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PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT

Description: We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--(a) Potential enhancement of charm production, (b) Open beauty production, (c) Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss, (d) Accurate charm reference for quarkonium, (e) Thermal dilepton radiation, (f) High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}, and (g) Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--(a) {Delta}G/G with charm, (b) {Delta}G/G with beauty, and (c) x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: AKIBA,Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

Description: The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.
Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: ARNOLD, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

Description: The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub …
Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Analysis of Low Temperature Non-Sooting Diesel Combustion

Description: We have developed a model of the diesel fuel injection process for application to analysis of low temperature non-sooting combustion. The model uses a simplified mixing correlation and detailed chemical kinetics, and analyzes a parcel of fuel as it moves along the fuel jet, from injection into evaporation and ignition. The model predicts chemical composition and soot precursors, and is applied at conditions that result in low temperature non-sooting combustion. Production of soot precursors is the first step toward production of soot, and modeling precursor production is expected to give insight into the overall evolution of soot inside the engine. The results of the analysis show that the model has been successful in describing many of the observed characteristics of low temperature combustion. The model predicts results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained for soot formation experiments at conditions in which the EGR rate is increased from zero to very high values as the fueling rate is kept constant. The model also describes the two paths to achieve non-sooting combustion. The first is smokeless rich combustion and the second is modulated kinetics (MK). The importance of the temperature after ignition and the equivalence ratio at the time of ignition is demonstrated, as these parameters can be used to collapse onto a single line all the results for soot precursors for multiple fueling rates. A parametric analysis indicates that precursor formation increases considerably as the gas temperature in the combustion chamber and the characteristic mixing time are increased. The model provides a chemical kinetic description of low temperature diesel combustion that improves the understanding of this clean and efficient regime of operation.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Aceves, S M & Flowers, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

Description: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at …
Date: October 31, 2004
Creator: Ackerman, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

Description: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: • Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. • Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. • Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. • Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. • Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. • Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. • Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the …
Date: October 30, 2004
Creator: Ackerman, TP; Genio, AD Del; Ellingson, RG; Ferrare, RA; Klein, SA; McFarquhar, GM et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Exotic physics: search for scalar leptoquark pairs decaying to nu nu-bar qq-bar in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 tev

Description: We report on a search for the pair production of scalar leptoquarks, LQ, using 191 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data recorded by the CDF experiment during Run II of the Tevatron. The leptoquarks are sought via their decay into a neutrino and quark yielding missing transverse energy and several jets of large transverse energy. No evidence for leptoquark production is observed, and limits are set on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} LQ{ovr OQ}X {yields} v{bar v}q{bar q}X). Using a next-to-leading order theoretical prediction of the cross section for scalar leptoquark production, we exclude first-generation leptoquarks in the mass interval 78 to 117 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level for BR(LQ {yields} vq) = 100%.
Date: October 25, 2004
Creator: Acosta, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Top physics: measurement of the tt-bar production cross section in pp-bar collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 tev using dilepton event

Description: We report a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section using dilepton events with jets and missing transverse energy in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Using a 197 {+-} 12 pb{sup -1} data sample recorded by the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab, we use two complementary techniques to select candidate events. We compare the number of observed events and selected kinematical distributions with the predictions of the standard model and find good agreement. The combined result of the two techniques yields a t{bar t} production cross section of 7.0{sub -2.1}{sup +2.4}(stat){sub -1.1}{sup _1.6}(syst) {+-} 0.4(lum) pb.
Date: October 14, 2004
Creator: Acosta, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Computational Modeling of K-shell Argon Spectra from Z-pinch Dynamic Hohlraum Experiments

Description: Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Z-Machine at Sandia National Laboratories measured K-shell argon spectra using a focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution. The spectra are modeled using Hullac atomic data input, Cretin nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (nlte) atomic kinetics and radiative transfer calculations, and Dakota optimization capabilities. Hullac provides atomic structure and cross section data for Ar XIX, Ar XXVIII (n=1 (illegible) 5), Ar XXVII (n=1 (illegible) 10), and Ar XXVI (n=1 (illegible) 5), where n is the principal quantum number. Cretin calculates the area-integrated spectral intensity escaping an argon doped Dcapsule as a function of electron density, electron temperature, and capsule radius. Dakota optimizes the plasma properties for the best to the measured spectrum by minimizing an objective function comprise of argon spectral line ratios and full-width at half-maximums (fwhms). We highlight the framework of this general spectroscopic capability and discuss the extension to magnetized plasmas using Totalb spectral line shapes.
Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: Adams, M L; Sinars, D B; Scott, H A; Brandon, S T; Chung, H K & Lee, R W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2nd International Conference on Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

Description: With the availability of whole genome sequences, research attention shifts from gene sequences and genome content to protein functions and systems biology. Genes comprise a major component of the ''parts list'' that is required for building and maintaining of living organisms. Genome DNA sequences reveal the genetic inventory for a rapidly increasing number of species. Defining and interpreting the instruction manual for protein functions, individually and collectively, is the emerging challenge. Defining protein functions is a complex problem because each gene typically encodes several distinct proteins. As a result, the protein inventory includes as many as 100,000 distinct proteins. Protein functions can vary with developmental stage, anatomical location, and environmental context. Like the problem of sequencing the human genome, the multidimensional nature of protein functions in time, space and context constitutes one of the ''big'' problems in biomedical research. Resolving this problem is key to revolutionizing health care where a deep understanding of complex biological systems will lead to more powerful and specific ways to treat, and perhaps, even prevent birth defects and adult diseases. The meeting addressed the above issues.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Aegean Conferences
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

Description: The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Ager, J. W., III & Walukiewicz, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Trade and the Americas

Description: At the 1994 Summit of the Americas, 34 hemispheric democracies agreed to create a “Free Trade Area of the Americas” (FTAA) no later than 2005. If created, the FTAA would be a $13 trillion market of 34 countries (Cuba is not included) and nearly 800 million people. The population alone would make it the largest free trade area in the world with nearly twice the 450 million population of the now 25-nation European Union. In the nearly ten years following the 1994 summit, Western Hemisphere trade ministers have met eight times to advance the negotiating process. At the last ministerial held from November 17- 20 2003 in Miami, ministers agreed to a declaration that set a September 2004 deadline for the market access talks, created a two-tiered FTAA structure, and reaffirmed countries’ commitment to complete the entire FTAA by January 2005.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Realizing the Opportunities of Neutron Cross Section Measurements at RIA

Description: The Rare Isotope Accelerator will produce many isotopes at never before seen rates. This will allow for the first time measurements on isotopes very far from stability and new measurement opportunities for unstable nuclei near stability. In fact, the production rates are such that it should be possible to collect 10 micrograms of many isotopes with a half-life of 1 day or more. This ability to make targets of short-lived nuclei enables the possibility of making neutron cross-section measurements important to the astrophysics and the stockpile stewardship communities. But to fully realize this opportunity, the appropriate infrastructure must be included at the RIA facility. This includes isotope harvesting capabilities, radiochemical areas for processing collected material, and an intense, ''mono-energetic'', tunable neutron source. As such, we have been developing a design for neutron source facility to be included at the RIA site. This facility would produce neutrons via intense beams of deuterons and protons on a variety of targets. The facility would also include the necessary radiochemical facilities for target processing. These infrastructure needs will be discussed in addition to the methods that would be employed at RIA for measuring these neutron cross-sections.
Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Ahle, L; Hausmann, M; Reifarth, R; Roberts, K; Roeben, M; Rusnak, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Computational Model for Three-Phase Slurry Reactors Progress Report: October 2004

Description: In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Ahmadi, Goodarz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a Novel Catalyst for NO Decomposition

Description: Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction …
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Akyurtlu, Ates & Akyurtlu, Jale F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

Description: This semiannual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April through 16 October 2004. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed, and the results obtained are briefly presented. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures in conjunction with the use of our new surface data assimilation technique have resulted in largely improved meteorological inputs to drive the MAQSIP-VGR. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also largely complete. We expect to develop the final configuration of the SMOKE-VGR during the upcoming reporting period. We are in the process of acquiring the newly released emissions database and offshore emissions data sets to update our archives. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.
Date: October 16, 2004
Creator: Alapaty, Kiran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactive Multiphase Behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. Efforts have focused on the Farnham Dome field, located in central Utah, the Springerville-St. Johns field in Arizona and New Mexico, and most recently, the Crystal Geyser-Salt Wash graben areas with their CO{sub 2}-charged geysers and springs in central Utah. At both the Springerville-St. Johns field and the central Utah CO{sub 2} spring area, there is evidence of extensive travertine deposits that document release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. At Farnham Dome, calcite debris fields appear to be remnants of vein calcite and an earlier period of fluid leakage. The main achievements during this quarter are (1): preparation for a soil gas flux survey in October at the Crystal Geyser --Little Grand Wash fault zone, and the Salt Wash graben; (2) submission of an abstract to the upcoming Measurement, Monitoring and Verification session at the Fall AGU meeting; (3) submission of an invited abstract to the Gordon Conference on Hydrocarbon Resources; and (4) receipt of initial radiocarbon dates of travertine from the Springerville-St Johns field. Analytical results and interpretations of both the travertine deposition and the soil gas surveys are still in progress, and will be included in future quarterly reports.
Date: October 25, 2004
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

Description: A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results.
Date: October 6, 2004
Creator: Almeida, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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