted by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT) as the subcontractor. A number of acute studies were completed on the products and intermediate streams as well as several subchronic studies. In addition, preliminary dose-ranging, or pilot, studies were completed. None of the materials exhibited high toxicities when administered orally, dermally, or by the inhalation route. Three of the materials proved to be severely or extremely irritating to the eyes. The pilot dermal and teratogenesis studies revealed some evidence of decreased viability in offspring and reduced fetal body weights. The subcontract was terminated for convenience on June 9, 1978 when it became apparent that IBT could not satisfactorily continue the studies.
Date: November 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxic hazards of underground excavation

Description: Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence

Description: Many toxic or carcinogenic organic molecules have large absorption and fluorescence emission cross sections and can thus be detected by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in liquid samples at parts-per-billion levels or better. The technique of synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF) provides a way to distinguish between the fluorescence from a toxic molecule and the fluorescence from a background substance. This is done by synchronously scanning the laser excitation and fluorescence detection wavelengths at a fixed wavelength separation. What is measured in the overlap integral of the excitation and emission spectra that is considerably narrower than the entire fluorescence spectrum. The discussion of these techniques is centered on the point and remote detection of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, and organophosphates having applications in certain manufacturing processes as well as in coal liquefaction and gasification plants.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Quigley, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department