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Solar Design Workbook

Description: This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photobiological hydrogen production

Description: Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Seibert, M; Lien, S & Weaver, P F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project: Solar Radiation Research annual report

Description: This report gives an overview of the fiscal year 1990 research activities and results under the Solar Radiation Research Task of the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The activities under this task include developing and applying measurement techniques, instrumentation, and data and models to understand and quantify the response of photovoltaic devices to variations in broadband and spectra solar radiation. The information presented in this report was presented at the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project 10th Review Meeting, October 1990, and will be published in a special issue of Solar Cells dedicated to the meeting.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Riordan, C.; Hulstrom, R.; Cannon, T.; Myers, D. & Stoffel, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

Description: The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Mrig, L. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning for electric utility solar applications: the effects on reliability and production cost estimates of the variability in demand

Description: Previous studies have shown the necessity of the consideration of hourly variability in the output from the intermittent generation source. However, the studies did not take into account the variability in the demand. A result is presented which shows that under general conditions the variability due to randomness can be ignored except in the neighborhood of the peak and minimum demands.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Fegan, G.R. & Percival, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

Description: This appendix contains a brief summary of a detailed description of alternative future energy scenarios which provide an overall backdrop for the photovoltaic venture analysis. Also included is a summary of a photovoltaic market/demand workshop, a summary of a photovoltaic supply workshop which used cross-impact analysis, and a report on photovoltaic array and system prices in 1982 and 1986. The results of a sectorial demand analysis for photovoltaic power systems used in the residential sector (single family homes), the service, commercial, and institutional sector (schools), and in the central power sector are presented. An analysis of photovoltaics in the electric utility market is given, and a report on the industrialization of photovoltaic systems is included. A DOE information memorandum regarding ''A Strategy for a Multi-Year Procurement Initiative on Photovoltaics (ACTS No. ET-002)'' is also included. (WHK)
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.; Doane, J. & Bishop, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymers in solar technologies: an R and D strategy

Description: The use of polymers can increase the cost-effectiveness of solar technologies. The potential impact of polymers may be enhanced earlier if R and D is carried out according to a plan. The purpose of this plan is to present a five-year program consisting of 20 tasks categorized into six major problem areas: response to combined stresses; photochemistry; permeability/adhesion; surface properties; mechanical properties; and development of polymers. A budget required for each task is estimated and summarized for each problem area. It is shown that the potential future impact of polymers on the economics of solar technologies justifies the proposed expenditures.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Carroll, W.F. & Schissel, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary energy balance and economics of a farm-scale ethanol plant

Description: The energy balance and economics of grain to ethanol plants are matters of current national interest, as we strive to deal with our liquid fuel supply problems. This report prepared at the request of the Department of Energy, examines the energy balance and economic questions for a particular farm-scale plant in Campo, Colo. It shows that such plants may have a place in our national liquid fuel supply system.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Jantzen, D. & McKinnon, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

Description: The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: White, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National program plan for absorber surfaces R and D

Description: The optical properties - solar absorptance (..cap alpha../sub s/) and thermal emittance (epsilon/sub t/) - of the receiver surface are important in a wide range of solar energy conversion devices from passive solar buildings to sophisticated two axis tracking concentrators. This report describes a National Plan for Absorber Surfaces R and D and includes the background information (available absorber materials and characteristics, applications, and probable benefits) used to derive the plan.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Call, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National solar optical materials program plan: an overview

Description: A coordinated national program is being formulated to adapt and develop optical materials to support a goal of meeting 20% of our national energy needs with solar by the year 2000. The program contains elements covering absorber, reflector, and transmitter materials but no photovoltaic materials. These elements include research on glass and polymer materials for glazing and reflector components, environmental testing, and long-term reliability modeling. Program subelements that support R and D and encourage commercialization of new products are also discussed. An overview of the proposed funding levels is presented.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Masterson, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

Description: Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.
Date: November 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open cycle OTEC system with falling jet evaporator and condenser

Description: A configuration for the open cycle (OC) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is presented incorporating a countercurrent falling jet evaporator and a concurrent falling jet condenser. The parameters governing performance of the proposed configuration are discussed and the sizing of equipment for a 100-MWe net power output OC OTEC plant is performed, based on recent experimental falling jet heat and mass transfer results. The performance of an OC OTEC plant with falling jet evaporator-condenser is compared with the Westinghouse conceptual design that uses an open-channel evaporator and a surface condenser. Preliminary calculations indicate that falling jet heat and mass transfer, when applied in the proposed configuration, leads to a very simple and compact plant assembly resulting in substantial capital cost savings.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Kogan, A.; Johnson, D. H.; Green, H. J. & Olson, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of developing programs in solar desiccant cooling for residential buildings

Description: An overview is provided of the ongoing work in desiccant cooling under the national solar heating and cooling research program. Open cycle adsorption and absorption systems are examined. The different dehumidifier bed configurations are the distinguishing features of these systems. The basic operating principles of each dehumidifier concept are explained along with some discussion of their comparative features. Performance predictions developed by SERI for a solar desiccant solar system employing an axial-flow desiccant wheel dehumidifier are presented. In terms of life-cycle cost and displaced fossil-fuel energy, the results indicate that it should be beneficial to use solar desiccant coolers in residential applications. Although no prototype testing of any of these concepts is currently underway, test results are expected and will be reported within one year.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance characteristics of a commercially available, point-focus, solar power system. [7. 5 kWe peak]

Description: The performance of a commercially available solar electric power system is described in terms of instantaneous electrical power output for a given insolation and electrical energy production per day. Receiver thermal loss coefficient and concentrator optical efficiency are measured and system performance is then given with steam cycle efficiency and electrical generator efficiency as parameters. System performance is limited by a relatively low optical efficiency of 44%. For peak insolation, this collector delivers 9.2 kw./sub th/ to the steam engine, representing 35% of the solar input.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Bohn, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photobiological hydrogen production

Description: Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Seibert, M.; Lien, S. & Weaver, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic markets: a review and assessment

Description: Available information on potential markets for photovoltaic power systems is reviewed. A set of key parameters which affect the rate of photovoltaic market penetration is used to develop a simple anaytical structure that characterizes potential markets. Completed studies on photovoltaic markets were reviewed to describe potential markets using this structure. Selected markets were then examined in greater detail in a market demand workshop attended by potential purchasers in these markets. Available information, while sufficient to provide a rudimentary indication of how markets might develop, does not allow the construction of any single market scenario in which a high level of confidence can be placed. Major uncertainties in the available information on photovoltaic markets are highlighted.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Posner, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

Description: This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Posner, D. & Costello, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace

Description: Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Basso, T.S.; Surek, T. & Thornton, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

Description: Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. & Noufi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

Description: The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F. & Mahrenholz, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National commercial solar heating and cooling demonstration: purposes, program activities, and implications for future programs

Description: The Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 created a set of activities to demonstrate the potential use of solar heating within a three-year period and of combined solar heating and cooling within a five-year period. This study assesses the Commercial Demonstration Program portion of the activity in terms of its stated goals and objectives. The primary data base was DOE contractor reports on commercial demonstration projects. It was concluded that the program did not provide data to support a positive decision for the immediate construction or purchase of commercial solar systems. However, the program may have contributed to other goals in the subsequent legislation; i.e., research and development information, stimulation of the solar industry, and more informed policy decisions.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Koontz, R.; Genest, M. & Bryant, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-term improvements in parabolic troughs: an economic and performance assessment

Description: Improved parabolic-trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis qualifies the performance potential of various parabolic-trough component improvements from a systems viewpoint and uses these performance data to determine the worth of each improvement on an economic basis. The improvements considered are evacuated receivers, silvered-glass reflectors, improved receiver, selective coatings, higher optical accuracy concentrations, and higher transmittance receiver glazings. Upper-bound costs for each improvement are provided as well as estimates of the increased solar system rates of return that are made possible by these improvements. The performance and economic potential of some of these improvements are shown to be substantial, especially at higher collector operating temperatures.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Gee, R. & Murphy, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

Description: The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: O'Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A & Kramer, K A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department