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A high-throughput contact-hole resolution metric for photoresists:Full-process sensitivity study

Description: The ability to accurately quantify the intrinsic resolution of chemically amplified photoresists is critical for the optimization of resists for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Iithography. We have recently reported on two resolution metrics that have been shown to extract resolution numbers consistent with direct observation. In this paper we examine the previously reported contact-hole resolution metric and explore the sensitivity of the metric to potential error sources associated with the experimental side of the resolution extraction process. For EUV exposures at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool, we report a full-process error-bar in extracted resolution of 1.75 nm RMS and verify this result experimentally.
Date: January 22, 2008
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N. & Naulleau, Patrick P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dislocation-Radiation Obstacle Interactions: Developing Improved Mechanical Property Constitutive Models

Description: Radiation damage to structural and cladding materials, including austenitic stainless steels, ferritic steels, and zirconium alloys, in nuclear reactor environments results in significant mechanical property degradation, including yield strength increases, severe ductility losses and flow localization, which impacts reliability and performance. Generation IV and advanced fuel cycle concepts under consideration will require the development of advanced structural materials, which will operate in increasingly hostile environments. The development of predictive models is required to assess the performance and response of materials in extreme Gen IV reactor operating conditions (temperature, stress, and pressure), to decrease the time to rapidly assess the properties of new materials and insert them into technological applications (Gen IV and Advanced Fuel Cycle Operations).
Date: November 29, 2007
Creator: WIrth, B.D. & Robertson, Ian M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report

Description: A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 μl microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.
Date: July 10, 2006
Creator: Keasling, Jay D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anaerobic U(IV) Bio-oxidation and the Resultant Remobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Sediments

Description: A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites is based on immobilizing U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Due to the use of nitric acid in the processing of nuclear fuels, nitrate is often a co-contaminant found in many of the environments contaminated with uranium. Recent studies indicate that nitrate inhibits U(VI) reduction in sediment slurries. However, the mechanism responsible for the apparent inhibition of U(VI) reduction is unknown, i.e. preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction, and/or abiotic oxidation by intermediates of nitrate reduction. Recent studies indicates that direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction may exist in situ, however, to date no organisms have been identified that can grow by this metabolism. In an effort to evaluate the potential for nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of U(IV) in anaerobic sedimentary environments, we have initiated the enumeration of nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing bacteria. Sediments, soils, and groundwater from uranium (U) contaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR Field Research Center (FRC), as well as uncontaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR FRC and Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Texas, lake sediments, and agricultural field soil, sites served as the inoculum source. Enumeration of the nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing microbial population in sedimentary environments by most probable number technique have revealed sedimentary microbial populations ranging from 9.3 x 101 - 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1 in both contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Interestingly uncontaminated subsurface sediments (NABIR FRC Background core FB618 and Longhorn Texas Core BH2-18) both harbored the most numerous nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing population 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1. The nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing microbial population in groundwaters is less numerous ranging from 0 cells mL-1 (Well FW300, ...
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Coates, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immobilization of Radionuclides Through Anaerobic Bio-oxidation of Fe(ll)

Description: Over the last year we have focused our efforts on two independent aspects (a) further investigation of the microbiology and geochemistry of nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation and (b) assembling the sequenced genome of Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB. This work has been performed in a cooperative fashion amongst the independent labs of the three PI's with the UC Berkeley lab taking the lead under the guidance of J.D. Coates.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Coates, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

Description: There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Blanch, Harvey W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones

Description: Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs such as Larderello, Italy, and The Geysers, California, are fundamentally water-short systems. This is apparent from the relatively low pressures in the natural state, typically about 35 bars at 1000 m depth, which is much below hydrostatic pressures. It is also apparent from the high heat content of the produced fluids, typically superheated steam. Large-scale production from these systems has caused reservoir pressures and well flow rates to decline, leading to an underutilization of installed electrical generating capacity. Clearly, these reservoirs are beginning to run out of fluid, while heat reserves in place are still enormous. (At Larderello, there is a long-term trend of increasing formation temperatures in the upper productive zones of the reservoir; Sestini, 1970). Reinjection of colder waste waters, or injection of waters from a source other than the geothermal reservoir, is the primary means by which dwindling fluid reserves can be replenished. A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello and The Geysers; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Risk-Based and Technology-Independent Safety Criteria for Generation IV Systems

Description: This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.
Date: March 31, 2009
Creator: Kastenberg, William E.; Blandford, Edward & Kim, Lance
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for UC Berkeley Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers TOPS DOE Award Number DE-FC02-01ER25478 9/15/2001 – 9/14/2006

Description: In many areas of science, physical experimentation may be too dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, large-scale simulations, validated by comparison with related experiments in well-understood laboratory contexts, are used by scientists to gain insight and confirmation of existing theories in such areas, without benefit of full experimental verification. The goal of the TOPS ISIC was to develop and implement algorithms and support scientific investigations performed by DOE-sponsored researchers. A major component of this effort is to provide software for large scale parallel computers capable of efficiently solving the enormous systems of equations arising from the nonlinear PDEs underlying these simulations. Several TOPS supported packages where designed in part (ScaLAPACK) or in whole (SuperLU) at Berkeley, and are widely used beyond SciDAC and DOE. Beyond continuing to develop these codes, our main effort focused on automatic performance tuning of the sparse matrix kernels (eg sparse-matrix-vector-multiply, or SpMV) at the core of many TOPS iterative solvers. Based on the observation that the fastest implementation of SpMV (and other kernels) can depend dramatically both on the computer and the matrix (the latter of which is not known until run-time), we developed and released a system called OSKI (Optimized Sparse Kernel Interface) that will automatically produce optimized version of SpMV (and other kernels), hiding complicated implementation details from the user. OSKI led to a 2x speedup in SpMV in a DOE accelerator design code, a 2x speedup in a commercial lithography simulation, and has been downloaded over 500 times. In addition to a stand-alone version, OSKI was also integrated into the TOPS-supported PETSc system.
Date: February 26, 2007
Creator: Demmel, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operation of the 184" Cyclotron

Description: The operation of the 184" synchro-cyclotron is reviewed in terms of the theory as developed by the authors. Certain relevant data on the properties of the magnet and rotating condenser are also presented.
Date: May 17, 1949
Creator: Henrich, L. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Access to Film and Video Works: Surrogates for Moving Image Documents

Description: This doctoral dissertation discusses access to film and video works. Physical and intellectual access to moving image documents is insufficient, often insignificant, at the level of the individual user. Existing access tools suffer from a lack of recognition of the differences between linguistic text communication and image communication. Browsing and relevance judgements are made difficult by the physical realities of film and video documents - one cannot flip through them - and by the habits of serial and passive viewing.
Date: 1984
Creator: O'Connor, Brian Clark
Partner: UNT College of Information

Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California

Description: Understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate the carbon flux over grassland is critical for large-scale modeling research, since grasslands comprise almost one-third of the earth's natural vegetation. To address this issue, fluxes of CO{sub 2} (F{sub c}, flux toward the surface is negative) were measured over a Mediterranean, annual grassland in California, USA for 2 years with the eddy covariance method. To interpret the biotic and abiotic factors that modulate F{sub c} over the course of a year we decomposed net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange into its constituent components, ecosystem respiration (R{sub eco}) and gross primary production (GPP). Daytime R{sub eco} was extrapolated from the relationship between temperature and nighttime F{sub c} under high turbulent conditions. Then, GPP was estimated by subtracting daytime values of F{sub c} from daytime estimates of R{sub eco}. Results show that most of carbon exchange, both photosynthesis and respiration, was limited to the wet season (typically from October to mid-May). Seasonal variations in GPP followed closely to changes in leaf area index, which in turn was governed by soil moisture, available sunlight and the timing of the last frost. In general, R{sub eco} was an exponential function of soil temperature, but with season-dependent values of Q{sub 10}. The temperature-dependent respiration model failed immediately after rain events, when large pulses of R{sub eco} were observed. Respiration pulses were especially notable during the dry season when the grass was dead and were the consequence of quickly stimulated microbial activity. Integrated values of GPP, R{sub eco}, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were 867, 735, and -132g C m{sup -2}, respectively, for the 2000-2001 season, and 729, 758, and 29g C m{sup -2} for the 2001-2002 season. Thus, the grassland was a moderate carbon sink during the first season and a weak carbon source during the ...
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Xu, L & Baldocchi, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

Description: Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.
Date: April 23, 2005
Creator: Romanowicz, Barbara & Panning, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

Description: Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.
Date: April 23, 2005
Creator: Romanowicz, Barbara & Panning, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland.

Description: Savannas and open grasslands often co-exist in semi-arid regions. Questions that remain unanswered and are of interest to biometeorologists include: how do these contrasting landscapes affect the exchanges of energy on seasonal and annual time scales; and, do biophysical constraints imposed by water supply and water demand affect whether the land is occupied by open grasslands or savanna? To address these questions, and others, we examine how a number of abiotic, biotic and edaphic factors modulate water and energy flux densities over an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland that coexist in the same climate but on soils with different hydraulic properties. The net radiation balance was greater over the oak woodland than the grassland, despite the fact that both canopies received similar sums of incoming short and long wave radiation. The lower albedo and lower radiative surface temperature of the transpiring woodland caused it to intercept and retain more long and shortwave energy over the course of the year, and particularly during the summer dry period. The partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat exchanged over the two canopies differed markedly. The annual sum of sensible heat exchange over the woodland was 40% greater than that over the grassland (2.05 GJ m{sup -2} per year versus 1.46 GJ m{sup -2} per year). With regards to evaporation, the oak woodland evaporated about 380mm of water per year and the grassland evaporated about 300mm per year. Differences in available energy, canopy roughness, the timing of physiological functioning, water holding capacity of the soil and rooting depth of the vegetation explained the observed differences in sensible and latent heat exchange of the contrasting vegetation surfaces. The response of canopy evaporation to diminishing soil moisture was quantified by comparing normalized evaporation rates (in terms of equilibrium evaporation) with soil water potential ...
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Baldocchi, DD, Xu L, Kiang N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

Description: Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.
Date: April 23, 2005
Creator: Romanowicz, Barbara & Panning, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

Description: A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Olander, Donald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

Description: This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).
Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Leung, Ka-Ngo; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Morse, Edward C. & Peterson, Per F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixing rocesses in high-level waste tanks. 1998 annual progress report

Description: 'Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and ventilation systems, which remove the flammable gases and maintain a well-mixed condition in the tanks. Upon failure of the ventilation system, due to seismic or other events, however, it has proven more difficult to make strong arguments for well-mixed conditions, due to the potential for density-induced stratification which can potentially sequester fuel or oxidizer at concentrations significantly higher than average. This has complicated the task of defining the safety basis for tank operation. Waste-tank mixing processes have considerable overlap with similar large-enclosure mixing processes that occur in enclosure fires and nuclear reactor containments. Significant differences also exist, so that modeling techniques that have been developed previously can not be directly applied to waste tanks. In particular, mixing of air introduced through tank roof penetrations by buoyancy and pressure driven exchange flows, mixed convection induced by an injected high-velocity purge jet interacting with buoyancy driven flow, and onset and breakdown of stable stratification under the influence of an injected jet have not been adequately studied but are important in assessing the potential for accumulation of high-concentration pockets of fuel and oxygen. Treating these phenomena requires a combination of experiments and the development of new, more general computational models than those that have been developed for enclosure fires. U.C. Berkeley is now completing the second year of its three-year project that started in September, 1996. Excellent progress has been made in several important areas related to waste-tank ventilation and mixing processes.'
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Peterson, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineered antibodies for monitoring of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Description: 'The long-term goal of this project is to develop antibodies and antibody-based methods for detection and recovery of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH adducts that are potential biomarkers in environmental and biological samples. The inherent cross-reactivity will be exploited by pattern recognition methods. Dr. Karu''s laboratory uses new haptens representing key PAHs to derive recombinant Fab (rFab) and single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies from hybridoma lines and combinatorial phage display libraries. Computational models of the haptens and combining sites made by Dr. Roberts''s group are used to guide antibody engineering by mutagenesis. Dr. Li''s laboratory develops enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), sensors, and immunoaffinity methods that make use of the novel haptens and antibodies for practical analytical applications in support of DOE''s mission. This report summarizes work completed in one and one-half years of a 3-year project, with close collaboration between the three research groups. Dr. Alexander Karu''s laboratory: the authors proceeded with the two strategies described in the original proposal. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to correct differences in the rFab N-terminal amino acids that were introduced by the degenerate PCR primers used for gene amplification. The binding constants of the rFabs with the corrected sequences will be compared with those of the parent MAbs, and should be very similar. The 4D5 and 10C10 heavy and light chain sequences are being moved to the pCOMB3H phagemid vector to facilitate selection of new engineered mutants.'
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Karu, A.E.; Roberts, V.A. & Li, Q.X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department