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Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the scientific, regulatory, economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in alternative technologies in biomedical and behavioral research, toxicity testing, and education" (p. iii).
Date: February 1986
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Nine Diet and Water Combinations on the Culture Health of Ceriodaphnia Dubia

Description: Culture health of Ceriodaphnia dubia was evaluated for organisms cultured using all combinations of three foods and three waters. Criteria used to assess health of cultures included adult and neonate weights, time required to produce first broods, neonate production, adult survival, and resistance to hexavalent chromium. Diet/water combinations which produced the most neonates were not found to produce adults which were more resistant to chromium than those which produced fewer neonates. Of those evaluated, a diet of Selenastrum capricornutum and a yeast-trout chow-cereal leaf mixture was best for culturing and testing Ceriodaphnia. The best synthetic water tested was a mixture of nine parts reconstituted hard water and one part bottled mineral water.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Patterson, Paul W. (Paul William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Purification and Studies of Methylglyoxal Reductase from Sheep Liver

Description: The objectives of these investigations were (1) the purification of MG reductase from sheep liver and (2) studies of some of its characteristics. MG reductase was purified 40 fold and showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. Molecular weight estimations with SDS-PAGE showed a molecular weight of 44,000; although gel filtration with Sephadex G-150 gave a molecular weight of 87,000 indicating that the enzyme might be a dimer. The Km for MG is 1.42 mM and for NADH it is 0.04 mM. The pH optimum for the purified enzyme is pH 7.0. Isoelectric focusing experiments showed a pI of 9.3. In vivo experiments involving rats treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T_3) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) indicated that MG reductase was depressed by T_3 and elevated by PTU.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Lambert, Patricia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase and High Density Lipoprotein from Hog Plasma

Description: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified 30,000-fold from hog plasma in a homogeneous state as indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 66,000 and was found to contain about 21.4 percent (w/w) carbohydrate. The properties of hog LCAT including amino acid composition were compared with human LCAT. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was isolated from the hog plasma by an immunoaffinity column chromatography. The isolated HDL showed nearly identical lipid-protein composition although it contained additional protein components when it was compared to HDL isolated by a traditional method involving ultracentrifugation.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Park, Yong Bok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970 : Description of Individual Studies, Data Files, Codes, and Summaries of Significant Findings

Description: Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Grahn, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992 : the JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

Description: A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of "the JANUS program". The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF₁ mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Grahn, D.; Wright, B. J.; Carnes, B. A.; Williamson, F. S. & Fox, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Infection of Beagles with Echo Virus Type 6

Description: Report issued by the Atomic Energy Commission over experimental studies conducted on beagles infected with the Echo 6 virus. Detailed step-by-step methods of the studies are presented and discussed. The results are also presented. This report includes tables.
Date: May 1965
Creator: Pindak, Frank Frantisek & Clapper, William Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual progress report, 1 January 1975--31 December 1975. [Information center on laboratory animals]

Description: The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). Located within the Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences, ILAR serves as a coordinating agency to disseminate information, survey existing and required resources, establish standards and guidelines, promote education, hold conferences, and, generally, upgrade laboratory animal resources within the United States. Activities during 1976 are reported.
Date: January 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

Description: The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Rubin, E.M. & Plump, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinical anatomy of the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus, L.

Description: This handbook outlines the external and internal anatomy of the European hamster, including "clinically relevant systems such as the respiratory system" (p. iii). It also includes a diagram of the normal distribution of hamsters throughout Germany. The index begins on page 211.
Date: 1978
Creator: Reznik, Gerd.; Schuller, Hildegard M. & Mohr, U. (Ulrich)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

Description: In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

Description: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of litter experiments in teratology

Description: Teratological data is binary response data (each fetus is either affected or not) in which the responses within a litter are usually not independent. As a result, the litter should be taken as the experimental unit. For each litter, its size, n, and the number of fetuses, x, possessing the effect of interest are recorded. The ratio p = x/n is then the basic data generated by the experiment. There are currently three general approaches to the analysis of teratological data: nonparametric, transformation followed by t-test or ANOVA, and parametric. The first two are currently in wide use by practitioners while the third is relatively new to the field. These first two also appear to possess comparable power levels while maintaining the nominal level of significance. When transformations are employed, care must be exercised to check that the transformed data has the required properties. Since the data is often highly asymmetric, there may be no transformation which renders the data nearly normal. The parametric procedures, including the beta-binomial model, offer the possibility of increased power.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Williams, R. & Buschbom, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim progress report, March 9, 1976--September 8, 1976

Description: Progress is reported on a broad and comprehensive series of biological experiments made under strictly controlled laboratory conditions to screen for possible effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals. Electric field strengths comparable to and exceeding those under existing and anticipated transmission line designs will be used. Dosimetry studies will complement the animal studies to establish the relationship between tissue dose and any observed biological effects. Information derived from this project will provide a better basis for evaluating potential hazards of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields and help define parameters to be studied in clinical evaluations on humans.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Phillips, R. D.; Kaune, W. T.; Decker, J. R. & Hjeresen, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inborn anemias in mice. Progress report to accompany twenty-first renewal proposal, 1 May 1975--30 April 1976

Description: Progress is reported on studies on hereditary anemias of mice. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, four hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, and the autoimmune hemolytic anemia of NZB. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, each of which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse.
Date: May 15, 1976
Creator: Russell, E. S. & Bernstein, S. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inborn anemias in mice. Comprehensive progress report to accompany twenty-first renewal proposal, 1 May 1973--30 April 1976

Description: Progress is reported on the delineation of inborn anemias of the laboratory mouse, carried out by preparation of genetically homogeneous stocks segregating only for anemia-producing genes; by descriptions of each condition at all stages in the life history; by determination of tissue-sites of primary gene action through transplantation and parabiosis experiments; by analysis of reactions of normal and anemic mice to a variety of stressful stimuli, including x-irradiation and hypoxia; and by histological and biochemical study of normal vs. abnormal blood-forming tissue. At present 12 single-gene induced anemias are known in the mouse, plus one with multifactorial inheritance.
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Russell, E. S. & Bernstein, S. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint HVAC Transmission EMF Environmental Study : Final Report on Experiment 1.

Description: This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration`s Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Administration, United States. Bonneville Power & Center, Oregon Regional Primate Research
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department