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Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

Description: We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Achord, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

Description: This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.
Date: September 13, 2001
Creator: Maynard, Desmond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

Description: Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Downing, Sandra L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

Description: This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Absolon, Randall F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

Description: The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Dey, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

Description: Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Absolon, Randall F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

Description: For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation ...
Date: January 2004
Creator: Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. & Zabel, Richard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared salmon. After release, hatchery-reared fish are inefficient foragers and are often found with empty stomachs ...
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Maynard, Desmond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hawaiian Monk Seal and Green Turtle on Necker Island, 1983

Description: Abstract: Between 24 July and 6 August 1983, a two-person National Marine Fisheries Service field camp examined the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, and green turtle, Chelonia mydas, populations of Necker Island. Forty-three seals were identified, photographic records for seal identification were made, and 21 animals were bleach marked. Of three pups at Necker, only one weaned during the study period and was tagged. A pregnant femals was found dead and a necropsy was performed. Eighty-eight turtle observations included feeding (59), basking (18), and swimming (11) sightings. Four turtles were individually identified; three of these were flipper-tagged.
Date: October 1985
Creator: Morrow, Robert J. & Buelna, Elizabeth K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Biology and Population Status of Marine Turtles in the North Pacific Ocean

Description: From objectives and scope of work: The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of the biology and population status of sea turtles potentially subject to entanglement in North Pacific high-seas driftnet fisheries. The report will assist National Marine Fisheries Service efforts to assess the impacts of the driftnet fisheries on threatened and endangered sea turtle populations.
Date: September 1993
Creator: Eckert, Karen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemoreception in Loggerhead Sea Turtles: An Assessment of the Feasibility of Using Chemical Deterrents to Prevent Sea Turtle Interactions with Longline Fishing Gear

Description: From introduction: The following document presents results from a series of studies designed and conducted to assess the chemosensory abilities of loggerhead turtles and explores the feasibility of using chemical deterrents to present sea turtles from interacting with longline fishing gear.
Date: July 2007
Creator: Southwood, Amanda; Higgins, Benjamin; Brill, Richard & Swimmer, Yonat
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linking Hawaii Fisherman Reported Commercial Bottomfish Catch Data to Potential Bottomfish Habitat and Proposed Restricted Fishing Areas using GIS and Spatial Analysis

Description: From executive summary: This report outlines an effort to spatially link commercial bottomfish catch data from the State of Hawaii Fisherman Reporting System with potential adult bottomfish habitat and restricted fishing areas as proposed by the State of Hawaii and the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council.
Date: September 2007
Creator: Parke, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimates of the Catch and Effort by Foreign Tuna Longliners and Baitboats in the Fishery Conservation Zone of the Central and Western Pacific, 1965-77

Description: From introduction: The primary purpose of this report is to summarize available information on the nominal effort and the catch of tunas and billfishes by these foreign longline fleets in the U.S. FCZ (Fishery Conservation Zone) of the central and western Pacific during the period 1965-77.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Yong, Marian Y. Y. & Wetherall, Jerry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catch and Effort from Hawaii's Longline Fishery Summarized by Quarters and Five Degree Squares

Description: This report provides quarterly and yearly summaries of Hawaii's pelagic longline catch (numbers of fish) and effort (hooks) reported by five-degree (latitude by longitude) squares based on the National Marine Fisheries Service longline logbook program. Species summarized include albacore, bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, striped marlin, blue marlin, black marlin, swordfish, mahimahi, and wahoo.
Date: January 1996
Creator: Curran, Daniel S.; Boggs, Christofer H. & He, Xi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Compilation of Historical Monk Seal, Monachus schauinslandi, Counts

Description: The following document is meant to facilitate an analysis and review of historical counts of the Hawaiian monk seal. Provided here are tables ordered on an island-by-island or atoll-by-atoll basis, beginning in the early 1800s and on through the 1980s.
Date: September 1992
Creator: Hiruki, Lisa M. & Ragen, Timothy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Effects of the United Nations Moratorium on High Seas Driftnet Fishing

Description: This report presents documentation of the status and trends in the driftnet fleet (Asian fishing vessels carrying large driftnet fishing gear), a summary of the industry and governmental plans for the near future, and an assessment of possible fleet adaptations to the moratorium from a political/economic perspective.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Huppert, Daniel D. & Mittleman, Todd W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of Oocyte Size in Multiple Regressions Predicting Gonad Weight from Body Weight: a Test Using Hawaiian Ehu, Etelis carbunculus

Description: The following report is meant to evaluate whether the information on oocyte size improves ability to predict ovary weight from body weight, and we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different sample sizes for characterizing egg size.
Date: October 1994
Creator: Lau, Boulderson B. & DeMartini, Edward E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fishery Interaction Between the Tuna Lonline and Other Pelagic Fisheries in Hawaii

Description: Abstract: The Hawaii pelagic surface fisheries and more recently the longline fisheries have grown dramatically. As a result, competition between fisheries on the fishing grounds and in the marketplace has also increased. Physical conflicts between vessels and claims of decreased fishing success by surface (troll and handline) fishermen led to the enactment of Federal regulations limiting the number of domestic longline vessels and the areas in which they can operate. The scientific evidence of biological or economic fishery interaction between longline and small-vessel fishermen is limited but suggests that intense longline fishing near the Hawaiian Islands has the potential to affect catch rates in other Hawaii fisheries. Better data collection and more research are needed to document fishery interaction and to improve fishery management.
Date: October 1993
Creator: Skillman, Robert A.; Boggs, Christofer H. & Pooley, Samuel G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forces of Change in Hawaii's Aku (Skipjack Tuna) Industry, 1986 : Workshop Summary

Description: From preface: This is a report of a workshop on the Forces of change in Hawaii's aku (skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis) industry. The workshop was held on April 30 and May 1, 1986 in Honolulu, Hawaii and was coordianted by the Southwest Fisheries Center (SWFC) Honolulu Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. The objectives of the workshop were: 1. To review the status and current research on Hawaii's aku fishery, and 2. To introduce and prepare background material for discussion at a joint industry-government planning session to be held at a later date.
Date: April 1987
Creator: Boggs, Christofer H. & Pooley, Samuel G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for Handling Marine Turtles Hooked or Entangled in the Hawaii Longline Fishery: Results of an Expert Workshop Held in Honolulu, Hawaii March 15-17, 1995

Description: This report provides a description of the findings that resulted from a workshop to develop guidelines for handling hooked and entangled turtles, hosted by the NMFS Honolulu Laboratory March 15-17, 1995.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Balazs, George H.; Pooley, Samuel G. & Murakawa, Shawn K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible Effects of Sampling Biases on Reproduction Rate Estimates for Dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this report is to present a sensitivity analysis on the effects that biased sampling of young calves and lactating females would have on the various estimated life history parameters. This sensitivity analysis provides one measure of reliability of the various estimates. Also, where inconsistencies in the estimates can be identified, this analysis provides one means for evaluating which estimates are likely in error.
Date: March 1983
Creator: Polacheck, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department