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Nitric acid-formic acid compatibility in DWPF

Description: The addition of the Nitric Acid Flowsheet to the DWPF feed preparation process introduces nitric acid into a vessel which will subsequently receive a formic acid solution. The combination of these two acids suggests that a denitration reaction might occur. This memorandum reviews the conditions under which a denitration reaction is possible and compares these conditions to DWPF operating conditions.
Date: October 20, 1992
Creator: Eibling, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge

Description: The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.
Date: September 4, 1992
Creator: Hsu, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

Description: During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Thompson, C.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

Description: Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.
Date: July 25, 1989
Creator: Langton, C.A. & Cook, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TWF process cell throughput study

Description: The TWF will prepare transuranic (TRU) waste for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WH MP's early participation in the TWF project included the installation and testing of a WPC mockup (using the conceptual design). Operating experience indicated significant improvements could be made in the WPC scheme, so we conducted a process cell equipment study with Equipment Engineering to identify better equipment and methods (ref. 4). The results of that study were used to construct the WPC computer simulation model.
Date: February 28, 1992
Creator: Fisher, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

Description: A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.
Date: August 10, 1992
Creator: Fish, D.L. & Landon, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical software for risk analysis at the Savannah River Site

Description: This paper describes statistical software developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to analyze event time of occurrence data extracted from fault tree data banks and/or user defined input data files. Five different distributions can currently be fit to the empirical data: normal, lognormal, exponential, Weibull and loguniform. Two goodness of fit tests, the Kolmogorov-Smimov one-sample test and the Chi-squared test, are used to determine how well a particular distribution fits the observed data. In addition, a comparison across fitted distributions is done to determine the most likely distribution fitting the data. A number of graphics can be generated illustrating the important characteristics of the data and how well each theoretical distribution fits the data. The theoretical distribution which best fits the observed data, the expected occurrence rate, and the probability of occurrence are used in fault tree analyses. Results from the SRS developed software were compared with commercially developed and tested software, SAS.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Weber, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-step chemical decontamination technology

Description: An improved two-step chemical decontamination technique was recently developed at INEL. This memorandum documents the addition of this technology to the SRTC arsenal of decontamination technology. A two-step process using NAOH, KMnO[sub 4] followed by HNO[sub 3] was used for cleaning doorstops (small casks) in the SRTC High Level Caves in 1967. Subsequently, more aggressive chemical techniques have been found to be much more effective for our applications. No further work on two-step technology is planned.
Date: August 14, 1992
Creator: Rankin, W.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical modeling of the expansion phase of steam explosions

Description: In the development of the Severe Accident Analysis Program for the Savannah River production reactors, it was recognized that certain accidents have -the potential for causing damaging steam explosions. Steam explosions can occur when metals, such as the aluminum-based fuel used at Savannah River, are melted and come into contact with water. This condition is unstable, and local turbulence can lead to the generation of great quantities of steam within a few milliseconds. This phenomenon has been observed in several reactor incidents and experiments (BORAX, SPERT-1, SL-1, probably Chernobyl) where it caused damage to the reactor and associated structures. The massive SRS reactor buildings are likely to withstand any imaginable steam explosion. However, reactor components and building structures including hatches, ventilation ducts, etc., could be at risk if such an explosion occurred. The goal for this study was to develop a computer code that could be used parametrically to predict the effects of various steam explosions on their surroundings. This would be able to predict whether a steam explosion of a given magnitude would be likely to fail a particular structure. This would require, of course, that the magnitude of the explosion be specified through some combination of judgment and calculation. The requested code, identified as the K-FIX(GT) code, was developed and delivered by the contractor, along with extensive documentation. The several individual reports that constitute the documentation are each being issued as a separate WSRC report. Documentation includes several model calculations, and. representation of these in graphic form. This report incorporates Report GTRSR-006, which gives an overview of the methods used in the development of K-FIX(GT), and the results of a comparison with experiments in the literature. The authors conclude that the results of the comparison calculation are in reasonable agreement with observations.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Hyder, M.L. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Farawila, Y.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. & Halvorson, P.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLOWTRAN-TF v1. 2 source code

Description: The FLOWTRAN-TF code development effort was initiated in early 1989 as a code to monitor production reactor cooling systems at the Savannah River Plant. This report is a documentation of the various codes that make up FLOWTRAN-TF.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Aleman, S.E.; Cooper, R.E.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Lee, S. & Smith, F.G. III.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Accident Management Program for the K-Reactor cooling tower at the Savannah River Site

Description: This report discusses the Accident Management program at SRS has developed a new methodology for the safe operation of the K-Reactor. This methodology was recently applied during the loss of ultimate heat sink analysis which answers the question of which alternatives are present when the Reactor loses it primary cooling source. With the addition of a new cooling tower there is a need to reapply and perhaps modify the analysis to include the effects of the tower on the existing systems. This process combines the efforts of many different groups. Included in these efforts are interviews with operators, information from documents and drawings, data from computer codes, practice from in-plant drills, and efforts from multi-functional organizations. The central theme of this paper is the explanation of the task involved in the methodology and its application to the cooling tower addition.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Simpkins, P.J.; Britt, T.E. & Lansaw, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fill tube bore inspection with machine vision

Description: A semi-automated technique for bore inspection of small diameter tubes is presented. The inspections are performed to insure that the bore surfaces are free of contaminants or defects. The image collectionscheme uses a borescope which is stepped along the length of the tube. An image is acquired at each step and portions from each image are combined to yield a planar image. Color analysis classifies the oxidation levels in the bore of the fill tubes. The analysis is performed by taking the image's mean values of the red, green, and blue intensities and computing a figure of merit which is then used to estimate the relative amount of oxidation. This estimation scheme was shown to have a high level of correlation with the tube oxidation levels and the quality of the subsequent welds as determined by metallographic evaluation.Surface imperfections are detected by a series of digital filtering steps followed by a statistical analysis of the resulting binary image. The frequency parameter of the Poisson distribution for the total image and image segments are computed. A statistical significance test is performed by comparing the frequency parameter of each segment to the global statistics of the image. Fine longitudinal scratches were detected with this method.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Pechersky, M.J.; Mosley, W.C. & Dickerson, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for the flow excursion follow-on testing

Description: The purpose of the Mark 22 Flow Excursion Follow-On testing was to investigate the theory that approximately 15% of the flow bypassed the primary flow channels in previous testing, whereas the design called for only a 3% bypass. The results of the follow-on tests clearly confirmed this theory. The testing was performed in two phases. During the first phase, characterization tests performed during the earlier test program were repeated.
Date: August 5, 1992
Creator: Nash, C.A. & Walters, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical benchmarking of SPEEDUP[trademark] against point kinetics solutions

Description: SPEEDUP[trademark] is a state-of-the-art, dynamic, chemical process modeling package offered by Aspen Technology. In anticipation of new customers' needs for new analytical tools to support the site's waste management activities, SRTC has secured a multiple-user license to SPEEDUP[trademark]. In order to verify both the installation and mathematical correctness of the algorithms in SPEEDUP[trademark], we have performed several numerical benchmarking calculations. These calculations are the first steps in establishing an on-site quality assurance pedigree for SPEEDUP[trademark]. The benchmark calculations consisted of SPEEDUP[trademark] Version 5.3L representations of five neutron kinetics benchmarks (each a mathematically stiff system of seven coupled ordinary differential equations), whose exact solutions are documented in the open literature. In all cases, SPEEDUP[trademark] solutions to be in excellent agreement with the reference solutions. A minor peculiarity in dealing with a non-existent discontinuity in the OPERATION section of the model made itself evident.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Gregory, M.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

Description: Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.
Date: January 22, 1993
Creator: Cook, J.R. & Salvo, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the corrosion behavior of cooling coil material in a simulated concrete environment

Description: Pitting corrosion of the cooling coils embedded in the concrete roof of the waste tanks is one of the suspected causes of the recent cooling coil failures. Cyclic polarization tests were conducted to predict the threshold chloride level above which pitting would initiate. The threshold chloride level was determined to be 9000 ppM. Although these tests predict the electrochemical or corrosion behavior of the metal, they may not predict the severity of attack. Further tests which investigate the effect of the permeability of the concrete matrix on the transport of water and oxygen to the metal surface are planned to assess the severity of attack.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Wiersma, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Restart Division trend analysis report, second quarter 1991

Description: This document provides a trend analysis for the Savannah River Reactor Restart Program. The data contained in this report is comprised of Nonconformance Report (NCR), Surveillance Reports, and Corrective Action Reports (CAR). The data trended now includes six quarters and provides the capability of looking at changing patterns in the various performance categories over time.
Date: October 7, 1991
Creator: Castles, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

Description: The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a living document'' that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.
Date: December 9, 1992
Creator: Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow instability and flow reversal in heated annular multichannels with initial downward flow

Description: Experimental and theoretical results are presented regarding the stability of initial downward flow of single phase water in parallel annular channels of the Savannah River Site (SRS) fuel assembly. The test was performed on an electrically heated prototypic mockup of a Mark-22 fuel assembly. The test conditions consisted of mass fluxes, from 98--294 kg/m[sup 2]-sec, and inlet water temperatures of 25[degrees]C and 40[degrees]C. With increased power to the heaters, flow instability was detected, characterized by flow fluctuations and flow redistribution among subchannels of the outer flow channel. With increased power, a condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increased, a critical heat flux condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increases, a critical heat flux condition was reached in the outer channel.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Guerrero, H.N. & Hart, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Certification plan for safety and PRA codes

Description: A certification plan for computer codes used in Safety Analyses and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the operation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors has been prepared. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan. These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes. A list of Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SA PRA) computer codes covered by the certification plan has been assembled. A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP 20-1 (Reference 7). A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)) & Ades, M.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of novel Sol-Gel Indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements: Part 1, Program and a new pH Sol-Gel Indicator

Description: The feasibility of incorporating analytical indicators into a sol-gel glassy matrix and then coating substrates with this composite material has bee demonstrated. Substrates coated include paper, wood, glass, and the lens of an analytical probe. The first SRTC sol-gel indicator, comprising bromophenol blue dispersed in a silica matrix, was fabricated and successfully used to measure solution pH in the range of pH 3.0 to 7.5. material exhibited a quick response time, as measured by color changes both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the measuring device was reversible or reusable. Additional indicators with responses over other ranges as well as indicators sensitive to the presence of elements of interest, are also under development. The new SGI composites possess promising properties and an excellent potential for performing a variety important in-situ environmental measurements and area discussed in this report.
Date: November 3, 1992
Creator: Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L. & Wicks, G.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic evaporator steam valve failure

Description: Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Technical has requested an analysis of the capacity of the Organic Evaporator (OE) condenser (OEC) be performed to determine its capability in the case where the OE steam flow control valve fails open. Calculations of the OE boilup and the OEC heat transfer coefficient indicate the OEC will have more than enough capacity to remove the heat at maximum OE boilup. In fact, the Salt Cell Vent Condenser (SCVC) should also have sufficient capacity to handle the maximum OE boilup. Therefore, it would require simultaneous loss of OEC and/or SCVC condensing capacity for the steam valve failure to cause high benzene in the Process Vessel Vent System (PVVS).
Date: September 29, 1992
Creator: Jacobs, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Product Composition Control System at Savannah River: The statistical process control algorithm

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, will be used to immobilize the approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive insoluble sludge and precipitate and less radioactive water soluble salts. (In a separate facility, the soluble salts are disposed of as low-level waste in a mixture of cement, slag, and flyash.) In DWPF, precipitate (PHA) is blended with insoluble sludge and ground glass tit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The repository requires that the glass wasteform be resistant to leaching by underground water that might contact it. In addition, there are processing constraints on melt viscosity, liquidus temperature, and waste solubility.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLOWTRAN-TF software design

Description: FLOWTRAN-TF was created to analyze an individual Mk22 fuel assembly during a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario involving the Savannah River Site K-reactor after the initial few seconds of the transient. During the initial few seconds reactor cooling is limited by the static or Ledinegg flow instability phenomenon. The predecessor FLOWTRAN code was developed to analyze this portion of a LOCA. In the several seconds following the break, a significant fraction of the reactor coolant inventory leaks out the break, Emergency Cooling System (ECS) flow is initiated, and air enters the primary coolant circulation loops. Reactor fuel assemblies are cooled by a low flowrate air-water downflow. Existing commercial nuclear industry thermal-hydraulic codes were judged inadequate for detailed modeling of a Mk22 fuel assembly because the application involves a ribbed annular geometry, low pressure, downflow and an air-water mixture. FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-phase thermal-hydraulics code of similar technology to existing commercial codes such as RELAP and TRAC but customized for Savannah River Site applications. The main features and capabilities of FLOWTRAN-TF are detailed Mk22 fuel assembly ribbed annular geometry; conjugate heat transfer; detailed neutronic power distribution; three-dimensional heat conduction in Mk22 fuel and target tubes; two-dimensional coolant flow in channels (axial, azimuthal); single-phase and/or two-phase fluid (gas, liquid and/or gas-liquid); two-component (air, water); constitutive models applicable to low pressure air-water downflow in ribbed annular channels. The design of FLOWTRAN-TF is described in detail in this report which serves as the Software Design Report in accordance with Quality Assurance Procedure IV-4, Rev. 0 Software Design and Implementation'' in the 1Q34 manual.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Aleman, S.E.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Lee, S.Y. & Smith, F.G. III.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department