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Science, society, and America's nuclear waste. [Contains glossary]

Description: High-energy, ionizing radiation is called ionizing because it can knock electrons out of atoms and molecules, creating electrically charged particles called ions. Material that ionizing radiation passes through absorbs energy from the radiation mainly through this process of ionization. Ionizing radiation can be used for many beneficial purposes, but it also can cause serious, negative health effects. That is why it is one of the most thoroughly studied subjects in modern science. Most of our attention in this publication is focused on ionizing radiation -- what it is, where it comes from, and some of its properties.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas Volume II

Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)
Date: May 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas, Volume I

Description: In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.
Date: May 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas Volume III

Description: In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines.
Date: May 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment overview, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

Description: In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.
Date: May 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1992 Annual Capacity Report. Revision 1

Description: The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses.
Date: May 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking. Revision 1

Description: In accordance with the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) (Standard Contract), an annual Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) report is issued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The APR establishes the order in which DOE allocates the projected spent nuclear fuel (SNF) acceptance capacity of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). As required by the Standard Contract, the priority ranking is based on the date the SNF was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The phrase ``date the SNF was permanently discharged`` means the date the reactor went subcritical for the purpose of permanently discharging the SNF, as reported to DOE by the Purchasers on the Nuclear Fuel Data Form, RW-859. When a complete date was not provided, the date was determined either from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Average Daily Unit Power Level data, or from Purchaser`s comments received on the previous APR. The 1992 APR is based on SNF discharges as of December 31, 1991.
Date: May 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems Engineering Management Plan. Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan

Description: The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP).
Date: January 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design for a Waste-Management System That Uses Multipurpose Canisters

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the use of multipurpose canisters in the system being developed for the management and disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors. This system will consist of a transportation system, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a repository for permanent disposal. The repository will also accept high-level waste, but multipurpose canisters will be used only for commercial spent fuel. Spent-fuel assemblies are metal rods filled with uranium pellets. Most spent fuel is stored under water, in specially designed pools, at the site of the reactor. At many commercial reactor sites, however, the storage capacities of the pools have been exhausted, and the utilities are procuring dry-storage systems from various vendors. Several dry-storage systems are available: concrete casks, metal casks, modular vertical vaults, and modular horizontal vaults. To provide a basis for the decision about using multipurpose canisters, the Department of Energy has recently completed a conceptual design. This paper summarizes the use, operation, design, licensing, and cost of the system.
Date: January 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

Description: This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.
Date: March 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

Description: This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.
Date: March 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

Description: Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OCRWM procedure for reporting software baseline change information

Description: The purpose of this procedure is to establish a requirement and method for participant organizations to report software baseline change information to the M&O Configuration Management (CM) organization for inclusion in the OCRWM Configuration Information System (CIS). (The requirements for performing software configuration management (SCM) are found in the OCRWM Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) document and in applicable DOE orders, and not in this procedure.) This procedure provides a linkage between each participant`s SCM system and the CIS, which may be accessed for identification, descriptive, and contact information pertaining to software released by a participant. Such information from the CIS will enable retrieval of details and copies of software code and documentation from the participant SCM system.
Date: July 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Revision 3

Description: The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Systems Engineering Management Plan (OCRWM SEMP) specifies the technical management approach for the development of the waste management system, and specifies the approach for the development of each of the system elements -- the waste acceptance system, the transportation system, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system, which includes site characterization activity. The SEMP also delineates how systems engineering will be used by OCRWM to describe the system development process; it identifies responsibilities for its implementation, and specifies the minimum requirements for systems engineering. It also identifies the close interrelationship of system engineering and licensing processes. This SEMP, which is a combined OCRWM and M&O SEMP, is part of the top-level program documentation and is prepared in accordance with the direction provided in the Program Management System Manual (PMSM). The relationship of this document to other top level documents in the CRWMS document hierarchy is defined in the PMSM. A systems engineering management plan for each project, which specifies the actions to be taken in implementing systems engineering at the project level, shall be prepared by the respective project managers. [``Program`` refers to the CRWMS-wide activity and ``project`` refers to that level responsible for accomplishing the specific activities of that segment of the program.] The requirements for the project level SEMPs are addressed in Section 4.2.2.2. They represent the minimum set of requirements, and do not preclude the broadening of systems engineering activities to meet the specific needs of each project.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OCRWM Bulletin, August 1994

Description: The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program undertook a major initiative on June 3, 1994, by requesting proposals for a multi-purpose canister (MPC) system. The purpose of the system is to provide a standardized system for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Among the advantages of the MPC concept two stand out. First, and most important, the system reduces handling of individual spent fuel assemblies. Second, it promotes standardization and compatibility among storage technologies used at civilian reactor storage sites and Department of Energy facilities. If used by the majority of reactors, the MPC will reduce total number of shipments and the overall waste management system costs for nuclear energy utilities and the Federal Government. The MPC concept calls for a sealed metal canister that can hold many spent fuel assemblies from a nuclear powerplant. The MPC system will be designed to provide criticality control, heat transfer, and structural support during storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel. The canister will be placed inside separate units or ``over-packs`` for shipment, storage, and disposal. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certificates of compliance are required for the MPC systems for storage and transportation . Ultimately, the waste package, which includes the MPC, systems for storage and transportation. Ultimately, the waste package, which includes the MPC, must be licensed by the NRC for disposal in a repository.
Date: August 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

Description: This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan.
Date: August 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation System Requirements Document

Description: This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.
Date: September 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended with appropriations acts appended

Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Titles 1 and 2 cover these subjects. Also included in this Act are: Title 3: Other provisions relating to radioactive waste; Title 4: Nuclear waste negotiation; Title 5: Nuclear waste technical review board; and Title 6: High-level radioactive waste. An appendix contains excerpts from appropriations acts from fiscal year 1984--1994.
Date: March 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste ultimately destined for geologic disposal

Description: Since the late 1950s, Americans have come to rely more and more on energy generated from nuclear reactors. Today, 109 commercial nuclear reactors supply over one-fifth of the electricity used to run our homes, schools, factories, and farms. When the nuclear fuel can no longer sustain a fission reaction in these reactors it becomes `spent` or `used` and is removed from the reactors and stored onsite. Most of our Nation`s spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored in specially designed deep pools of water at reactor sites; some is being stored aboveground in heavy thick-walled metal or concrete structures. Sites currently using aboveground dry storage systems include Virginia Power`s Surry Plant, Carolina Power and Light`s H.B. Robinson Plant, Duke Power`s Oconee Nuclear Station, Colorado Public Service Company`s shutdown reactor at Fort St. Vrain, Baltimore Gas and Electric`s Calvert Cliffs Plant, and Michigan`s Consumer Power Palisades Plant.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

Description: This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department