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Co-Precipitation of Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Strontium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclid

Description: A suite of experiments were performed to investigate the partitioning of Sr2+ (to mimic the radionuclide 90Sr) between calcite and artificial groundwater in response to the hydrolysis of urea by Bacillus pasteurii under conditions that simulate in-situ aquifer conditions. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20 C over 7 days in microcosms inoculated with B. pasteurii ATCC 11859 and containing an artificial groundwater and urea (AGW), and an AGW including a Sr contaminant treatment. During the experiments ammonium concentration from bacterial urea hydrolysis increased asymptotically, and derived rate constants (kurea) that were between 13 and 10 times greater at 20 C, than at 15 and 10 C. Calcite precipitation was initiated after similar amounts of urea had been hydrolysed ({approx} 4.0 mmoles L-1) and a similar critical saturation state (mean Scritical = 53, variation = 20%) had been reached, independent of temperature and Sr treatment. Because of the positive relationship between urea hydrolysis rate and temperature, precipitation began by the end of day 1 at 20 C, and between days 1 and 2 at 15 and 10 C. The rate of calcite precipitation increased with, and was fundamentally controlled by S, irrespective of temperature, which connects the dissimilar patterns of urea hydrolysis and dissolved concentrations which are exhibited at the different experiments. The presence of Sr slightly slowed calcite precipitation rates at equivalent values of S, which may reflect the screening of active nucleation and crystal growth sites by Sr. Instantaneous heterogeneous partitioning coefficients (DSr) exhibited a positive association with calcite precipitation rates, but were greater at higher experimental temperatures at equivalent precipitation rates (20 C mean = 0.46; 15 C mean = 0.24; 10 C mean = 0.29). This is likely to reflect the large ionic radius of the Sr ion, which cannot fully co-ordinate relative to ions ...
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Ferris, F. Grant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental impact of landfill disposal of selected geothermal residues

Description: A solid waste is classified as hazardous if it contains sufficient leachable components to contaminate the groundwater and the environment if disposed in a landfill. Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Phlippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing regulated elements at levels above the earth‘s crustal abundance were studied for their leachability. Cr, As, Cu, Zn and Pb were detected at levels which could impair groundwater quality if leaching occurred. Several procedures were used to assess the likely risk posed by the residues : protocol leaching tests (Canadian LEP and US TCLP), toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test, and a preliminary acid mine drainage potential test. Whole rock analysis, X-ray diffraction, and radioactivity counting were also performed to characterize the samples. Toxi-chromotest and SOS-chromotest results were negative for all samples. Leachng tests indicated that all of them could be classified as nonhazardous wastes. Only one of the six showed a low-level radioactivity based on its high Pb-210 activity. Initial tests for acidification potential gave positive results for three out of six samples whle none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after accelerated weathering experiment for three months.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Peralta, G.L.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L. & Kirk, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcite Precipitation and Trace Metal Partitioning in Groundwater and the Vadose Zone: Remediation of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides in Arid Western Environments

Description: Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. Demonstrating in situ immobilization of these contaminants in vadose zones or groundwater plumes is a cost-effective remediation strategy. However, the implementation of in situ remediation requires definition of the mechanism that controls sequestration of the contaminants. One such mechanism for metals and radionuclides is co-precipitation of these elements in authigenic calcite and calcite overgrowths. Calcite, a common mineral in many aquifers and vadose zones in the arid western U.S., can incorporate divalent metals such as strontium, cadmium, lead, and cobalt into its crystal structure by the formation of solid solutions. The rate at which trace metals are incorporated into calcite is a function of calcite precipitation kinetics, adsorption interactions between the calcite surface and the trace metal in solution, solid solution properties of the trace metal in calcite, and also the surfaces upon which the calcite is precipitating. A fundamental understanding of the coupling of calcite precipitation and trace metal partitioning and how this may occur in aquifers and vadose environments is lacking. The focus of the research proposed here is to investigate the facilitated partitioning of metal and radionuclides by their coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. Our specific research objectives include: (1) Elucidating the mechanisms and rates of microbially facilitated calcite precipitation and divalent cation adsorption/co-precipitation occurring in a natural aquifer as a result of the introduction of urea. (2) Assessing the effects of spatial variability in aquifer host rock and the associated hydro/biogeochemical processes on calcite precipitation rates and mineral phases within an aquifer.
Date: August 9, 2001
Creator: Smith, Robert W.; Colwell, F. ''Rick'' S.; Ingram, Jani C.; Ferris, F. Grant & Reysenbach, Anna-Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcite Precipitation and Trace Metal Partitioning in Groundwater and the Vadose Zone: Remediation of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides in Arid Western Environments

Description: Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. Demonstrating in situ immobilization of these contaminants in vadose zones or groundwater plumes is a cost-effective remediation strategy. However, the implementation of in situ remediation requires definition of the mechanism that controls sequestration of the contaminants. One such mechanism for metals and radionuclides is co-precipitation of these elements in authigenic calcite and calcite overgrowths. Calcite, a common mineral in many aquifers and vadose zones in the arid western U.S., can incorporate divalent metals such as strontium, cadmium, lead, and cobalt into its crystal structure by the formation of solid solutions. The rate at which trace metals are incorporated into calcite is a function of calcite precipitation kinetics, adsorption interactions between the calcite surface and the trace metal in solution, solid solution properties of the trace metal in calcite, and also the surfaces upon which the calcite is precipitating. A fundamental understanding of the coupling of calcite precipitation and trace metal partitioning and how this may occur in aquifers and vadose environments is lacking. The focus of the research proposed here is to investigate the facilitated partitioning of metal and radionuclides by their coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. Our specific research objectives include: (1) Elucidating the mechanisms and rates of microbially facilitated calcite precipitation and divalent cation adsorption/co-precipitation occurring in a natural aquifer and vadose zone perched water body as a result of the introduction of urea. (2) Assessing the effects of spatial variability in aquifer host rock and the associated hydro/biogeochemical processes on calcite precipitation rates and mineral phases within an aquifer and a vadose zone perched water body.
Date: July 19, 2000
Creator: Smith, Robert W.; Colwell, F. ''Rick'' S.; Ingram, Jani C.; Ferris, F. Grant & Reysenbach, Anna-Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department