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Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

Description: Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs.
Date: August 18, 1995
Creator: Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J. & Nunn, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

Description: This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

Description: The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis QA Test 1, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

Description: Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA and CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test. In addition, testing included procedures comparing daily renewal versus non-renewal of test sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected July 15 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 5.1 was conducted from July 21-30, 1993. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments. Side by side testing of sediments with daily sediment renewal and no sediment renewal showed no differences between methods. This may be due to the absence of toxicity in both samples and may not reflect true differences between the two methods for toxic sediment.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis QA Test 2, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

Description: Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Atiodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected August 14 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 4.3 was conducted from August 24-September 2, 1993. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh--water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis QA Test 3, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

Description: Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected May 5 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 2.9 was conducted from May 10-19, 1994. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis QA Test 4, Clinch River - Environmental restoration program (CR-ERP)

Description: Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected September 8 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 1.0 was conducted September 13-22, 1994. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

Description: Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6-15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed LC{sub 50} values of 0.97 and 0.84 mg Cu/L for phytoplankton and YCT-S, respectively. Previously obtained values for phytoplankton tests are 2.02 and 1.12 mg Cu/L. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Although significant reduction in growth, compared to the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

Description: Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12-21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

Description: Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

Description: Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

Description: Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22-29, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Russell, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

Description: Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) Study, ambient water toxicity. Final report, October 21, 1993--October 28, 1993

Description: Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21-28, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. A split sample test using daphnids only will be scheduled during 1994 as a substitute for this study period. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Simbeck, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinch River remedial investigation task 9 -- benthic macroinvertebrates

Description: This report summarizes the results of Task 9 of the TVA/Department of Energy (DOE) Interagency Agreement supporting DOE`s Clinch River Remedial Investigation. Species lists and densities (numbers/m{sup 2}) of benthic macroinvertebrates sampled at 16 sites in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek embayments of upper Watts Bar Reservoir near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in March, 1994, are presented and briefly discussed. Data are also analyzed to assess and compare quality of benthic communities at each site, according to methods developed for TVA`s Reservoir Vital Signs Monitoring Program. Results of this study will be incorporated with other program tasks in a comprehensive report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1995, which will, in part, assess the effect of sediment contaminants on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Watts Bar Reservoir.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Scott, E.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 5: TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

Description: The objectives of Task 5 of the Interagency Agreement No. DE-AI05-91OR22007 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir, and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

10-MW demonstration of the gas suspension absorption process at TVA`s Center for Emissions Research. Final report

Description: The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cooperation with AirPol Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed a successful 17-month test program with the AirPol Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at TVA`s Center for Emissions Research (CER). This project was selected by DOE for funding in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. This 10-MW demonstration of the GSA FGD system at the CER was the first application of this technology in the U.S. The GSA test program, which was cofunded two-thirds by TVA and one-third by DOE/AirPol, was completed over a 17-month period from November 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993. This test program demonstrated that the GSA FGD technology could achieve high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (90+ percent) for a 2.7 percent sulfur (as-fired) coal application, while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), i.e., 0.03 lb/MBtu, in a four-field electrostatic precipitator. The reliability and operability of this system was also demonstrated in a 28-day, 24 hour/day, continuous run during which the GSA unit simultaneously achieved high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (90+ percent) and maintained particulate emissions below the NSPS. Also, the air toxics removal capabilities of the GSA system were determined in a series of tests. A 1-MW pulsejet baghouse (PJBH) pilot plant was also tested in conjunction with this GSA test program. This PJBH testing was initially cofunded by TVA and the Electric Power Research Institute, who were later joined by AirPol and DOE in sponsoring this PJBH testing. A 14-day PJBH demonstration run was also completed to confirm the reliability of this system.
Date: March 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

Description: Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir (which is considered part of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir System), and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Results of this study indicated that the levels of contamination in the samples from the Watts Bar and Melton Hill Reservoir sites did not pose a threat to human health. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. Eleven of the sampling sites were selected based on existence of pollutant discharge permits, known locations of hazardous waste sites, and knowledge of past practices. The twelfth sample site was selected as a relatively less contaminated reference site for comparison purposes.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J. & Nunn, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of sediment and water sampling and inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes - Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes - Data report

Description: Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report

Description: Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

Description: The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department