10,771 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Kovar Micro Heat Pipe Substrates for Microelectronic Cooling

Description: We describe the development of a new technology for cooling microelectronics. This report documents the design, fabrication, and prototype testing of micro scale heat pipes embedded in a flat plate substrate or heat spreader. A thermal model tuned to the test results enables us to describe heat transfer in the prototype, as well as evaluate the use of this technology in other applications. The substrate walls are Kovar alloy, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of microelectronic die. The prototype designs integrating micro heat pipes with Kovar enhance thermal conductivity by more than a factor of two over that of Kovar alone, thus improving the cooling of micro-electronic die.
Date: April 1999
Creator: Benson, David A.; Burchett, Steven N.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Robino, Charles V.; Schmidt, Carrie & Tigges, Chris P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Examination of System Architectures for Distributing Sensor Data Via Ethernet Networks

Description: Application of the World Wide Web (WWW) for the transfer of sensor data from remote locations to laboratories and offices is a largely ignored application of the WWW. We have investigated several architectures for this application including simple web server/client architectures and variations of this approach. In addition, we have evaluated several commercial approaches and other techniques that have been investigated and are in the literature. Finally, we have provided conclusions based on the results of our study offering suggestions about the advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches studied.
Date: January 2001
Creator: Pfeifer, Kent B.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Martin, Stephen J.; Waldschmidt, R. L. & Rumpf, A. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zone 4 Study: Shielded Lift Truck Refurbishment/Replacement

Description: The Zone 4 Stage Right Shielded Lift Trucks (SLT's) will likely need refurbishment or replacement within the next two to five years, due to wear. This document discusses the options to provide a long term and reliable means of satisfying Zone 4 material movement and inventory requirements.
Date: September 2002
Creator: Amai, Wendy A.; Jones, James F.; Lennox, R. Charleene & Simon, Ronald W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SETEC/Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program: 1999 Annual and Final Report

Description: This report summarizes the results of work conducted by the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) during 1999. This work was performed by one working group: the Semiconductor Equipment Technology Center (SETEC). The group's projects included Numerical/Experimental Characterization of the Growth of Single-Crystal Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}); The Use of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) Imaging for Certifying Critical-Dimension Reference Materials Fabricated with Silicon Micromachining; Assembly Test Chip for Flip Chip on Board; Plasma Mechanism Validation: Modeling and Experimentation; and Model-Based Reduction of Contamination in Gate-Quality Nitride Reactor. During 1999, all projects focused on meeting customer needs in a timely manner and ensuring that projects were aligned with the goals of the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association and with Sandia's defense mission. This report also provides a short history of the Sandia/SEMATECH relationship and a brief on all projects completed during the seven years of the program.
Date: December 2000
Creator: McBrayer, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BAC-G2 Predictions of Thermochemistry for Gas-Phase Aluminum Compounds

Description: A self-consistent set of thermochemical data for 55 molecules in the Al-H-C-O-F-Cl system are obtained from ab initio quantum-chemistry calculations using the BAC-G2 method. Calculations were performed for both stable and radical species. Good agreement is found between the calculations and experimental heats of formation in most cases where data are available for comparison. Electronic energies, molecular geometries, moments of inertia, and vibrational frequencies are provided in the Supporting Information, as are polynomial fits of the thermodynamic data (heat of formation, entropy, and heat capacity) over the 300--3000 K temperature range.
Date: October 2001
Creator: Allendorf, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LDRD 26573 Ultra-Low Power Spread Spectrum Receiver, FY02 Final Report

Description: This report describes the development of an ultra-low power spread spectrum receiver based on a programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator. This work was funded under LDRD 02-26573, Ultra-Low Power Spread Spectrum Receiver. The approach taken in this project uses direct demodulation of a radio frequency (RF) signal from carrier frequency to data frequency. This approach was taken to reduce power consumption and size. The design is based on the technique of correlating the received RF signal with the preprogrammed spreading code. The system requirements, applications, design methodology, and testing results are all documented in the following pages.
Date: October 2002
Creator: Brocato, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design Optimization, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis Version 3.0 Developers Manual (title change from electronic posting)

Description: The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, analytic reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: ELDRED, MICHAEL S.; GIUNTA, ANTHONY A.; VAN BLOEMEN WAANDERS, BART G.; WOJTKIEWICZ JR., STEVEN F.; HART, WILLIAM E. & ALLEVA, MARIO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design Optimization, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis Version 3.0 Reference Manual

Description: The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, analytic reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.
Date: April 2001
Creator: ELDRED, MICHAEL S.; GIUNTA, ANTHONY A.; VAN BLOEMEN WAANDERS, BART G.; WOJTKIEWICZ JR., STEVEN F.; HART, WILLIAM E. & ALLEVA, MARIO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: PSP No.14402-10-02 Improved Manufacturing of MC4531 Mold Bodies Using High-Speed Machining

Description: Document is the final report for PSP project No. 14402-10-02 entitled ''Improved Manufacturing of MC4531 Mold Bodies Using High-Speed Machining (HSM)''. The basic physics of high speed machining is discussed in detail including multiple vibrational mode machining systems (milling and turning) and the effect of spindle speed regulation on maximizing the depth of cut and metal removal rate of a machining operation. The topics of cutting tests and tap tests are also discussed as well as the use of the HSM assistance software ''Harmonizer''. Results of the application of HSM to the machining of encapsulation molds are explained in detail including cutting test results, new tool speeds and feeds, dimensional and surface finish measurements and a comparison to the original machining operations and cycle times. A 38% improvement in cycle time is demonstrated while achieving a 50% better surface finish than required.
Date: October 2002
Creator: Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Biaxial Strain and Chemical Ordering on the Band Gap of InGaN

Description: The authors have performed first-principles calculations to examine the effects of biaxial strain and chemical ordering on the band gap of wurtzite In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N in the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.5. The results for unstrained, random alloys are in good agreement with theoretical estimates and measurements on unstrained zinc-blende alloys, but are in poor agreement with recent measurements on strained wurtzite alloys which display significantly lower gaps. Biaxial strain is found to have a non-linear effect on calculated alloy gaps, increasing them for x < 0.25 and decreasing them for x > 0.25. However, the overall agreement with measured wurtzite values remains poor. Chemical ordering along the [0001] direction in strained alloys is found to decrease the band gaps considerably, yielding much improved agreement with measurements. They discuss their results with regard to current theories concerning the optical properties of wurtzite InGaN alloys.
Date: July 17, 2000
Creator: Wright, Alan F. & van Schilfgaarde, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minority carrier diffusion, defects, and localization in InGaAsN with 2% nitrogen

Description: Electron and hole transport in compensated, InGaAsN ({approx} 2% N) are examined through Hall mobility, photoconductivity, and solar cell photoresponse measurements. Short minority carrier diffusion lengths, photoconductive-response spectra, and doping dependent, thermally activated Hall mobilities reveal a broad distribution of localized states. At this stage of development, lateral carrier transport appears to be limited by large scale (>> mean free path) material inhomogeneities, not a random alloy-induced mobility edge.
Date: May 3, 2000
Creator: Kurtz, Steven R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Seager, Carleton H.; Sieg, Robert M. & Jones, Eric D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

Description: Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.
Date: September 27, 1999
Creator: Knupp, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models

Description: This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.
Date: January 14, 2000
Creator: Edwards, J. R.; Roy, C. J.; Blottner, F. G. & Hassan, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Programming Adapter for a Classified-Data Processor Device

Description: This summer, the author was tasked with the development of a design and prototype for a Programming Adapter (PA). This device must interface to a specialized cluster of computers at a US Air Force programming station. The PA is a command/response system capable of recognizing commands from a host Programming Computer (PC) generating a response to these commands according to design requirements. The PA must also route classified serial data between a programming station and any target devices on the PA without compromising the data. In this manner, classified data can pass through the adapter, but when data transfer is complete, the PA can be handled as an unclassified piece of hardware.
Date: August 9, 2000
Creator: Perea, Dominic A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radial Moment Calculations of Coupled Electron-Photon Beams

Description: The authors consider the steady-state transport of normally incident pencil beams of radiation in slabs of material. A method has been developed for determining the exact radial moments of 3-D beams of radiation as a function of depth into the slab, by solving systems of 1-D transport equations. They implement these radial moment equations in the ONEBFP discrete ordinates code and simulate energy-dependent, coupled electron-photon beams using CEPXS-generated cross sections. Modified P{sub N} synthetic acceleration is employed to speed up the iterative convergence of the 1-D charged particle calculations. For high-energy photon beams, a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete ordinates method is examined. They demonstrate the efficiency of the calculations and make comparisons with 3-D Monte Carlo calculations. Thus, by solving 1-D transport equations, they obtain realistic multidimensional information concerning the broadening of electron-photon beams. This information is relevant to fields such as industrial radiography, medical imaging, radiation oncology, particle accelerators, and lasers.
Date: July 19, 2000
Creator: Franke, Brian C. & Larsen, Edward W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics and Mechanisms in Ion-Conducting Polymer Films as Chemical Sensors

Description: Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are widely used in batteries and fuel cells because of the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at room temperature. The ions are usually Li or protons, although other ions can be shown to conduct in these polymer films. There has been very little published work on SPE films used as chemical sensors. The authors have found that thin films of polymers like polyethylene oxide (PEO) are very sensitive to low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as common solvents. Evidence of a new sensing mechanism involving the percolation of ions through narrow channels of amorphous polymer is presented. They present impedance spectroscopy of PEO films in the frequency range 0.0001 Hz to 1 MHz for different concentrations of VOCs and relative humidity. They find that the measurement frequency is important for distinguishing ionic conductivity from the double layer capacitance and the parasitic capacitance.
Date: July 12, 2000
Creator: Hughes, Robert C.; Yelton, William G.; Pfeifer, Kent B. & Patel, Sanjay V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on Lead Zirconate Titanate 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the Ferroelectric - Antiferroelectric Polymorphic Transformation

Description: Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic transformation of unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb (PNZT) ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydro-static pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. Recently we showed that this simple criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PNZT's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. It has long been known that this transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression. Our modified hypothesis makes two predictions for transformation of unpoled polycrystals under uniaxial stress: (i) the transformation should begin when the maximum compressive stress, {sigma}{sub 1}, equals the hydrostatic pressure for transformation, and (ii) a steadily increasing axial stress should be required to drive the transformation.
Date: July 26, 1999
Creator: Zeuch, D. H.; Montgomery, S. T. & Holcomb, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2K nonvolatile shadow RAM and 265K EEPROM SONOS nonvolatile memory development

Description: This paper describes Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) nonvolatile memory development at Sandia National Laboratories. A 256K EEPROM nonvolatile memory and a 2K nonvolatile shadow RAM are under development using an n-channel SONOS memory technology. The technology has 1.2 {micro}m minimum features in a twin well design using shallow trench isolation.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Nasby, R.D.; Murray, J.R.; Habermehl, S.D.; Bennett, R.S.; Tafoya-Porras, B.C.; Mahl, P.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3D EM imaging from a single borehole; a numerical feasibility study

Description: Often the drilling of an oil well is followed by a logging process to characterize the region immediately surrounding the well bore. The electromagnetic (EM) induction tool, which provides the formation resistivity, is among the most frequently run logs. A preliminary study has been conducted to analyze the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) imaging from a single borehole. The logging tool consists of a vertical magnetic dipole source and multiple 3 component magnetic field receivers offset at different distances from the source. Synthetic data calculated with a 3D finite difference code demonstrate that the phase of the horizontal magnetic fields provides the critical information on the three dimensionality of the medium. A 3D inversion algorithm is then employed to demonstrate the plausibility of 3D inversion using 3 component magnetic field data. Finally, problems associated with introducing biased noise into the horizontal components of the field through misalignment of the logging tool is discussed.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Alumbaugh, D. L. & Wilt, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department