12 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

Description: The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber Reservoir for industrial processing purposes at Valley Nitrogen Producers Inc. , El Centro Agricultural Chemical Plant. Second quarterly report

Description: The initial economic evaluation is provided for the alternatives to natural gas consumption previously identified. Using estimates of well costs, well flow, well life, temperature, enthalpy, and rates of return on invested capital, the cost of brine production has been estimated in terms of a demand charge and an energy charge. Capital costs of geothermal flash steam and binary systems from 5 to 30 Gross MW capacities have been estimated utilizing a modified Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories GEOCOST computer program. Fossil fuel costs, geothermal brine costs, and rate of inflation have been projected through 1997. Using these data, the thermal cycle efficiencies, and the capital cost data, the projected annual cost savings and the internal rate of return, as a function of the amount of fossil fuel displaced by geothermal energy, have been calculated and preliminary conclusions have been drawn based on this overall economic evaluation. In addition to an overall economic evaluation, an individual energy utilization evaluation was undertaken. Using estimates of capital costs, energy costs, and energy conversion efficiencies, a total unit charge rate in $/Hp-hr was assigned to each existing equipment driver and each proposed energy alternative to determine the best method for substituting geothermal energy for existing fossil fuel energy in the Valley Nitrogen Producers (VNP) Plant Steam Cycle. An optimal cost-effective plan for individual energy utilization in the VNP Plant Steam Cycle was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn.
Date: June 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

El Centro Geothermal Utility Core Field Experiment environmental-impact report and environmental assessment

Description: The City of El Centro is proposing the development of a geothermal energy utility core field experiment to demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing moderate temperature geothermal heat, on a pilot scale, for space cooling, space heating, and domestic hot water. The proposed facility is located on part of a 2.48 acre (1 hectare) parcel owned in fee by the City in the southeastern sector of El Centro in Imperial County, California. Geothermal fluid at an anticipated temperature of about 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C) will heat a secondary fluid (water) which will be utilized directly or processed through an absorption chiller, to provide space conditioning and water heating for the El Centro Community Center, a public recreational facility located approximately one-half mile north of the proposed well site. The geothermal production well will be drilled to 8500 feet (2590m) and an injection well to 4000 feet (1220m) at the industrially designated City property. Once all relevant permits are obtained it is estimated that site preparation, facility construction, the completion and testing of both wells would be finished in approximately 26 weeks. The environmental impacts are described.
Date: August 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber Reservoir for industrial processing purposes at Valley Nitrogen Producers Inc. , El Centro Agricultural Chemical Plant. Second quarterly report

Description: The initial economic evaluation is provided of the alternatives to natural gas consumption identified in the first quarterly report. Using estimates of well costs, well flow, well life, temperature, enthalpy, and rates of return on invested capital, the cost of brine production has been estimated in terms of a demand charge and an energy charge. Capital costs of geothermal flash steam and binary systems from 5 to 30 gross MW capacities have been estimated utilizing a modified Battele Pacific Northwest Laboratories GEOCOST computer program. Fossil fuel costs, geothermal brine costs, and rate of inflation have been projected through 1997. Using these data, the thermal cycle efficiencies, and the capital cost data, the projected annual cost savings and the internal rate of return, as a function of the amount of fossil fuel displaced by geothermal energy, have been calculated and preliminary conclusions have been drawn based on this overall economic evaluation. In addition to an overall economic evaluation, an individual energy utilization evaluation was undertaken. Using estimates of capital costs, energy costs, and energy conversion efficiencies, a total unit charge rate in $/Hp-hr was assigned to each existing equipment driver and each proposed energy alternative to determine the best method for substituting geothermal energy for existing fossil fuel energy in the VNP Plant Steam Cycle. An optimal cost-effective plan for individual energy utilization in the VNP Plant Steam Cycle was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn.
Date: June 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

City of El Centro geothermal energy utility core field experiment. Final report, February 16, 1979-November 30, 1984

Description: The City of El Centro was awarded a contract in late 1978 to cost share the development of a low to moderate temperature geothermal resource in the City. The resource would be utilized to heat, cool and provide hot water to the nearby Community Center. In December 1981, Thermal 1 (injector) was drilled to 3970 feet. In January 1982, Thermal 2 (producer) was drilled to 8510 feet. Before testing began, fill migrated into both wells. Both wells were cleaned out. A pump was installed in the producer, but migration of fill again into the injector precluded injection of produced fluid. A short term production test was undertaken and results analyzed. Based upon the analysis, DOE decided that the well was not useful for commercial production due to a low flow rate, the potential problems of continued sanding and gasing, and the requirement to lower the pump setting depth and the associated costs of pumping. There was no commercial user found to take over the wells. Therefore, the wells were plugged and abandoned. The site was restored to its original condition.
Date: November 1, 1984
Creator: Province, S.G. & Sherwood, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. 2nd quarterly report

Description: The completed geochemical analysis of groundwater in the Pine Creek area for evaluation of the geothermal potential of this location is presented. Also included is an environmental constraints analysis of Pine Creek noting any potential environmental problems if a geothermal system was developed onsite. Design of a geothermal system is discussed for site-specific applications and is discussed in detail with equipment recommendations and material specifications. A preliminary financial, economic, and institutional assessment of geothermal system located totally on Union Carbide property at Pine Creek is included. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Erickson, M.V.; Willens, C.A.; Walter, K.M.; Carrico, R.L.; Lowe, G.D. & Lacy, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

Description: The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for geothermal loan guarantee: South Brawley geothermal exploration project

Description: The foregoing analysis indicates that the proposed geothermal field experiment could result in several adverse environmental effects. Such effects would lie primarily in the areas of air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use, and water consumption. However, for the most part, mitigating measures have been, or easily could be, included in project plans to reduce these adverse effects to insignificant levels. Those aspects of the project which are not completely amenable to mitigation by any reasonable means include air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use and water use.
Date: November 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

Description: The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M. & Willens, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-purpose utilization of hydrothermal resources within the City of El Centro. Final report

Description: The engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber KGRA for space heating/cooling and water heating for domestic and industrial process applications within the City of El Centro was investigated. The analysis proceeds through an engineering survey of present conventional energy utilization within the City to identify and evaluate those end uses which could potentially utilize geothermal heat as a substitute for fossil fuel or electrically produced heating and cooling. A general engineering and economic evaluation of heat and cold delivery alternatives followed including evaluations of geothermal fluid transmission options, alternative refrigeration techniques, heat and cold transmission media options, probable systems interfaces, materials evaluations, projected conventional energy costs, life cycle costs for existing conventional systems, projected pricing requirements for privately and municipally developed geothermal resources, the relative distribution costs of heat delivery options, and estimated residential and commercial retrofit costs. A cost-effective plan for large-scale utilization of geothermal energy in El Centro for district heating/cooling and industrial applications was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn. Institutional barriers and environmental impacts associated with geothermal development in the City were also evaluated. Potentially adverse impacts were identified along with mitigating measures that should either completely eliminate or reduce these adverse effects to levels of insignificance.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Sherwood, P.B.; Province, S.G.; Yamasaki, R.N. & Newman, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

Description: The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V. & Lowe, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department