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Cle Elum Lake Restoration Feasibility Study: Fish Husbandry Research, 1988-1991 Progress Report.

Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are involved in a project to evaluate the feasibility of re-establishing anadromous salmon runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin of Washington state. Historically, the Yakima River system supported large runs of anadromous salmonids that contributed significantly to the Columbia River harvest. Habitat destruction and overfishing drastically reduced run abundance prior to the early 1900s. Salmon runs were eliminated from upper reaches of the Yakima River Basin with development of irrigation storage reservoirs without fishways in the early 1900s. The goal of the NMFS/BPA project is to determine if it is feasible for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above Cle Elum Dam under the present format of irrigation water withdrawal from the reservoir. The primary concern is whether anadromous fish can successfully exit Cle Elum Lake and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Flagg, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

Description: Research was conducted by NMFS in 1981 to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. Fourteen groups (74,683 fish) of marked 0-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, fourteen groups (13,746 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at River Kilometer 375, and 34 groups (14,273) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. More than 55,000 0-age chinook salmon were sampled at the John Day Dam airlift facility. This sample included 623 mark recoveries. Four hundred and eight (408) additional marks were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time of marked 0-age chinook salmon released in the McNary trailrace was 22 days in 1981. There was no statistically significant evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1981. 7 references, 1 figure, 12 tables.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Sims, Carl W. & Miller, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

Description: Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Dawley, Earl M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

Description: The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Harrell, Lee W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Use of a Fish Transportation Barge for Increasing Returns of Steelhead Imprinted for Homing, Final Report.

Description: The objective of this 7-year National Fisheries Service study, which began is 1982, was to determine if transporting juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by truck and barge from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), on the Clearwater River, to a release site on the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam would result in increased returns of adults to the various fisheries and to the hatchery homing site. During 1982 and 1983, over 500,000 marked juvenile steelhead were serially released as controls from the hatchery or barged as test fish to below Bonneville Dam. Recoveries of marked adults to various recovery sites are complete. Fish released in 1983 showed a stronger homing ability and more rapid upstream migration than test fish released in 1982. Most adults from both control and test releases in 1983 and control releases in 1982 migrated a considerable distance upstream and overwintered in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers--behavior similar to Clearwater River fish previously transported from Lower Granite Dam. In contrast, many of the adults from test releases in 1982 failed to migrate upstream during the fall, overwintered in the Columbia River, and migrated upstream the following spring. Survival of control fish released at Dworshak NFH in late April 1982 was substantially higher than survival of those released in mid-May. Survival and homing of control fish released in late April and early May 1983 were over 10 times that for fish released in late May. Return of adults from normal hatchery releases in 1982 was the highest ever observed at Dworshak NFH.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Harmon, Jerrel R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1983 Annual Report of Research.

Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. In the juvenile marking phase, over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Ten experimental studies are discussed. Six of the studies employed a variety of techniques for imprinting fish. The remaining four tested the feasibility of imprinting fish by a short-distance voluntary migration before transport. In five experiments, survival was enhanced by the imprint-transportation procedures, and homing to the homing site area was partly successful. Returns from the Astoria, Oregon, release of fall chinook salmon from Big Creek Hatchery (Knappa, Oregon), for example, showed that limited short distance migration imprinting should provide 2-3 time more fish to the various fisheries while providing adequate returns to the hatchery for egg take each year. 21 refs., 12 figs, 12 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Slatick, Emil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Flagg, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.

Description: In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Flagg, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pit-Tag Studies with Juvenile Salmonids at the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River : Annual Report 1990.

Description: Juvenile salmonid survival studies planned for the Yakima Basin will require the release and recapture of large numbers of marked fish. Before these studies can be implemented, information is needed about potential recovery rates of marked fish at proposed sampling sites. The type of mark employed and the efficiency of the equipment used to capture and examine fish for marks must be evaluated since accurate survival estimates depend on their reliability. Recovery rates are expected to vary with species and life stage as well as environmental factors such as river flow and water temperature. The purpose of this study was to assess the mark-recovery capabilities of the Chandler facility and a mobile juvenile fish trap installed temporarily at West Richland, Washington near the mouth of the Yakima River.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Ruehle, Thomas E. & McCutcheon, Clinton Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

Description: In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Ruehle, Thomas E. & Sandford, Benjamin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Factors Affecting Collection Efficiency Estimates of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts at McNary Dam, 1989 Final Report.

Description: Populations of salmonid smolts migrating through the hydropower system on the Columbia River incur some rate of mortality at each dam. To set priorities on options to minimize losses and provide safe passage of the smolts at dams, estimates of smolt survival at each dam are necessary. Two methods have been developed to obtain these survival estimates: the direct and the indirect method. With the indirect method, a test group of fish is released upstream and a-control group is released downstream from the area of interest. With the direct method, a single release of fish above the area of interest is used, with subsequent recovery below the area of interest. In 1988, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a 2-year study at McNary Dam to address possible sources of variation associated with the direct method of obtaining survival estimates. Five study objectives were established to determine whether (1) fish from the Columbia and Snake Rivers mixed as they migrated to McNary Dam (release-location tests); (2) collection rates for Columbia and Snake River stocks were the same (river-of-origin tests); (3) test-group release timing influenced recovery rates (time-of-release tests); (4) a collection-rate bias existed from use of test fish previously guided and collected at the recovery site (tests of previously guided fish); and (5) recovery rates obtained with PIT-tagged fish were comparable to those previously obtained with freeze-branded fish (PIT-tag vs. freeze-brand technology).
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Stuehrenberg, Lowell; Smith, Douglas & Johnson, Orlay W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985 Annual Report.

Description: The concept of using mass releases of juvenile radio tags represents a new and potentially powerful research tool that could be effectively applied to juvenile salmonid passage problems at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. A system of detector antennas, strategically located, would automatically detect and record individually tagged juvenile salmonids as they pass through the spillway, powerhouse, bypass system, or tailrace areas below the dam. Accurate measurements of spill effectiveness, fish guiding efficiency (FGE), collection efficiency (CE), spillway survival, powerhouse survival, and bypass survival would be possible without handling large numbers of unmarked fish. A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam and at Lower Granite Dam. This report summarizes research to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype juvenile radio-tag system in a field situation and (2) to test the basic assumptions inherent in using the juvenile radio tag as a research tool.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Stuehrenberg, Lowell C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

Description: FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.
Date: December 1, 1986
Creator: Vreeland, Robert R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1988 Annual Report.

Description: The 1988 smolt monitoring project of the National Marine Fisheries Service provided data on the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead at Lower Granite, Mcnary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. All pertinent fish capture and condition data as well as dam operations and river flow data were provided to the FPDIS for use by FPC in developing fish passage indices and migration timing, and for water budget and spill management. 13 refs., 100 figs.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: Johnsen, Richard C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.

Description: Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Liscom, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

Description: We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Achord, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1986 Annual Report.

Description: The 1986 smolt monitoring project provided data on the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead at Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. The number of fish sampled by species, brand recaptures, and pertinent flow data were provided for the purpose of evaluating smolt survival, travel time, and migrational timing.
Date: December 1, 1986
Creator: Johnsen, Richard C.; Smith, W. William & Wood, Lynette A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1981-1986 Final Report of Research.

Description: The objective of the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-stock Program was to hatch eggs from upriver stocks, rear the fish to spawning maturity, and use the resulting eggs for stock restoration in the Snake River. Approximately 15,000 eyed Snake River fall chinook salmon eggs were obtained each winter in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 from various Columbia River hatcheries. Fish from these eggs were reared in dechlorinated City of Seattle water at the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center or in constant 10.5/degree/C groundwater at the University of Washington's Big Beef Creek Research Station. Seawater tolerance trials of 0+ age (3--5 months) juveniles in all four brood stocks were strongly suggestive of the 1+ age smoltification pattern of spring chinook salmon. Attempts to transfer 0+ age fish to marine net-pens at the Manchester Marine Experimental Station were unsuccessful during the four brood years. The only Snake River fall chinook salmon that demonstrated acceptable survival after 4 months residence in seawater were fish that were transferred as 1+ age smolts. After smolts were successfully transferred to seawater, losses were minimal for several months. However, in all Snake River chinook salmon stocks, mortality due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD) and a previously undescribed ''rosette disease'' resulted in very few maturing fish at 4 or 5 years of age. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Harrell, Lee W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress report of FY 1998 activities: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

Description: Both during September 15-30, 1996 and September 15-October 5, 1997, the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) participated in an experiment at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that was designed to study many of the ways that ARM is measuring water vapor. These experiments, called the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (WVIOPs), produced some results of significant importance to ARM water vapor measurements. We have spent the major portion of this years activities in analyzing results of these experiments, and improving algorithms for improving the measurement of precipitable water vapor (PWV) from instruments available at ARM. The most important ARM instrument for this measurement continues to be the Microwave Radiometer (MWR). Measurements of water vapor at the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) CART site in Barrow, Alaska, area potential problem because of the difficulty of radiosondes to measure low amounts of vapor during cold and extremely dry conditions. The applicability of MWR scaling to radiosondes is questionable because of the low sensitivity of these instrument during dry conditions. It has been suggested by the ARM Instantaneous Radiative Flux Working Group and others that measurements of brightness temperature around 183 GHz could be used to scale during the coldest and driest periods. However, the millimeter wavelengths are vulnerable to cloud effects from both liquid and ice. We have participated in the planning and will participate in the Millimeter wave Arctic Experiment that will evaluate microwave and millimeter wave radiometers during extremely cold conditions. ETL has tested, both in an experiment at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and during the two Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods in 1996 and 1997, a 5-mm scanning radiometer that measures low-altitude temperature profiles; both profiles of lapse rate and absolute temperature can be measured with the instrument. The technique …
Date: September 6, 1998
Creator: Westwater, Edgeworth R.; Han, Yong & Leuskiy, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress report: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

Description: From January 6 to February 28, 1993, the second phase of the Prototype Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) was conducted in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea. Data taken during PROBE included frequent radiosondes, 915 MHz Wind profiler/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) observations of winds and temperatures, and lidar measurements of cloud-base heights. In addition, a dual-channel Microwave Water Substance Radiometer (MWSR) at 23.87 and 31.65 GHz and a Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer (FTIR) were operated. The FTIR operated between 500 and 2000 cm{sup -1} and measured some of the first high spectral resolution (1 cm{sup -1}) radiation data taken in the tropics. The microwave radiometer provided continuous measurements with 30-second resolution of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated cloud liquid (ICL), the RASS measured virtual temperature profiles every 30 minutes, and the cloud lidar provided episodic measurements of clouds every minute. The RASS, MWSR, and FTIR data taken during PROBE were compared with radiosonde data. Broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance data and lidar data were used to identify the presence of cirrus clouds and clear conditions. Comparisons were made between measured and calculated radiance during clear conditions, using radiosonde data as input to a Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model. Comparisons of RASS-measured virtual temperature with radiosonde data revealed a significant cold bias below 500 m.
Date: September 6, 1996
Creator: Westwater, Edgeworth R.; Gage, Kenneth S.; Han, Yong; Shaw, Joseph A. & Churnside, Jim H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress report of FY 1999 activities: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

Description: Both during September 15-30, 1996 and September 15-October 5, 1997, the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) participated in experiments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that was designed to study many of the ways that ARM is measuring water vapor. Because of some inconsistencies between ETL and ARM Microwave radiometers (MWR) during these experiments, called the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (WVIOPs), we applied to both sets of data a newly developed correction algorithm for tipping curve calibration. We found that this algorithm reduces the differences between the radiometers, there are still some unexplained features of scanning ARM MWR data. Measurements of water vapor at the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) CART site in Barrow, Alaska, area potential problem because of the difficulty of radiosondes to measure low amounts of vapor during cold and extremely dry conditions. The applicability of MWR scaling to radiosondes is questionable because of the low sensitivity of these instrument during dry conditions. It has been suggested by the ARM Instantaneous Radiative Flux Working Group and others that measurements of brightness temperature around 183 GHz could be used to scale radiosondes during the coldest and driest periods. However, the millimeter wavelengths are vulnerable to cloud effects from both liquid and ice. During March 1999, we participated in the joint NASA/NOAA Millimeter wave Arctic Experiment to evaluate microwave and millimeter wave radiometers during extremely cold conditions. ETL tested, both in an experiment at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and during the two Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods in 1996 and 1997, a 5-mm scanning radiometer that measures low-altitude temperature profiles; both profiles of lapse rate and absolute temperature can be measured with the instrument. Results of these tests were published in the open literature. In addition, the ETL scanning …
Date: September 8, 1999
Creator: Westwater, Edgeworth R.; Han, Yong & Leuskiy, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress report of FY 1999 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

Description: Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. While analyzing data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma, several questions arose about the calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers (MWR). A large portion of this years effort was a thorough analysis of the many factors that are important for the calibration of this instrument through the tip calibration method and the development of algorithms to correct this procedure. An open literature publication describing this analysis has been accepted.
Date: September 10, 1999
Creator: Westwater, Edgeworth R. & Han, Yong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Progress report of FY 1998 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

Description: Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Westwater, Edgeworth R. & Han, Yong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

Description: Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Downing, Sandra L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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