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Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

Description: This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R. & Northrop, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

Description: A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue analysis of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) components using a rainflow counting algorithm

Description: A rainflow counting algorithm'' has been incorporated into the LIFE2 fatigue/fracture analysis code for wind turbines. The count algorithm, with its associated pre- and post-count algorithms, permits the code to incorporate time-series data into its analysis scheme. After a description of the algorithms used here, their use is illustrated by the examination of stress-time histories from the Sandia 34-m Test Bed vertical axis wind turbine. The results of the rainflow analysis are compared and contrasted to previously reported predictions for the service lifetime of the fatigue critical component for this turbine. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Sutherland, H.J. & Schluter, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of metal hydrous titanium oxide catalysts to enhance coal tar yield via hydropyrolysis

Description: Catalytic hydropyrolysis experiments performed in this project on several US and UK coals have established that tar yields in excess of 70% (daf basis) and conversions (100%-char) in excess of 80% can be achieved from bituminous coals containing 80--84% dmmf carbon using hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) catalysts with low concentrations of active metals. Total conversion approaches the reactive maceral contents for these coals. Previously performed two-stage catalytic hydropyrolysis experiments have demonstrated that high yields of liquid products with high H/C ratios, low heteroatom contents, and a significant concentration of light naphtha can be achieved. The objectives of this research are to determine suitable methods for catalyzing the hydropyrolysis process and to investigate the reactions and mechanisms responsible for the high conversion of coal materials to distillable liquids via direct catalytic hydropyrolysis. Recently developed hydrous titanium oxide (HTO)-supported catalysts have received encouraging results in direct coal liquefaction applications. Results of hydropyrolysis experiment using Mo and Pd HTO catalysts coated directly onto the coal are presented here and compared with results from experiments using uncatalyzed coal samples and using a dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst. The effect of coal rank, active metals concentration, dispersion method, and metal type are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P. & Dosch, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved assembly processes for the Quartz Digital Accelerometer cantilever

Description: This report covers the development of improved assembly processes for the Quartz Digital Accelerometer cantilever. In this report we discuss improved single-assembly tooling, the development of tooling and processes for precision application of polyimide adhesive, the development of the wafer scale assembly procedure, and the application of eutectic bonding to cantilever assembly. 2 refs., 17 figs.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Romero, A.M. & Gebert, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations

Description: Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some balance characteristics. The requirements of relevant mass standards are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for operation of practical mass calibration. An appendix is attached which gives computation examples using apparent mass'' and also gives a method for determining the density of mass artifacts or unknown materials. 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Braudaway, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Far-field dispersal modeling for fuel-air-explosive devices

Description: A computer model for simulating the explosive dispersal of a fuel agent in the far-field regime is described and is applied to a wide variety of initial conditions to judge their effect upon the resulting fuel/air cloud. This work was directed toward modeling the dispersal process associated with Fuel-Air-Explosives devices. The far-field dispersal regime is taken to be that time after the initial burster charge detonation in which the shock forces no longer dominate the flow field and initial canister and fuel mass breakup has occurred. The model was applied to a low vapor pressure fuel, a high vapor pressure fuel and a solid fuel. A strong dependence of the final cloud characteristics upon the initial droplet size distribution was demonstrated. The predicted fuel-air clouds were highly non-uniform in concentration. 18 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Glass, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the DF-4 BWR (boiling water reactor) control blade-channel box test

Description: The DF-4 in-pile fuel damage experiment investigated the behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel canisters and control blades in the high temperature environment of an unrecovered reactor accident. This experiment, which was carried out in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories, was performed under the USNRC's internationally sponsored severe fuel damage (SFD) program. The DF-4 test is described herein and results from the experiment are presented. Important findings from the DF-4 test include the low temperature melting of the stainless steel control blade caused by reaction with the B{sub 4}C, and the subsequent low temperature attack of the Zr-4 channel box by the relocating molten blade components. Hydrogen generation was found to continue throughout the experiment, diminishing slightly following the relocation of molten oxidizing zircaloy to the lower extreme of the test bundle. A large blockage which was formed from this material continued to oxidize while steam was being fed into the the test bundle. The results of this test have provided information on the initial stages of core melt progression in BWR geometry involving the heatup and cladding oxidation stages of a severe accident and terminating at the point of melting and relocation of the metallic core components. The information is useful in modeling melt progression in BWR core geometry, and provides engineering insight into the key phenomena controlling these processes. 12 refs., 12 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Gauntt, R.O. & Gasser, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock-induced chemical reactions and synthesis of binary compounds

Description: The results of an experimental program on shock-induced chemical reactions and synthesis of binary compounds are presented. Binary powder mixture systems that are investigated include: (1) intermetallic forming compounds (e.g., Ni--Al, Ni--Si, Nb--Si, etc.) associated with large negative heats of reaction; and (2) isomorphous (e.g., Ni--Cu) and fully immiscible (e.g., Nb--Cu) systems associated with zero (or positive) heat of reaction. The extent of shock induced chemical reactions and the type of shock synthesized compounds formed in these systems are observed to be dependent on (i) shock-loading condition, (ii) the relative volumetric distribution of the mixture constituents, and (iii) differences in respective material properties which affect relative particle flow. 5 refs., 9 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Thadhani, N.N.; Advani, A.; Song, I.; Dunbar, E.; Grebe, A. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (USA). Center for Explosives Technology Research) & Graham, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing experiments for development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

Description: Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells requires processing technology capable of maintaining long bulk carrier lifetime and low surface recombination. Development of long-lifetime processing techniques using experimental designs based on statistical methods is described. The first three experiments investigated pre-oxidation cleans, phosphorus gettering, and a comparison of different phosphorus diffusion sources. Optimal processing parameters were found to depend on type of silicon material. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; King, D.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; Ruby, D.S.; Buck, M.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

Description: This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Nicolette, V.F. & Nowlen, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiplexer/amplifier test results for SP-100

Description: Multiplexer and amplifier systems must be designed with transistors that can perform satisfactorily over ten years to a total gamma dose of 120E6 rads and a total neutron fluence of 1.6E15 nvt for the SP-100 reactor system. Series of gamma and neutron tests have been completed to measure transistor degradation as a function of total dose, fluence, and temperature. Test results indicate that modest increases in temperature result in substantial improvement of transistor performance at a neutron flux of 8E8 n/cm{sup 2}/s. 2 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: King, D.B.; Luker, S.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Ryan, R. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of concentrator collector and high-efficiency concentrator cell development

Description: Photovoltaic concentrator collectors are an attractive option for utility-scale photovoltaic power plants. This paper reviews the current status of photovoltaic concentrator collector and cell development. Included in the review is a discussion of the economic motivation for concentrators, a summary of recent concentrator collector and cell development, and a description of a major new program to accelerate development and commercial introduction of concentrator collectors. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Gee, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the Savannah River new production reactor design

Description: This document contains the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. Included in this document are descriptions of the primary system, reactor vessel, and loss-of-coolant accident computer input models, the results of the cold leg and hot leg loss-of-coolant accident analyses, and the results of sensitivity calculations for the cold leg loss-of-coolant accident. 5 refs., 50 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Maloney, K.J. & Pryor, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damping measurements using operational data

Description: We have measured modal damping using strain-gauge data from an operating wind turbine. Previously, such measurements were difficult and expensive. Auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the strain-gauge data have been shown to consist of decaying sinusoids which correspond to the modal frequencies and damping ratios of the wind turbine. We have verified the method by extracting damping values from an analytically generated data set. Actual operating response data from the DOE/Sandia 34-meter Test Bed has been used to calculate modal damping ratios as a function of rotor rotation rate. This capability will allow more accurate fatigue life prediction and control. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: James, G.H.; Carne, T.G. & Veers, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

Description: A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

Description: Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface fracture spacing

Description: This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stellar Systems Inc. Series 800/5000 E-Field sensor evaluation

Description: This report concerns the evaluation of the Stellar Systems Inc. E-Field intrusion detection system Series 800 control unit and the 5000 Series hardware components. Included are functional descriptions, installation procedures, testing procedures, and testing/operational results. 35 figs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Follis, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instability of a supersonic shock free elliptic jet

Description: This paper presents a comparison of the measured and the computed spatial stability properties of an aspect ratio 2 supersonic shock free elliptic jet. The shock free nature of the elliptic jet provides an ideal test of validity of modeling the large scale coherent structures in the initial mixing region of noncircular supersonic jets with linear hydrodynamic stability theory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic data were measured. The data are used to compute the mean velocity profiles and to provide a description of the spatial composition of pressure waves in the elliptic jet. A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Rayleigh problem governing the inviscid linear spatial stability of the jet. The measured mean velocity profiles are used to provide a qualitative model for the cross sectional geometry and the smooth velocity profiles used in the stability analysis. Computational results are presented for several modes of instability at two jet cross sections. The acoustic measurements show that a varicose instability is the jet's perferred mode of motion. The stability analysis predicts that the Strouhal number varies linearly as a function of axial distance in the jet's initial mixing region, which is in good qualitative agreement with previous measurements. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Baty, R.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Seiner, J.M. & Ponton, M.K. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (USA). Langley Research Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vindicator ETW-250 test report

Description: The Vindicator ETW-250 taut wire system combines a physical taut wire barrier with an intrusion detection sensor network. The sensor wires deter and/or slow physical entry into protected areas. The sensors themselves generate an alarm if the sensor wires are pulled, spread, cut, or climbed on. This physical motion is converted into an electrical waveform that is analyzed by the processor. The processor then determines if this motion is within the pre-programmed parameters. If it is not, an alarm is generated through a relay back to the monitoring station. Small changes, such as those caused by temperature, are rejected. Installation and testing are described.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Greer, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detonation cell widths in hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures

Description: In this paper I report on the influence of steam and carbon dioxide on the detonability of hydrogen-air mixtures. Data were obtained on the detonation cell width in a heated detonation tube that is 0.43 m in diameter and 13.1 m long. The detonation cell widths were correlated using a characteristic length calculated from a chemical kinetic model. The addition of either diluent to a hydrogen-air mixture increased the cell width for all equivalence ratios. For equal diluent concentrations, however, carbon dioxide not only yielded larger increases in the cell width than steam, but its efficacy relative to steam was predicted to increase with increasing concentration. The range of detonable hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogen-air mixture initially at 1 atm pressure was found to be between 11.6 percent and 74.9 percent for mixtures at 20{degree}C and 9.4 percent and 76.9 percent for mixtures at 100{degree}C. The detonation limit was between 38.8 percent and 40.5 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture initially at 100{degree}C and 1 atm. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Stamps, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility for development of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution: Sensitivity analyses and NDE (nondestructive evaluation) capability

Description: Pressurized water reactor pressure vessels operate under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rules and regulatory guides that are intended to maintain a low probability of vessel failure. The NRC has also addressed neutron embrittlement of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels by imposing regulations on plant operation. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified by these rules and regulations are required, among other things, to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue safe operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. A fracture mechanics sensitivity study was performed to quantify the effect of the assumed flaw distribution on the predicted vessel performance under a specified pressurized thermal shock transient and to determine the critical crack size. Results of the analysis indicate that vessel performance in terms of the estimated probability of failure is very sensitive to the assumed flaw distribution. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Kennedy, E.L. & Foulds, J.R. (Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method

Description: This paper describes a formal process for selecting, from a diverse set of proposed waste minimization activities, those activities that provide the greatest benefit to Department of Energy (DOE). A methodology for evaluating and prioritizing proposals was developed to illustrate how the selection process works and what types of data are required to characterize waste minimization activities. It is clearly impossible to remove all aspects of subjective judgment from the proposal selection process. With this important consideration in mind, the methodology presented is put forth to enhance, not replace, the traditional DOE decision-making process. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kjeldgaard, E.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Saloio, J.H. & Varnado, G.B. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department