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Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies

Description: 'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'
Date: September 19, 1999
Creator: Langton, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

Description: AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.
Date: January 13, 1999
Creator: Simpkins, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vision System for Remote Strain/Deformation Measurement

Description: Machine vision metrology is ideally suited to the task of non-contact/non-intrusive deformation and strain measurement in a remote system. The objective of this work-in-progress is to develop a compact instrument for strain measurement consisting of a camera, image capture card, PC, software, and light source. The instrument is portable and useful in a variety of applications and environments. A digital camera with a microscopic lens is connected to an image capture card in a PC. Commercially available image processing software is used to control the image capture and image processing steps leading up to displacement/strain measurement. Image processing steps include filtering and edge/feature enhancement. Custom software is required to control/automate certain elements of the acquisition and processing. Images of a region on the surface of a specimen are acquired at hold points (during static tests) or at regular time intervals (during transients). Salient features in the image scene (microstructure, oxide deposits, etc.) are observed in subsequent images. The strain measurement algorithm characterizes relative motion of the salient features with individual displacement vectors yielding 2-D deformation equations. The set of deformation equations is solved simultaneously to yield unknown deformation gradient terms that are used to express 2-D strain. The overall concept, theory, and test results to date are presented herein.
Date: January 26, 1999
Creator: Hovis, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Internally Dry Flooded Cavity Accident Based on Initial Plate-Type Design

Description: Typically, heat conduction alone is insufficient for cooling components under decay heat conditions. However, due to various design features associated with the blanket modules heat conduction alone can transfer all of the deposited energy when under flooded cavity conditions.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Old F-Area Seepage Basin Transport Analyses in Support of a SCDHEC Mixing Zone Application

Description: This report documents the groundwater flow and transport results presented in the groundwater mixing zone application (GWMZ) for the Old F-Area Seepage Basin (OFASB) submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in March, 1997 (WSRC, 1997).
Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Aleman, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

Description: The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste ...
Date: December 7, 1998
Creator: Langton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a Carousel Process for Removing Cesium from SRS Waste Using Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchanger

Description: Designs of a three-column carousel process based on crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchanger have been developed for removing radioactive 137Cs+ from Savannah River Site's (SRS) nuclear wastes. A multicomponent ion exchange equilibrium model (Zheng et al., 1997) from Texas A&M University, which is based on batch data obtained from CST powder, is used to generate cesium loading data at different cesium concentrations for various types of SRS wastes. These loading data are fit to the Langmuir equation to obtain effective single-component cesium isotherm parameters. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with batch test data obtained from CST powder, an early CST pellet batch (38B), and a later batch (IE911) using two SRS waste simulants. The ratios between experimental cesium distribution coefficients and predicted values are between 0.56 and 1.0. The variation appears to be due to inadequate equilibration time in some of the batches. Mass transfer parameters are estimated by analyzing column data of a simulated SRS waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank W29 (MVST-W29) waste. The intraparticle diffusivity estimated for the two wastes can be well correlated by means of the Stokes-Einstein equation.Simulations are performed to determine the length of the mass transfer zone for given feed compositions, Cs+ concentrations, and linear velocities. In order to ensure high column utilization during both the transient and cyclic steady state periods, the length of a single segment in the carousel process is chosen to be the mass transfer zone length after the concentration wave achieves a constant pattern. Analysis of the dimensionless groups in the differential mass balance equations reveals that the normalized mass transfer zone length is linearly proportional to the particle Peclet number. The proportionality constant is a function of the waste composition and the Cs+ concentration in the waste. The higher the effective Cs+ capacity and the higher ...
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Walker, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

Description: Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Nance, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwate Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report, First and Second Quarters 1998, Volumes I, II, & III

Description: This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah river Site (SRS) during first and second quarters 1998. This program is required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Report requirements are described in the 1995 RCRA Renewal Permit, effective October 5, 1995, Section IIIB.H.11.b for the M-Area HWMF and Section IIIG.H.11.b for the Met Lab HWMF.
Date: October 30, 1998
Creator: Chase, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Argon Reservoir

Description: Experimental and computational studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of an Argon Reservoir (AR). The AR is designed to prevent the ingress of air into the extraction furnace during the insertion and removal of the extraction basket, which contains Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods. Computational computer code studies were performed to evaluate the AR design concept. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that the Argon reservoir would be very effective in keeping air and moisture from infiltrating into the furnace module if the reservoir was continuously supplied with make-up argon.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Brizes, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence Of Coal Combustion Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste On Element Uptake By Maize (Zea Mays L.)

Description: A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of coal combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste from a coal combustion electric power facility on element uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). Unweathered FGD was applied to an Orangeburg Series (Typic Paleudult) soil with an initial soil pH salt of 4.90. The FGD was added at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 per cent by weight. The test plant, maize, was harvested after 6 weeks of growth. Within 56 days of the FGD application, all rates of FGD significantly increased pH in the soil and the soil leachate above 6.0. The elemental concentration of the maize tissues indicated a characteristic elevation of B, Se, Mo, and As. However, no visual symptoms of toxicity of B or other elements in plants were observed. Increasing level of FGD caused a steady decline in dry weight, with the highest treatment producing plants which had approximately half the biomass of the control plants. Due to elevated concentrations of B and other elements and due to adverse yield effects measured on plants, unweathered FGD would not be a suitable amendment for 6-week old maize on this soil.
Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Knox, Anna S.; Knox, John D.; Adriano, Domy C. & Sajwan, Kenneth S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Simulated Waste Glass Viscosity

Description: A new high-temperature glass viscometer instrument was established and evaluated using a simulated waste glass in a comparative test with eight other laboratories and viscometers. The unit has distinct advantages in physical size, the amount of glass required for testing, and the simplicity of operation. These advantages can be important for work with radioactive materials. Results from the comparison indicate excellent accuracy and repeatability.
Date: July 10, 2002
Creator: Schumacher, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

Description: Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is stored and still available for installation. Out of specification Pu-238 scrap material can be purified and recovered ...
Date: January 9, 2013
Creator: Fuller, K.; Smith, Robert H. Jr. & Goergen, Charles R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

Description: The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Hobbs, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

Description: A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Cumbest, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Agitated Tanks Containing Non-Newtonian Fluids

Description: The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as KTPB concentration, time, sodium molarity, temperature, salt composition, sludge concentration, and radiation dose, on benzene retention and release. This paper describes the results of the tests.
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

Description: Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Lunsford, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predictive Models for the Determination of Pitting Corrosion Versus Inhibitor Concentrations and Temperature for Radioactive Sludge in Carbon Steel Waste Tanks

Description: Statistical models have been developed to predict the occurrence of pitting corrosion in carbon steel waste storage tanks exposed to radioactive nuclear waste. The levels of nitrite concentrations necessary to inhibit pitting at various temperatures and nitrate concentrations were experimentally determined via electrochemical polarization and coupon immersion corrosion tests. Models for the pitting behavior were developed based on various statistical analyses of the experimental data. Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, trained using the Back-Propagation of Error Algorithm, more accurately predicted conditions at which pitting occurred than the logistic regression models developed using the same data.
Date: October 6, 1998
Creator: Mickalonis, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

Description: In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.
Date: October 21, 1998
Creator: Maryak, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Scoping Studies for Determining Radiolytic Hydrogen Production from Moist CST and CST Slurries

Description: In support of the Salt Disposition team, scoping studies have been performed on the radiolysis of moist and aqueous slurries of Crystalline Silicotitanate(CST). If CST is used for removal of Cs-137 from SRS salt solutions, radiolysis of the water by Cs-137 on the CST will produce H2. Also it has been shown that the presence of a solid in the system can enhance the production of H2 by transferring absorbed energy from the solid to the water (1). As indicated in the test plan (2) for this scoping study, it is the intent of this study to determine if CST enhances the radiolytic production of H2 and to estimate the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate from an aqueous CST slurry in a column at the maximum expected Cs-137 loading on the CST.Initially several CST slurry systems were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and the radiolytic yield of H2 measured in terms of its G value (molecules of H2 produced per 100 eV of energy absorbed). Based on the results of these tests it was determined that CST did not enhance the radiolytic production of H2 by transferring energy to the water and causing it to decompose.Calculations were then performed to estimate the rate of H2 production from a process column 16ft. long by 5ft. in diameter containing CST that was fully loaded with Cs-137. The maximum rate of H2 production based on the G values measured in this study was one liter per minute at STP (0.04 cfm). This was for a 63 percent water/CST slurry with a G value of 0.2 molecules/100eV for H2 production and a loading of 1 gram of Cs-137 per 100 grams of resin. The present work also indicates that for a column containing salt solution and CST rather than water and CST, the rate would ...
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Bibler, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department