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World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

Description: The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> {approx} 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first {approx} 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Andrew Hutton, Adam Carpenter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Better HMC integrators for dynamical simulations

Description: We show how to improve the molecular dynamics step of Hybrid Monte Carlo, both by tuning the integrator using Poisson brackets measurements and by the use of force gradient integrators. We present results for moderate lattice sizes.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: M.A. Clark, Balint Joo, A.D. Kennedy, P.J. Silva
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) cross sections with CLAS

Description: Extraction of DVCS unpolarized and polarized cross sections in the largest kinematic domain ever explored in the valence region. Results are in good agreement with GPD model (VGG) predictions. Extraction of Compton Form Factors (M. Guidal) by fitting simultaneously these unpolarizedand polarized cross sections gives a large set of results in a very large kinematic domain for Re(H ) and Im(H ). Analysis of the data from the second part of the e1-DVCS experiment underway.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Jo, Hyon-Suk
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of double polarized asymmetries in quasi-elastic processes ${}^3\vec{He}(\vec{e},e' d)$ and ${}^3\vec{He}(\vec{e},e' p)$

Description: This thesis is dedicated to a study of a spin-isospin structure of the polarized {sup 3}He. First, an introduction to the spin structure of {sup 3}He is given, followed by a brief overview of past experiments. The main focus of the thesis is the E05-102 experiment at Jefferson Lab, in which the reactions {sup 3}{ovr He} ({rvec e}, e'd) and {sup 3}{ovr He} ({rvec e}, e'p) in the quasi-elastic region were studied. The purpose of this experiment was to better understand the effects of the S'- and D-state contributions to the {sup 3}He ground-state wave-functions by a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries A{sub x} and A{sub z} in the range of recoil momenta from 0 to about 300 MeV/c. The experimental equipment utilized in these measurements is described, with special attention devoted to the calibration of the hadron spectrometer, BigBite. Results on the measured asymmetries are presented, together with first attempts at their comparison to the state-of-the art Faddeev calculations. The remaining open problems and challenges for future work are also discussed.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Mihovilovic, Miha
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Single Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Reaction n↑ ( e,e' pi{sup +}) X at Jefferson Lab

Description: What constitutes the spin of the nucleon? The answer to this question is still not completely understood. Although we know the longitudinal quark spin content very well, the data on the transverse quark spin content of the nucleon is still very sparse. Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) using transversely polarized targets provide crucial information on this aspect. The data that is currently available was taken with proton and deuteron targets. The E06-010 experiment was performed at Jefferson Lab in Hall-A to measure the single spin asymmetries in the SIDIS reaction n↑(e, e′π{sup ±}/K{sup ±})X using transversely polarized {sup 3}He target. The experiment used the continuous electron beam provided by the CEBAF accelerator with a beam energy of 5.9 GeV. Hadrons were detected in a high-resolution spectrometer in coincidence with the scattered electrons detected by the BigBite spectrometer. The kinematic coverage focuses on the valence quark region, x = 0.19 to 0.34, at Q{sup 2} = 1.77 to 2.73 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This is the first measurement on a neutron target. The data from this experiment, when combined with the world data on the proton and the deuteron, will provide constraints on the transversity and Sivers distribution functions on both the u and d-quarks in the valence region. In this work we report on the single spin asymmetries in the SIDIS n↑(e, e′π{sup +})X reaction.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Allada, Kalyan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of single-target spin asymmetries in the electroproduction of negative pions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic reaction n{up_arrow}(e,e'{pi}{sup -})X on a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target

Description: The experiment E06010 measured the target single spin asymmetry (SSA) in the semiinclusive deep inelastic (SIDIS) n{up_arrow}(e, e'{pi}{sup -})X reaction with a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target as an e#11;ective neutron target. This is the very #12;rst independent measurement of the neutron SSA, following the measurements at HERMES and COMPASS on the proton and the deuteron. The experiment acquired data in Hall A at Je#11;erson Laboratory with a continuous electron beam of energy 5.9 GeV, probing the valence quark region, with x = 0.13 {rt_arrow} 0.41, at Q{sup 2} = 1.31 {rt_arrow} 3.1 GeV{sup 2}. The two contributing mechanisms to the measured asymmetry, viz, the Collins effect and the Sivers effect can be realized through the variation of the asymmetry as a function of the Collins and Sivers angles. The neutron Collins and Sivers moments, associated with the azimuthal angular modulations, are extracted from the measured asymmetry for the very #12;first time and are presented in this thesis. The kinematics of this experiment is comparable to the HERMES proton measurement. However, the COMPASS measurements on deuteron and proton are in the low-x region. The results of this experiment are crucial as the first step toward the extraction of quark transversity and Sivers distribution functions in SIDIS. With the existing results on proton and deuteron, these new results on neutron will provide powerful constraints on the transversity and Sivers distributions of both the u and d-quarks in the valence region.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Dutta, Chiranjib
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Surface Topography Characterization of Variously Polished Niobium for Superconducting Particle Accelerators

Description: As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro-and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents flow. Interior surface chemical polishing (BCP/EP) to remove mechanical damage leaves surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely-used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is being used to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of EP is reported, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, G. Ribeill
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of detector into interaction region at MEIC

Description: The Jefferson Lab's Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) is proposed as a next-generation facility for the study of strong interaction (QCD). Accessing the relevant physics requires a full-acceptance detector with a dedicated small-angle high-resolution detection system capable of covering a wide range of momenta (and charge-to-mass ratios) with respect to the original ion beam. We present a design of such a detection system integrated into the collider's interaction region, in which full acceptance is attained by letting small-angle collision products pass through the nearest elements of the machine final-focusing system for further detection. The proposed design is consistent with the current collider optics and demonstrates an excellent performance in terms of detector acceptance and resolution.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: V.S. Morozov, P. Nadel-Turonski, R. Ent, C.E. Hyde
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTERACTION OF MUON BEAM WITH PLASMA DEVELOPED DURING IONIZATION COOLING

Description: Particle-in-cell simulations involving the interaction of muon beam (peak density 10{sup 18} m{sup 3}) with Li plasma (ionized medium) of density 10{sup 16}-10{sup 22} m{sup -3} have been performed. This study aimed to understand the effects of plasma on an incoming beam in order to explore scenario developed during the process of ionization cooling. The computer code takes into account the self-consistent electromagnetic effects of beam interacting with plasma. This study shows that the beam can pass through the plasma of densities four order of magnitude higher than its peak density. The low density plasmas are wiped out by the beam, however, the resonance is observed for densities of similar order. Study reveals the signature of plasma wakefield acceleration.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: S. Ahmed, D. Kaplan, T. Roberts, L. Spentzouris, K. Beard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations of QCD at non-zero isospin density

Description: We investigate the QCD phase diagram as a function of isospin chemical potential at a fixed temperature by directly putting large numbers of {pi}{sup +}s into the system. Correlation functions of N {pi}{sup +}s systems involves N!N! contractions, and become extremely expensive when N is large. In order to alleviate this problem, a recursion relation of correlation functions has been derived in Ref. [1] that substantially reduces the number of independent contractions needed and makes the study of many pions systems be possible. In this proceeding this method is investigated numerically. We have also constructed a new method that is even more efficient, enabling us to study systems of up to 72 {pi}{sup +}s.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Zhifeng Shi, William Detmold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

Description: In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility’s (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variations from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Frank Marhauser, Thomas Elliott, Robert Rimmer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion polarization in the MEIC figure-8 ion collider ring

Description: The nuclear physics program envisaged at the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) currently being developed at the Jefferson Lab calls for collisions of 3-11 GeV/c longitudinally polarized electrons and 20-100 GeV/c, in equivalent proton momentum, longitudinally/ transversely polarized protons/ deuterons/ light ions. We present a scheme that provides the required ion polarization arrangement in the MEIC's ion collider ring.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang, P. Chevtsov, A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko, Yu.N. Filatov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isospin Decomposition of the Photoproduced Sigma pi System Near the Lambda(1405)

Description: Recent experimental results for the reaction \gamma + p \to K^+ + \Sigma + \pi\ from CLAS at Jefferson Lab are discussed. It was found that the mass distributions or "line shapes" of the three charge combinations \Sigma^+ \pi^-, \Sigma^0 \pi^0 and \Sigma^- \pi^+ differ significantly. Our results show that the \Lambda(1405), as the I=0 constituent of the reaction, must be accompanied by an I > 0 component. We discuss phenomenological fits to the data to test the possible forms and magnitudes of these amplitudes. A two-amplitude I=0 fit of Breit-Wigner form to the \Sigma^0\pi^0 channel alone works quite well. The addition of a single I=1 amplitude works fairly well to model all the line shapes simultaneously.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: U., Carnegie Mellon & U., Indiana
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

Description: Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIPSS Free-Electron Laser Searches for Dark Matter

Description: A variety of Dark Matter particle candidates have been hypothesized by physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) in the very light (10{sup -6} - 10{sup -3} eV) range. In the past decade several international groups have conducted laboratory experiments designed to either produce such particles or extend the boundaries in parameter space. The LIght Pseudo-scalar and Scalar Search (LIPSS) Collaboration, using the 'Light Shining through a Wall' (LSW) technique, passes the high average power photon beam from Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser through a magnetic field upstream from a mirror and optical beam dump. Light Neutral Bosons (LNBs), generated by coupling of photons with the magnetic field, pass through the mirror ('the Wall') into an identical magnetic field where they revert to detectable photons by the same coupling process. While no evidence of LNBs was evident, new scalar coupling boundaries were established. New constraints were also determined for hypothetical para-photons and for millicharged fermions. We will describe our experimental setup and results for LNBs, para-photons, and milli-charged fermions. Plans for chameleon particle searches are underway.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Afanaciev, Andrei; Beard, Kevin; Biallas, George; Boyce, James R; Minarni, M; Ramdon, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

Description: With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Williams, Gwyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton through Parity Violating Electron Scattering using the Qweak Apparatus: A 21% Result

Description: After a decade of preparations, the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is making the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q^p_W. This quantity is suppressed in the Standard Model making a good candidate for search for new physics beyond the SM at the TeV scale. Operationally, we measure a small (about -0.200 ppm) parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering in integrating mode while flipping the helicity of the electrons 1000 times per second. Commissioning took place Fall 2010, and we finished taking data in early summer 2012. This dissertation is based on the data taken on an initial two weeks period (Wien0). It will provide an overview of the Qweak apparatus, description of the data acquisition and analysis software systems, and final analysis and results from the Wien0 data set. The result is a 16% measurement of the parity violating electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A = -0.2788 +/- 0.0348 (stat.) +/- 0.0290 (syst.) ppm at Q^2 = 0.0250 +/- 0.0006 (GeV)^2. From this a 21% measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q_w^p(msr)= +0.0952 +/- 0.0155 (stat.) +/- 0.0131 (syst.) +/- 0.0015 (theory) is extracted. From this a 2% measurement of the weak mixing angle, sin^2theta_W(msr)= +0.2328 +/- 0.0039 (stat.) +/- 0.0033 (syst.) +/- 0.0004 (theory) and improved constraints on isoscalar/isovector effective coupling constants of the weak neutral hadronic currents are extracted. These results deviate from the Standard Model by one standard deviation. The Wien0 results are a proof of principle of the Qweak data analysis and a highlight of the road ahead for obtaining full results.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Beminiwattha, Rakitha
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody Source

Description: Frequency domain measurements with Martin-Puplett interferometer is one of a few techniques capable of bunch length measurements at the level of ~ 100 fs. As the bunch length becomes shorter, it is important to know and be able to measure the limitations of the instrument in terms of shortest measurable bunch length. In this paper we describe an experiment using a blackbody source with the modified Martin-Puplett interferometer that is routine- ly used for bunch length measurements at the JLab FEL, as a way to estimate the shortest, measurable bunch length. The limitation comes from high frequency cut-off of the wire-grid polarizer currently used and is estimated to be 50 fs RMS. The measurements are made with the same Golay cell detector that is used for beam measure- ments. We demonstrate that, even though the blackbody source is many orders of magnitude less bright than the coherent transition or synchrotron radiation, it can be used for the measurements and gives a very good signal to noise ratio in combination with lock-in detection. We also compare the measurements made in air and in vacuum to characterize the very strong effect of the atmospheric absorption.
Date: June 1, 2013
Creator: Evtushenko, Pavel E. & Klopf, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

Description: Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Kelleher, Aidan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The lightest hybrid meson supermultiplet in QCD

Description: We interpret the spectrum of meson states recently obtained in non-perturbative lattice QCD calculations in terms of constituent quark-antiquark bound states and states, called 'hybrids', in which the q{bar q} pair is supplemented by an excitation of the gluonic field. We identify a lightest supermultiplet of hybrid mesons with J{sup PC} = (0,1,2){sup {-+}}, 1{sup -} built from a gluonic excitation of chromomagnetic character coupled to q{bar q} in an S-wave. The next lightest hybrids are suggested to be quark orbital excitations with the same gluonic excitation, while the next distinct gluonic excitation is significantly heavier. Existing models of gluonic excitations are compared to these findings and possible phenomenological consequences explored.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Dudek, Jozef J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LINACS FOR FUTURE MUON FACILITIES

Description: Future Muon Colliders (MC) and Neutrino Factories (NF) based on muon storage rings will require innovative linacs to: produce the muons, cool them, compress longi-tudinally and ‘shape’ them into a beam and finally to rap-idly accelerate them to multi-GeV (NF) and TeV (MC) energies. Each of these four linac applications has new requirements and opportunities that follow from the na-ture of the muon in that it has a short lifetime (τ = 2.2 μsec) in its own rest frame, it is produced in a tertiary process into a large emittance, and its electron, photon, and neutrino decay products can be more than an annoy-ance. As an example, for optimum performance, the linac repetition rates should scale inversely with the laboratory lifetime of the muon in its storage ring, something as high as 1 kHz for a 40 GeV Neutrino Factory or as low as 20 Hz for a 5 TeV Muon Collider. A superconducting 8 GeV Linac capable of CW operation is being studied as a ver-satile option for muon production [1] for colliders, facto-ries, and muon beams for diverse purposes. A linac filled with high pressure hydrogen gas and imbedded in strong magnetic fields has been proposed to rapidly cool muon beams [2]. Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are possible because muons do not generate significant syn-chrotron radiation even at extremely high energy and in strong magnetic fields. We will describe the present status of linacs for muon applications; in particular the longitu-dinal bunch compression in a single pass linac and multi-pass acceleration in the RLA, especially the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using supercon-ducting RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both μ+ and μ− species, with pulsed linac quadrupoles to allow the maximum number of passes. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac ...
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Slawomir Bogacz, Rolland Johnson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge at the Qweak Experiment

Description: The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the parity violating asymmetry of polarized electrons scattering from a proton target at very low momentum transfer. In the Standard Model, this asymmetry reveals the proton's coupling to the neutral vector current, the weak charge. This value, measured directly for the first time, will provide a precision test of the Standard Model and will constrain the possibility of relevant physics beyond the Standard Model. The planned precision will probe certain classes of new physics at the ~2 TeV scale. In order to challenge the precise predictions, the asymmetry will be measured with a 2.5 percent accuracy. To achieve such a precision, great care has to be taken on many aspects of the experiment. The very low momentum transfer reduces the hadronic effects to the asymmetry and must be determined to half of a percent accuracy. Beam stability is controlled and monitored constantly and background events are carefully studied.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Rajotte, Jean-Francois
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

Description: After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department