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High-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator development project: Environmental Assessment

Description: The proposed project involves research, development, fabrication, and testing of solid oxide fuel cells/generators. All of the work, with the exception of various SOFC generator tests, would be conducted at two existing permitted Westinghouse facilities in the greater metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area. The DOE has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA). This site-specific analysis addresses the two existing permitted Westinghouse facilities. The sources of information for this EA include the following: the technical proposal submitted as part of the assistance application by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation; discussions with the Westinghouse staff and information provided on the sites to be utilized; and site visits during work conducted under the prior Westinghouse effort with DOE.
Date: August 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

Description: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Shoemaker, H.D. & Gwilliam, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

Description: In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hooie, D. T. & Williams, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

Description: Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J. & Sadowski, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single port access holographic particle image velocimetry

Description: An optical system, which requires only a single optical window mounted on a test volume, is proposed for holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV). The optical system is a derivative of the double-exposure, double-reference-beam, off-axis HPIV system, but the innovative idea behind the system is to use back scattered light from the particles as the object wave. A 45{degree} beam splitter inserted in front of the window serves to admit the illuminating beam and extract the back scattered light. This concept can be of great engineering interest because optical access is often limited to one window in practical devices. The preliminary results of the technique appear quite promising, with current studies aimed at defining the optical resolution capabilities.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A. & Cha, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle

Description: Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Richards, G.A. & Yip, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

Description: Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J. & Shaw, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

Description: The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Huber, W.J. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

Description: The objective is to determine methods for detection and mapping of naturally fractured systems for economic production of natural gas from fractured reservoirs. This report contains: 3D P-wave alternate processing; down hole 3C geophone analysis; fracture pattern analysis of the Fort Union and Wind River Basin; 3D-3C seismic processing; and technology transfer.
Date: 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tampa Electric Company - DOE IGCC project. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

Description: The third quarter of 1996 has resulted in the completion of over five (5) years of extensive project development, design, construction and start-up of the 250 MW Polk Power Station Unit {number_sign}1 IGCC Project. the combined cycle performance test was completed on June 18, 1996. This test demonstrated that on distillate fuel, the combined cycle achieved a net output of 222,299 KW with a net heat rate of 6,868 BTU/KW. This is about 3.86% and 2.76% better than the guaranteed values of 214,040 KW and 7,063 BTU/KW respectively. During the third quarter of 1996, the combustion turbine was run on syngas two (2) different times for a combined total of about seven hours. Attachment {number_sign}4 shows graphically the transfer from oil to syngas. Emission levels were generally acceptable even though no specific emissions tuning was completed by GE and the emissions monitoring equipment was not yet completely operational.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Westinghouse multi-annular swirl burner CRADA 95-029. Final report

Description: The FLUENT computational fluid dynamic code has been used to aid design of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB). After successful comparison of FLUENT predictions to test data, design studies using FLUENT have indicated that backwall holes are unnecessary in the MASB design. FLUENT was then used to study the adaptation of the MASB design to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Preliminary steady-state and transient simulations of the propane-fueled start-up process indicate that flame structure is dependent on the choice turbulence closure and the resultant variation in swirl levels and recirculation zones. Due to the effect of duct geometry on swirl dissipation, a more accurate representation of the transition duct connecting the MASB to the turbine will be needed to better describe the flame structure.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced turbine systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, September 1 - November 30, 1994

Description: Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature must increase, although this will lead to increased NOx emission. Improved coating and materials along with creative combustor design can result in solutions. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology, and a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machines utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. This report reports on tasks 3-8 for the industrial ATS and the utility ATS. Some impingement heat transfer results are given.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

Description: This is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed for this project. Our analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, we received and analyzed a hopper ash sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). We also received six ash samples from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. We selected one of the filter cake ashes from this batch of samples for detailed analyses. We continued our work on the HGCU data base we are constructing in Microsoft Access{reg_sign}. We have been entering a variety of information into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on hoop tensile testing of Schumacher FT20 and Refractron candle filter elements removed from the Karhula APF after {approximately}540 hours of service.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of low NOx coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

Description: Work performed during the period January 1 through March 31, 1996 is described. Tasks included material characterization of ash; pilot plant testing; product testing for concrete, concrete block/brick, plastic fillers, activated carbon and metal matrix composites; and a market analysis for plastic fillers, activated carbon and carbon black, and market research and development.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1995

Description: This report describes progress in the following tasks: high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the southern Piceance Basin of western Colorado; field performance site selection of Rulison Field for seismic acquisition which covers technical work to be performed; seismic acquisition processing and associated costs;theoretical background concerning P-wave multi-azimuth 3D seismic; field data examples of P-wave multi-azimuth data; and 3D basin modeling.
Date: 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation on durability and reactivity of promising metal oxide sorbents during sulfidation and regeneration. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1995

Description: The main objectives of this research project during this quarter are to conduct experiments on equilibrium absorption of hydrogen sulfide into formulated sorbents at 500{degrees}C, to identify effects of hydrogen partial pressures on equilibrium absorption of hydrogen sulfide into formulated sorbents, and develop a cylindrical rod model to evaluate intraparticular diffusivity of H{sub 2}S into sorbents in the batch reactor.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

Description: Tampa Electric Company continued efforts to complete construction and start-up of the Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1 which will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. From an overall standpoint, the Project continues to track well. The completion of construction system turnovers to Start-up is encouraging. Start-up will accept responsibility of the plant until turnover to operations. The major focus continues to be on the production of first Syngas, scheduled for July 17. All construction, engineering, and start-up activities are in support of Syngas production. Key activities toward this goal include final checkout and startup of remaining gasification systems, completion of punch list items required for first syngas, finalization of operating procedures, preparation of site and area access control plans, site- wide safety training, and other Process Safety management (PSM) requirements.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 1, Final report

Description: In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperatation with Shell Synthetic Fuels, Incorporated to obtain data relevent to the design and operation of dry particulate solids filters, and Nahcolite as a chloride removal sorbent. Shell Synthetic Fuels Incorporated provided 60 mm O.D. {times} 40 mm I.D. {times} O.5 m long silicon carbide, LayCer{trademark} 70/3 candle filters for use in filtering coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the filters in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) are found in CRADA 93-011. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 93-011. Seven gasifier runs were conducted over an eighteen month period to accumulate 868 hours of operation. During this time, 3 filters were used 2 at a time to give individual candle usage of 254 hours, 525 hours, and 868 hours, respectively. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 2, Final report

Description: This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/Shell CRADA 93-011. Online particulate monitoring began in August 1993 and ended in October 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in six MGCR runs (No. 5 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.07 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, (Modular Gas Cleanup Rig), from the FBG, pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-pressure coal fuel processor development

Description: Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP) technologies by (1) scaling up the zinc titanate reactor system; (2) developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; (3) testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-as from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in cola gas; (4) developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and (5) designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test. The work performed during the April 1 through June 30, 1996 period is described.
Date: December 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, June 1 - August 31, 1996

Description: The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products from shale oil. The quarter`s efforts were concentrated on (a) THDA and reaction of alkylpyridines at elevated conditions, (b) compound type analysis of kerogen oil and its derived products, (b) thermal hydrodealkylation of the > 290{degrees}C polar fraction, (c) secondary reactions of pyridinic type compounds to form marketable products, and (d) preparation of presentation to the Dawnbreaker Commercial Assistance Program. Excellent progress is being made in all cases. Our market analysis and industrial feedback indicate that the low molecular weight pyridines are the main market driving force. We are concentrating our effort toward increasing the yield of ``light`` pyridines before the end of Phase II(a). Our current laboratory set-up can only produce analytical quantity of samples, which is not sufficient for marketing purpose. However, the completion of a secondary flow THDA unit for a pilot-scale production depends on the availability of the Phase-II(b) and Phase-III funding.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Bunter, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Tsai, J.C.H.; Cogswell, D.E.; Mihamou, H. & Wright, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, December 1, 1994 - February 28, 1995

Description: Objectives for the Quarter were: Perform six-stage extraction of total shale oil using the dual solvent system; complete modifications to the extraction unit to extract +400 `C fraction; conduct hydrodealkylation experiments on the shale oil fractions; complete cost and economic analysis for both schemes; and continue marketing efforts aimed at identifying additional majors as candidate partners for commercialization. Accomplishments for each task is described.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E. & Wiser, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, June 1 - August 31, 1993

Description: All tasks are on schedule, or ahead of schedule. Particular progress has been made in identifying industrial entities, commodities and specialty products of target interest for shale oil-derived products. There is clearly a major emphasis worldwide on new chemicals and shale oil-derived structures are similar to many of these chemicals of interest. Details of the mathematical modeling, programming and algorithm development have progressed with excellent results. Considerable effort will be required to interface these with the output of the gc/ms but we are receiving excellent support from Hewlett Packard in this regard. The ability to concentrate particularly valuable compounds with reasonable projected cost processes continues to show promise. In one system, a single-stage extraction recovered 87% of the total nitrogen in an extract representing only 33% of the fraction. Special attention is being paid to both nitrogen types and oxygen types. The raffinates from the polar solvent extractions will be evaluated for their oil and wax contents. All of the start-up infrastructure is now in place. Subcontracts have been initiated and equipment and supplies have been procured. We are now planning a major push to reach some general findings by early in 1994. From these findings, we will be prepared to focus on experimental verification of process design needed for the second program phase.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E. & Wiser, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department