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Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the scientific, regulatory, economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in alternative technologies in biomedical and behavioral research, toxicity testing, and education" (p. iii).
Date: February 1986
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Nine Diet and Water Combinations on the Culture Health of Ceriodaphnia Dubia

Description: Culture health of Ceriodaphnia dubia was evaluated for organisms cultured using all combinations of three foods and three waters. Criteria used to assess health of cultures included adult and neonate weights, time required to produce first broods, neonate production, adult survival, and resistance to hexavalent chromium. Diet/water combinations which produced the most neonates were not found to produce adults which were more resistant to chromium than those which produced fewer neonates. Of those evaluated, a diet of Selenastrum capricornutum and a yeast-trout chow-cereal leaf mixture was best for culturing and testing Ceriodaphnia. The best synthetic water tested was a mixture of nine parts reconstituted hard water and one part bottled mineral water.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Patterson, Paul W. (Paul William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Purification and Studies of Methylglyoxal Reductase from Sheep Liver

Description: The objectives of these investigations were (1) the purification of MG reductase from sheep liver and (2) studies of some of its characteristics. MG reductase was purified 40 fold and showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. Molecular weight estimations with SDS-PAGE showed a molecular weight of 44,000; although gel filtration with Sephadex G-150 gave a molecular weight of 87,000 indicating that the enzyme might be a dimer. The Km for MG is 1.42 mM and for NADH it is 0.04 mM. The pH optimum for the purified enzyme is pH 7.0. Isoelectric focusing experiments showed a pI of 9.3. In vivo experiments involving rats treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T_3) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) indicated that MG reductase was depressed by T_3 and elevated by PTU.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Lambert, Patricia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase and High Density Lipoprotein from Hog Plasma

Description: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified 30,000-fold from hog plasma in a homogeneous state as indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 66,000 and was found to contain about 21.4 percent (w/w) carbohydrate. The properties of hog LCAT including amino acid composition were compared with human LCAT. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was isolated from the hog plasma by an immunoaffinity column chromatography. The isolated HDL showed nearly identical lipid-protein composition although it contained additional protein components when it was compared to HDL isolated by a traditional method involving ultracentrifugation.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Park, Yong Bok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970 : Description of Individual Studies, Data Files, Codes, and Summaries of Significant Findings

Description: Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Grahn, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992 : the JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

Description: A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of "the JANUS program". The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF₁ mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Grahn, D.; Wright, B. J.; Carnes, B. A.; Williamson, F. S. & Fox, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Infection of Beagles with Echo Virus Type 6

Description: Report issued by the Atomic Energy Commission over experimental studies conducted on beagles infected with the Echo 6 virus. Detailed step-by-step methods of the studies are presented and discussed. The results are also presented. This report includes tables.
Date: May 1965
Creator: Pindak, Frank Frantisek & Clapper, William Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

Description: The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Rubin, E.M. & Plump, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinical anatomy of the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus, L.

Description: This handbook outlines the external and internal anatomy of the European hamster, including "clinically relevant systems such as the respiratory system" (p. iii). It also includes a diagram of the normal distribution of hamsters throughout Germany. The index begins on page 211.
Date: 1978
Creator: Reznik, Gerd.; Schuller, Hildegard M. & Mohr, U. (Ulrich)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

Description: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of litter experiments in teratology

Description: Teratological data is binary response data (each fetus is either affected or not) in which the responses within a litter are usually not independent. As a result, the litter should be taken as the experimental unit. For each litter, its size, n, and the number of fetuses, x, possessing the effect of interest are recorded. The ratio p = x/n is then the basic data generated by the experiment. There are currently three general approaches to the analysis of teratological data: nonparametric, transformation followed by t-test or ANOVA, and parametric. The first two are currently in wide use by practitioners while the third is relatively new to the field. These first two also appear to possess comparable power levels while maintaining the nominal level of significance. When transformations are employed, care must be exercised to check that the transformed data has the required properties. Since the data is often highly asymmetric, there may be no transformation which renders the data nearly normal. The parametric procedures, including the beta-binomial model, offer the possibility of increased power.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Williams, R. & Buschbom, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable radio frequency hyperthermia instrumentation. [For heating tumor tissues in situ]

Description: Portable radio frequency hyperthermia instrumentation has been constructed for application in the localized heating of human and animal tumors. Tissue temperature is regulated by electronic feedback techniques. Audible and visual monitoring of tissue temperature is provided.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Doss, J.D. & McCabe, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Rat olympics]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6 P.M.
Date: April 28, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

Description: The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Fabrikant, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

Description: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.
Date: March 6, 2007
Creator: Kanai Shah, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department