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Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

Description: Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine ...
Date: October 5, 2010
Creator: Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant & Stanislowski, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

Description: The Center for Biomass Utilization (CBU®) 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Zygarlicke, Christopher J.; Hurley, John P.; Aulich, Ted R.; Folkedahl, Bruce C.; Strege, Joshua R.; Patel, Nikhil et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

Description: In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding ...
Date: June 9, 2012
Creator: Stevens, Brad G.; Simonsen, Troy K. & Leroux, Kerryanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

Description: Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with, or even replace, petroleum and other fossil fuels in the near future. It is a primary domestic, sustainable, renewable energy resource that can supply liquid transportation fuels, chemicals, and energy that are currently produced ...
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Zygarlicke, C. J.; Schmidt, D. D.; Olson, E. S.; Leroux, K. M.; Wocken, C. A.; Aulich, T. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical vapor deposition: Stable carbons from low-rank coals

Description: CVD was used to increase the oxidative stability of activated carbons. Activated carbons prepared from Gascoyne lignite (North Dakota) by thermal or KOH activation were subjected to BCl{sub 3} in He at 727 C with or without benzene for alimited period of time followed by annealing in He at 900 C for 3 days. Untreated and acid-washed coal samples were used to assess the effect of minral matter in the coal on the boron coating. The oxidative stability of the boron-modified carbons was determined from the decomposition curves obtained from TGA. Modification of the as-received, KOH-treated carbon yielded oxidatively stable carbons up to an initial temperature of 520 , compared to 350 C for the starting material. Similar results were obtained for the carbonized Gascoyne lignite. Sulfurous acid washing of the Gascoyne significantly enhanced the thermal stability (600 C) of the boron-modified carbon.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sharma, R.K.; Kulas, R.W. & Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Calcium

Description: Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E. & Bieber, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a database management system for Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs)

Description: Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are produced in high volumes worldwide. Utilization of these materials is economically and environmentally advantageous and is expected to increase as disposal costs increase. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) is developing a database to contain characterization and utilization information on CCBs. This database will provide information for use by managers, marketers, operations personnel, and researchers that will aid in their decision making and long-term planning for issues related to CCBs. The comprehensive nature of the database and the interactive user application will enable ACAA members to efficiently and economically access a wealth of data on CCBs and will promote the technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive use of CCBs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: O`Leary, E.M.; Peck, W.D. & Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of fireside performance indices - task 8. Topical report, March 1996

Description: The primary goal of the Fireside Performance Indices (FPI) research project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to develop a series of indices to reliably predict the fireside performance of subbituminous coals in utility boilers. Individual utilities must respond quickly and effectively to changing fuel markets because of competition within the U.S. coal-fired power industry. Spot-market purchases of coal have become commonplace. The economics associated with sulfur emissions control have caused many utilities to use Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coals. The PRB coals usually provide a lower-cost, medium-heating-value, low-sulfur fuel option. Although these coals possess similar overall or bulk compositional properties, their fireside performance characteristics vary considerably within a given boiler. Consequently, bulk compositional parameters and, hence, conventional indices such as the base-to-acid ratio, stagging factor, and fouling factor are inappropriate for predicting the fireside performance of PRB coals. The development of the computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and chemical fractionation methods, however, has enabled a more thorough characterization of the inorganic constituents of PRB, coals that contribute to the following adverse operational effects: stagging, fouling, opacity, erosion and poor grindability, slag tapping, and sootblower performance. Eight predictive indices have been developed based primarily on CCSEM and chemical fractionation analysis parameters to predict the propensity of a given coal or coal blend to cause operational problems. The indices were formulated using bench-, pilot-, and full-scale combustion testing data from previous research projects combined with bench-scale data from this project to identify the primary coal inorganic properties that cause ash-related problems in utility boilers.
Date: November 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

Description: As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting
Date: November 1995
Creator: Miller, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Final technical report, July 13, 1994--November 30, 1995

Description: A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low- rank coals has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: 1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and 2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project was performed during two tasks: the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. This project showed that the solvent could be recycled during the preconversion, solubilization and polishing steps of the multistep process and that lower-severity conditions can be used to successfully hydrotreat the product of the multistep process. The success of this project indicates that additional studies should be performed to evaluate the liquid-phase reactions taking place during batch tests in which the gas flow is continuous (i.e., the gas effects would be negligible). In addition, the entire multistep process (including hydrotreatment) should be evaluated during continuous unit operations. 2 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Hetland, M.D. & Rindt, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

Description: Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Young, B.C. & Musich, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 5.7, Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent

Description: Atomobile evaporative emission canisters contain activated carbon sorbents that trap and store fuel vapors emitted from automobile fuel tanks during periods of hot ambient temperatures and after engine operation. When a vehicle is started, combustion air is pulled through the canister, and adsorbed vapors are removed from the sorbent and routed to the intake manifold for combustion along with fuel from the tank. The two primary requirements of an effective canister sorbent are that (1) it must be a strong enough adsorbent to hold on to the fuel vapors that contact it and (2) it must be a weak enough adsorbent to release the captured vapors in the presence of the airflow required by the engine for fuel combustion. Most currently available commercial canister sorbents are made from wood, which is reacted with phosphoric acid and heat to yield an activated carbon with optimum pore size for gasoline vapor adsorption. The objectives of Task 5.7 were to (1) design and construct a test system for evaluating the performance of different sorbents in trapping and releasing butane, gasoline, and other organic vapors; (2) investigate the use of lignite char as an automobile fuel evaporation canister sorbent; (3) compare the adsorbing and desorbing characteristics of lignite chars with those of several commercial sorbents; and (4) investigate whether the presence of ethanol in fuel vapors affects sorbent performance in any way. Tests with two different sorbents (a wood-derived activated carbon and a lignite char) showed that with both sorbents, ethanol vapor breakthrough took about twice as long as hydrocarbon vapor breakthrough. Possible reasons for this, including an increased sorbent affinity for ethanol vapors, will be investigated. If this effect is real (i.e., reproducible over an extensive series of tests under varying conditions), it may help explain why ethanol vapor concentrations in SHED test ...
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Aulich, T.R.; Grisanti, A.A. & Knudson, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Support services for ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composites. Annual technical progress report

Description: The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is providing technical assistance and test materials to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program investigating ceramic and advanced alloy corrosion in fossil energy systems. The main activity, which is reported here, is to perform thermochemical equilibrium calculations to develop recommendations for test conditions under which to perform corrosion measurements of structural and particle filter materials. The modeling is primarily being performed to determine possible mechanisms of corrosion, especially by species that vaporize in the gasifier then condense on downstream surfaces. For this year, the focus was on the stability of nickel in structural and filter alloys. This work was done in an effort to explain the existence of nickel-containing condensates found downstream of particulate filters in an EERC pilot-scale coal gasifier which operates under conditions similar to the Pinon Pine system, and to determine possible operating conditions that could reduce the wastage of nickel from structural and filter alloys.
Date: June 22, 1998
Creator: Hurley, J.P. & Kuehnel, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

Description: The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W. & Young, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tensile strength of ash cake beds at high-temperature conditions

Description: The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The primary deliverable will be a graphics-driven computer model that can be used as an engineering tool to help predict ash-related hot-gas filter problems based on analyses of coal and sorbent, as well as system operating parameters. This paper presents preliminary testing data on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions. The range in temperatures for tensile testing is ambient to 900 C. The simulated gas atmosphere includes carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and nitrogen. At present, all testing has been performed using ash from the Westinghouse advanced particle filter (APF) at the American Electric Power Service Corporation (AEP) Tidd pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) demonstration plant in Ohio. Other sources of filter ashes, including several from non-American PFBC systems, will also be evaluated.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Dockter, B.A. & Hurley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization. Semi-annual progress report, April 1, 1995--October 31, 1995

Description: Several field-portable (e.g., gas chromatrography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) instruments are available for the measurement of organic pollutants. However, solid samples such as soils, sludges, and sediments must first be extracted before analysis can be performed. Conventional extraction methods based on liquid solvent (e.g., Soxhlet extraction) are not practical in the field because of the large volumes fo solvents required as well as clumsy apparatus and glassware. However, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been demonstrated in several studies by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERS) to extract a broad range of organic pollutants from soils and sediments successfully. Of the approximately 100 major organic pollutants identified as problems for the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, our SFE laboratory has demonstrated efficient SFE recoveries for about half, and published literature has addressed an additional 40%. SFE in the off-line mode (i.e., collection of extracted organics in a small voluem of liquid solvent) has also been demonstrated to be easily performed in the field with only generator electrical power for support. Recent advances in flow restrictor design have virtually eliminated the mechanical problems previously associated with the performance of SFE in the field.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced hybrid particulate collector. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The objective of the project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99% particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m, is applicable for use with all US coals, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The main technical progress for the previous quarter was the design and construction of the 200-acfm working model of the AHPC. Some additional modifications to the 200-acfm AHPC were made during April through June, and extensive shakedown and cold-flow testing were completed. The initial modeling results by ALENTEC (presented in the last quarterly report) indicated that the flow baffling as constructed should be sufficient to direct most of the flow into the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) zone of the AHPC before it reaches the bags. Cold-flow tests now confirm that the baffle configuration is sufficient for proper AHPC performance. Cold-flow multiple cleaning cycle tests show that there is a huge benefit to having the electric field on compared to having the field off. These tests also show that the AHPC functions properly and that pressure drop can be easily controlled.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Miller, S. J. & Schelkoph, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 3.10, Gas separation and hot-gas cleanup

Description: Catalytic gasification of coal to produce H{sub 2}-, CO-, and CH{sub 4}-rich mixtures of gases for consumption in molten carbonate fuel cells is currently under development; however, to optimize the fuel cell performance and extend its operating life, it is desired to separate as much of the inert components (i.e., CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and impurities (i.e., H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}) as possible from the fuel gas before it enters the fuel cell. In addition, the economics of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) can be improved by separating as much of the hydrogen as possible from the fuel, since hydrogen is a high-value product. Researchers at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Bend Research, Inc., investigated pressure-driven membranes as a method for accomplishing this gas separation and hot-gas cleanup. These membranes are operated at temperatures as high as 800 C and at pressures up to 300 psig. They have very small pore sizes that separate the undesirable gases by operating in the Knudsen diffusion region of mass transport or in the molecular sieving region of mass transport phenomena. In addition, H{sub 2} separation through a palladium metal membrane proceeds via a solution-diffusion mechanism for atomic hydrogen. This allows the membranes to exhibit extremely high selectivity for hydrogen separation. Specific questions to be answered in this project include: what are the effects of membrane properties (i.e., surface area, pore size, and coating thickness) on permeability and selectivity of the desired gases; what are the effects of operating conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, and flow rate) on permeability and selectivity; what are the effects of impurities (i.e., small particulate, H{sub 2}S, HCl, NH{sub 3}, etc.) on membrane performance?
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Swanson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

Description: This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of coal combustion by-products for solidification/stabilization of hazardous wastes

Description: Five low-rank coal combustion fly ash samples extensively characterized in previous projects were used as a pool of candidate materials for potential use as waste stabilization agents. Two of these fly ash samples were selected because ettringite formed in the solid in long-term leaching experiments, and an associated reduction in leachate concentration of at least one trace element was noted for each sample. The stabilization experiments were designed to evaluate the removal of relatively high concentrations of boron and selenium from a simulated wastewater. Sulfate was added as one variable in order to determine if high concentrations of sulfate would impact the ability of the ettringite to include trace elements in its structure. The following conclusions can be drawn from the information obtained in this research: CCBs (coal combustion by-products) can be useful in the chemical fixation of potentially hazardous trace elements; indication of ettringite formation alone is not adequate for selecting a CCB for waste stabilization applications; moderate sulfate concentrations do not promote or inhibit trace element sorption; ettringite formation mechanisms may impact trace element fixation and need to be elucidated; laboratory demonstration of the CCB with the stabilization process being proposed is necessary to verify the efficacy of the material and process; and the final waste form must be evaluated prior to management according to the required regulatory procedures.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hassett, D.J. & Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

Description: Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K. & Miller, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of vitrified wastes: Task 4. Topical report, October 1994--September 1995

Description: The goal of this task was to work with private industry to refine existing vitrification processes to produce a more stable vitrified product. The initial objectives were to (1) demonstrate a waste vitrification procedure for enhanced stabilization of waste materials and (2) develop a testing protocol to understand the long-term leaching behavior of the stabilized waste form. The testing protocol was expected to be based on a leaching procedure called the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP). This task will contribute to the US DOE`s identified technical needs in waste characterization, low-level mixed-waste processing, disposition technology, and improved waste forms. The proposed work was to proceed over 4 years in the following steps: literature surveys to aid in the selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification, characterization of optimized vitrified test wastes using advanced leaching protocols, and refinement and demonstration of vitrification methods leading to commercialization. For this year, literature surveys were completed, and computer modeling was performed to determine the feasibility of removing heavy metals from a waste during vitrification, thereby reducing the hazardous nature of the vitrified material and possibly producing a commercial metal concentrate. This report describes the following four subtasks: survey of vitrification technologies; survey of cleanup sites; selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification and crystallization; and selection of crystallization methods based on thermochemistry modeling.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Nowok, J.W.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J. & Hurley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

Description: The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department