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Removal of Radioiodine From Air Streams by Activated Charcoal

Description: Contamination of the atmosphere by radioactive isotopes of iodine constitutes a serious biological hazard and, for this reason, provisions should be made at reactors to prevent such releases in the event of an accident. The efficiency of activated charcoal for adsorption of iodine vapor from air streams was measured by using a radioactive tracer method, and efficiencies of 99.6 to 99.999+% were obtained for various conditions. Comparative tests were run with silver-plated copper ribbon. A criterion for selecting an iodine removal material was developed based on efficiency and resistance to air flow. The iodine vapor adsorption efficiency of a commercial charcoal filter was measured. Various materials were considered for possible application in the emergency exhaust system of the building housing the 5-Mw swimming pool reactor at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center. Based upon its high adsorption efficiency and retention properties, it is proposed that activated charcoal be utllized for iodine vapor adsorption. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Adams, R. E. & Browning, W. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theoretical Feedback Analysis in Boiling Water Reactors

Description: The dynamic behavior of boiling-water reactors for small perturbations was investigated in a systematic way. General expressions for the transfer functions associated with the individual feedback mechanisms were obtained for an arbitrary flux distribution, weighting function, and steam velocity distribution. Specific forms were derived in the case of a first power flux weighting, a uniform steam velocity distribution, and a sinusoidal flux distribution with an adjustable wave length. These forms were simplified and single time-constant transfer functions were obtained. The error involved in the lumped time-constant approximation was shown to be as large as 4 db in amplitude in certain feedback mechanisms. Theoretical results were applied to the experimental power-void transfer function obtained at Ramo-Wooldridge Research Laboratory, and to the EBWR transfer function. In the former case, the agreement was found to be reasonably good, but yet more systematic experimental data were needed to reach a definite conclusion as to the validity of the proposed model, which assumes a time lag associated with steam formation and a steam perturbation speed greater than the steady-state steam velocity. In the second application, the agreement between the experimental and calculated reactor responses was proved to be better than 5 db in amplitude and 10 deg in phase, in the entire frequency range from 0.01 to 100 rad/sec. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Akcasu, A. Ziya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Diffusion of Hydrogen in Zirconium Hydride

Description: The diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium hydride was studied using permeation techniques. The rate of permeation of hydrogen through zirconium hydride disks was measured for small concentration gradients. Data were obtained at 61 to 65 at.% hydrogen and 500 to 750 ction prod- C. The diffusion coefficients were determined by the time-lag method. Ho variation of the diffusion coefficients with hydrogen concentration was observed. The diffusion coefficients can be expressed by D (cm/sup 2/ per sec) = 599 exp (-34,800/RT). (auth)
Date: March 1, 1960
Creator: Albrecht, W. M. & Goode, W. D., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Decay of Neptunium-238

Description: >A study was made of the energy levels of Pu/sup 238/ which are populated by Np/sup 238/ beta decay, by an examination of the Np/sup 238/ conversion electron spectrum in high-resolution beta spectrographs. The general features of the level scheme as previously given were unchanged but several new transitions were observed, with energies of 119.8, 871, 943, 989, and 1034 kev. Two new levels are postulated at 915 and 1034 kev which accommodate all but the 943-kev transition. A possible assignment of the 943-kev transition to the (0+.0) state of the beta vibrational band is discussed. In addition, the weak 885-kev transition from the 2+ state of the gamma -vibrational band to the 4+ state of the ground band was seen and its relative intensity determined. Comparisons were made of the experimental relative transition intensities of the three photons depopulating this band with those predicted from the rules of Alaga et al.; only fair agreement was noted. A discussion is given of the beta decay branchings and log ft values of Np/sup 238/ decay in terms of the postulated characters of the Pu/sup 238/ states and the measured spin of Np/sup 238/. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1960
Creator: Albridge, R. G. & Hollander, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Scale "Up or Down" Analysis for Prototype Test

Description: Introduction: In conjunction with the final design and development of a 70 MW sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium steam generator, an analysis is required which can be used as a basis for a determination to scale up or scale down the designs. Included in this analysis are those considerations leading to the recommendation of the best prototype test unit and to some of the limits imposed on scaling up or down when considering future applications of designs other than those actually tested. In addition, these considerations include aspects required to accurately predict the performance, operation, mechanical reliability, and feasibility of fabrication of the 70 MW design.
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EURIPUS-3 AND DAEDALUS--MONTE CARLO DENSITY CODES FOR THE IBM-704

Description: EURIPUS-3 calculates the one-dimensional spatial density of neutrons slowing-down past a given energy in an infinite homogeneous medium consisting of hydrogen and one other isotope with arbitrary mass and energydependent differential-elastic and absorption cross sections. DAEDALUS determines the corresponding spatial distribution of angular integrals of an arbitrary function times the vector flux density. Spatial moments of all density functions are furnished directly. Although scattering angles are calculated by Monte Carlo, the spatial distributions and, in DAEDALUS, the energy distribution are obtained partly from an analytic treatment which, besides saving tinne, enables the output to be in the form of actual density functions at specified planes and energies, rather than histograms covering finite intervals. At certain steps in the computation of both the spatial and energy distributions, part of the analytic treatment is replaced by Monte Carlo in order either to maximize efficiency and/ or to avoid round-off error. The neutron source may be monoenergetic with either isotropic or monodirectional angular distributions, or else the source may be that from deuterons bombarding deuterons. The volume displaced by a cylindrical tube from an accelerator to the source can be accounted for in the neutron first flight but not thereafter. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1960
Creator: Amster, H. J.; Kuehn, H. G. & Spanier, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Radiochemistry of Technetium

Description: ""Nuclear Science Series'' of the National Research Council. Committee on Nuclear Science. The radiochemistry of technetium is discussed. The properties of metallic technetium, solution chemistry, volatilization methods, extraction into organic solvents, chromatographic behavior and electrochemical behavior of technetium are outlined. The dissolution of samples containing compounds of technetium is described. Counting techniques for use with isotopes of technetium are reviewed. A collection of 17 detailed radiochemical procedures for the determination and separation of technetium is given. (M.C,G.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Anders, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LEAKAGE OF WATER FROM GASKETED JOINTS PROPOSED FOR THE HWCTR. PART I

Description: When mockups of typical gasketed joints proposed for the HWCTR were subjected to thermal and pressure cycling that simulated reactor operating conditions, the average leakage rate was less than 0.11 lb of water per year per linear inch of gasket. The joints were exposed to deionized light water and were cycled 100 times from about 70 deg C and atmospheric pressure to 250 deg C and 1000 psig. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Apple, F.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SN5001-AN IBM-650 CODE FOR STEADY-STATE THERMAL EVALUATION OF AN INSTRUMENTED MULTIFUEL-PLATE SUBASSEMBLY

Description: An IBM-650 computer program, SN5001, for the calculation of steady-state thermal conditions in the fuel plates and coolant of an instrumented multi-fuel- plate subassembly is described. The program is applicable for subcooled or bulk boiling coolant conditions and surface conditions of heating, local boiling, and film boilimg, and can be used for data reduction or design. The derivation and a list of the heat conduction and coolant enthalpy equations and a description of the code sufficient for its use are contained. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Arbtin, E. & Westphal, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Gas-Cooled Reactors in the USA: A Survey and Recommendation

Description: A study was made of approximately 132 reports on gascooled reactors and related subjects. Charts and tables containing the following information are included: all available reactor information, reactor flow diagrams of suggested concepts, possible core arrangement at core cross section, typical fuel and moderator cell. possible fuel types for unit fuel cell, the properties of materials for moderators and reflectors. the compatibility of gases and base fuel materials at maximum surface temperatures, maximun interfacs temperatures of fuel elements and core-jacket combinations, allowable operating temperatures and compatibility of gases and various metals. prefenences for gas coolants, cost and availability of gases plant thermal cycle efficiencies, thermal properties of gases, pumping power and reactor coolant inlet temperatures, obtainable heat fluxes, composition and physical properties of potential cladding materials. atomic and themal properties of cladding materials. fabrication characteristics and costs of cladding materials. possible process applications of gases at high temperature, and potential high-temperature materials. The various categories of gas-cooled reactors and examples of each type are discussed. A gas reactor program for high-temperature experimentation is proposed. (M.C.G.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Armstrong, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A LUNAR POWER PLANT

Description: A concept of a nuclear power plant to be assembled on earth and operated on the moon is presented. The two principal design objectives are reliability and high specific power. Wherever there is an incompatibility between these two objectives, the decision favors reliability. The design is based on the premise that the power plant must be designed on the basis of current technology and with a minimum amount of research and development. The principal components consist of a fast reactor in a direct cycle with a mercury-vapor turbine. The high- frequency generator, hydrogen compressor for the generator cooling system, mercury-recirculating pump, and condensate pump are on an extension of the turbine shaft. Ths mercury vapor is condensed and the hydrogen cooled in wing radiators. The reactor is of a construction quite similar to EBR-I Mark IlI for which there is a large amount of operating experience. The radiator is a vertical tube-and-fin type built in concentric cylindrical sections of increseing diameter. The curved headers are connected by swivel joints so that, upon arrival, the radiator can be quickly unfolded from the compact cylindrical package it formed during transportation. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1960
Creator: Armstrong, R.H.; Carter, J.C.; Hummel, H.H.; Janicke, M.J. & Marchaterre, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PRELIMINARY HAZARDS EVALUATION OF THE ISOLATED COOLANT LOOPS IN THE HWCTR

Description: The design features of two isolated coolant loops in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) and the effect of these features on reactor safety are described. It is shown that limitations on the operating conditions, backed up by properly chosen safety systems, will permit operation of the loops without adding appreciably to the reactor hazards. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Arnett, L.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Randall, D. & Ross, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Halogen Collector Test Program

Description: Report documenting the Halogen Collector Test program, which was undertaken to provide "methods of removing trace quantities of radioactive iodine from an air stream" (p. 1). The report includes designs of the program and the test facility, test results, analysis of these results, and encountered problems. Appendices begin on page 38.
Date: March 1, 1960
Creator: Arthur D. Little, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SERVOMECHANISMS WITH FORCE FEEDBACK

Description: A class of linear proportional servomechanisms is examined in which an electrical signal proportional to output force is used to improve performance. The effect of this "force feedback" on a positional servomechanism is analyzed as well as the effect on a special type of servomechanism which reflects load forces back to the input. This latter type of servomechanism is called "force reflecting." Laboratory models of these servormechanisms were designed and constructed, and experimental data are presented in support of the analysis. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Arzbaecher, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959

Description: This report summarizes and documents radioactive waste released to the environs of the Savannah River Plant from startup through 1959. During this period, the quantity of beta-emitting radioisotopes released was determined by a total or ``gross`` analysis. However, advanced instrumentation and technology now permit an economical determination of most individual radionuclides. Therefore, future waste audit reports, beginning with January 1960, will record the quantity of specific radioisotopes released rather than gross amounts.
Date: September 1, 1960
Creator: Ashley, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TESTING OF HNPF FREEZE-SEAL PUMP

Description: >A centrifugal pump performed adequately at a flow rate of 7200 gpm of 945 gas-cooled F sodium at a 150-ft head. A two-region freeze seal was developed and used successfully as a shaft seal on this pump. The results indicate that this pump could perform satisfactorily in the Hallam Power Reactor. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Atz, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE DIFFUSION OF KRYPTON-85 FROM URANIUM DIOXIDE POWDER

Description: The diffusion of Kr/sup 85/ in two UO/sub 2/ powders was studied by performing a series of post-irradiation anneals on the powders. The emanation data were analyzed by considering the effect of sintering as well as the effect of a distribution of particle sizes within the sample. Measurements were made at 900 to 1500 deg C. The time at a temperature was between 8 and 24 hours. The diffusion coefficients for Kr/sup 85/ in the two powders are represented by the equations: D = 2.65 x 10/sup -4/ exp - 65,500/RT for UO/sub 2/ prepared from crushed UO/sub 2/ pellets and, for a chemically prepared UO/sub 2/ powder, D = 4.9 x 10/sup -4/ exp - 73,800/RT. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1960
Creator: Auskern, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SOME CALCULATIONS FOR A PLUTONIUM-FUELED ZPR-III

Description: Calculations of critical size, reactivity coefficients, and delayed neutron fractions are described for mockups of a plutonium-fueled EBR-I (Mark IV) and five possible metal-fueled power reactors. The calculations for critical size were performed using the SNG transport-theory code. The reactivity coefficients were estimated by SNG calculations or by one-group perturbation- theory desk calculations. The delayed-neutron fractions were estimated by an approximate method, which starts with a calculation of beta for a bare core and then makes a correction for the small effect of the blanket. The reactivity effects studied were the effects of fuel-plate and whole-core expansion and control-rod worths. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1960
Creator: Baker, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Reaction Between Sulfuric Acid and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. Amsco 125- 82

Description: Concentrated sulfuric acid is regularly used to remove unsaturated hydrocarbon impurities from saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The reaction between concentrated sulfuric acid and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons is not so well known. A survey of the chemical literature was found to include studies that show several relatively slow reactions. Isotopic exchange with D/sub 2/SO/ sub 4/, racemization of optically active alkanes, isomerization, cleavage to alkanes of lower molecular weight, combination to compounds of higher molecular weight and the formation of SO/sub 2/ were recognized. Amsco 125-82, the diluent used in solvent extraction, reacts with sulfuric acid forming sulfur dioxide and low boiling hydrocarbon fragments. The over-all reaction probably results in the formation of more stable hydrocarbons by rearrangement. The sulfuric acid treatment can thus produce a more desirable diluent. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Baldwin, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analog Computer Study of the MSR-ORR in-Pile Pressurized Water Loop No. 1

Description: A study of the dynamic behavior of the Merchant Ship Reactor Pressurized Water Loop was made using the Reactor Controls Analog Facility. Computer curves show the predicted response of the loop temperatures to normal load changes and component failure accidents. Except for complete flow stoppage, which was not investigated here, the safety system was shown to be adequate in curbing loop temperature excursions due to postulated accidents. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Ball, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A versatile recording potentiometer

Description: ABS>A recording potentiometer was modified to provide a versatile instrument that can be applied to a variety of problems without time-consuming changes. Ranges may be selected in six spans, from 0.5 to 100 mv. No adjustments of amplifier gain are required when switching from one range to another. Zero suppression is continuously variable over a plus or minus 100 mv range by means of coarse and vernier controls. Cold junction compensation is provided for four standard thermocouples, and chart speeds from 1/2 to 16 im- ./ hr may be selected at will. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1960
Creator: Ballou, C. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CERENKOV AND SCINTILLATION PROPERTIES OF PLEXIGLAS UVT AND UVA

Description: The scintillation and Cherenkov properties of UVA (ultraviolet absorbing) and UVT (ultraviolet transmitting) Plexiglas specimens were tested by analyzing cosmic-rayinduced pulses traversing the materials. It was found that the UVT sample has less than 1/6 the scintillation effect of UVA and is preferred for use in counters. (J.R.D.)
Date: September 1, 1960
Creator: Balzarini, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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