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Certifying the TN-BRP and TN-REG transportable storage demonstration casks

Description: The Shippable Storage Cask Demonstration Project is intended to demonstrate casks which can be used for both shipping and storing spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The demonstration included the requirement that the casks be certified for shipping by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After a lengthy review process which resulted in the resolution of several important technical issues, designs for two similar casks have been certified. This paper describes the certification phase of the demonstration. Based on experience gained during certification phase of the demonstration. Based on experience gained during certification, observations and recommendations have been developed which can benefit others seeking NRC approval of transportation cask designs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Experimental data base for estimating the consequences from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent fuel shipping cask

Description: This paper describes the results of a program conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy to provide an experimental data base for estimating the radiological health effects that could result from the sabotage of a light water reactor spent fuel shipping cask. The primary objectives of the program were limited to: (1) evaluating the effectiveness of selected high energy devices (HED) in breaching full-scale spent fuel shipping casks, (2) quantifying and characterizing relevant aerosol and radiological properties of the released fuel, and (3) using the resulting experimental data to evaluate the radiological health effects resulting from a hypothetical attack on a spent fuel shipping cask in a densely populated urban area. 3 refs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Sandoval, R.P. & Luna, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Borehole radar for geothermal applications

Description: An initial evaluation of a continuous wave borehole radar system with steerable antennas has been completed. Candidate antennas have been identified which meet the size requirements for borehole applications. The patterns of these antennas are not dependent on the properties of the surrounding media when the antenna dimensions are less than one-tenth wavelength. The beam patterns can be steered adequately to allow the volume of earth within several meters of a borehole to be investigated. 7 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Scott, M.W. & Caffey, T.W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

Description: Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Beauheim, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saulnier, G.J. Jr. & Avis, J.D. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

Description: The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Whan, R.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

SANDROS: A motion planner with performance proportional to task difficulty

Description: To address the need of a practical motion planner for manipulators, we present an efficient and resolution-complete algorithm that has performance commensurate with task difficulty. The algorithm uses SANDROS, a new search strategy that combines hierarchical, nonuniform-multi-resolution, and best-fit search to find a near-optimal solution in the configuration space. This algorithm can be applied to any manipulator, and has been tested with 5 and 6-degree-of-freedom robots, with execution time ranging from 20 seconds to 10 minutes on a 16 MIPS workstation. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 10, 1991
Creator: Chen, Pang C. & Hwang, Yong K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enhancement of solar photocatalytic detoxification by adsorption of porphyrins onto TiO sub 2

Description: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a photocatalyst for solar detoxification of water containing organic contaminants such as solvents, PCB's, dioxins, pesticides, and dyes. Unfortunately, the ultraviolet (UV) energy used by TiO{sub 2} ({lambda}<400 nm) only comprises about 4% of the solar spectrum. One way of enhancing the efficiency of solar detoxification technologies is to utilize a larger portion of the solar spectrum to initiate the Tio{sub 2}- catalyzed detoxification chemistry. Metalloporphyrins strongly absorb visible and near infrared radiation. By utilization of a process called photosensitization, adsorption of these dyes onto TiO{sub 2} can enable a much broader portion of the solar spectrum to be used. Photosensitization relies upon the ability of the dye molecule to absorb more of the solar energy than bare TiO{sub 2} and to interact electronically with the TiO{sub 2} surface in such a way as to initiate TiO{sub 2}-based redox photochemistry using the dye-absorbed energy. 16 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Majumder, S.A.; Ondrias, M.R. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Prairie, M.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)) & Shelnutt, J.A. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Description of DASSL: A Differential/Algebraic System Solver

Description: This paper describes a new code DASSL, for the numerical solution of implicit systems of differential/algebraic equations. These equations are written in the form F(t,y,y') = 0, and they can include systems which are substantially more complex than standard form ODE systems y' = f(t,y). Differential/algebraic equations occur in several diverse applications in the physical world. We outline the algorithms and strategies used in DASSL, and explain some of the features of the code. In addition, we outline briefly what needs to be done to solve a problem using DASSL.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Petzold, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Corrosion Resistance of Zinc-Nickel Plated U-O.75 Ti

Description: As part of a program for the US Army directed at improving the corrosion performance of U-0.75 Ti, specimens were coated with Zn-10 Ni alloy electroplate and then subjected to various corrosion tests. This work revealed that the Zn-Ni coatings provided good protection for U-0.75 Ti in salt fog and in non-sealed moist-nitrogen systems. In sealed, moist-nitrogen environments the Zn-Ni coatings deteriorated quickly and provided no protection. Some plating with Zn alone, using some of the new non-cyanide plating solutions, was also attempted, but the results were inconsistent.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Dini, J.W. & Johnson, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis and testing of the HP-R-214 dome monitor cable from Three Mile Island Unit 2

Description: After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, two sections of a cable connected to the HP-R-214 dome monitor were removed for testing. One section had been directly exposed to the accident environment: the other had been installed in conduit. In addition, an unused section of cable, which was from the same reel as the dome monitor cable, was available as a control sample. These three sections were subjected to material tests, including density profiling, tensile-strength and elongation tests, and chemical analyses, to assess the effect of the accident on the cable and to identify whether any differences existed between the in-conduit and out-of-conduit sections.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Richards, E.H. & Dandini, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Structural credit for depleted uranium used in transport casks

Description: Depleted uranium (DU) is used in high level radioactive waste transport containers as a gamma shield. The mechanical response of this material has generally not been included in calculations intended to assure that these casks will maintain their containment function during all normal use and accident conditions. If DU could be qualified as a structural component, the thickness of other materials (e.g. stainless steel) in the primary containment boundary could be reduced, thereby allowing a reduction in cask mass and/or an increase in payload capacity. This study was conducted to determine the mechanical behavior of a range of DU alloys in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature. These mechanical properties were used as the basis for finite element calculations to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G. W.; Sorenson, K. B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)) & McConnell, P. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Modeling and analysis of drag-bit cutting

Description: This report documents a finite-element analysis of drag-bit cutting using polycrystalline-diamond compact cutters. To verify the analysis capability, prototypic indention tests were performed on Berea sandstone specimens. Analysis of these tests, using measured material properties, predicted fairly well the experimentally observed fracture patterns and indention loads. The analysis of drag-bit cutting met with mixed success, being able to capture the major features of the cutting process, but not all the details. In particular, the analysis is sensitive to the assumed contact between the cutter and rock. Calculations of drag-bit cutting predict that typical vertical loads on the cutters are capable of forming fractures. Thus, indention-type loading may be one of the main fracture mechanisms during drag-bit cutting, not only the intuitive notion of contact between the front of the cutter and rock. The model also predicts a change in the cutting process from tensile fractures to shear failure when the rock is confined by in-situ stresses. Both of these results have implications for the design and testing of drag-bit cutters.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Swenson, D.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An application of selective electrochemical wafer thinning for silicon characterization

Description: A new technique is reported for the rapid determination of interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) in heavily doped n{sup +} and p{sup +} silicon. This technique includes application of a selective electrochemical thinning (SET) process and FTIR transmittance measurement on a limited area of a silicon wafer. The O{sub i} is calculated using ASTM F1188--88 with the IOC 88 calibration factor. An advantage of SET over mechanical thinning is that the original wafer thickness and diameter are maintained for additional processing. 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Medernach, J.W.; Stein, H.J. & Stevenson, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

Description: This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC&#x27;s regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Yoshimura, H. R.; Bronowski, D. R.; Uncapher, W. L.; Attaway, S. W.; Bateman, V. I.; Carne, T. G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Production ready feature recognition based automatic group technology part coding

Description: During the past four years, a feature recognition based expert system for automatically performing group technology part coding from solid model data has been under development. The system has become a production quality tool, capable of quickly the geometry based portions of a part code with no human intervention. It has been tested on over 200 solid models, half of which are models of production Sandia designs. Its performance rivals that of humans performing the same task, often surpassing them in speed and uniformity. The feature recognition capability developed for part coding is being extended to support other applications, such as manufacturability analysis, automatic decomposition (for finite element meshing and machining), and assembly planning. Initial surveys of these applications indicate that the current capability will provide a strong basis for other applications and that extensions toward more global geometric reasoning and tighter coupling with solid modeler functionality will be necessary.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ames, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

Description: Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Dobranich, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

Description: This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Exact solutions for symmetric deformations of hollow bodies of ideal fluids with application to inertial stability

Description: We present solutions for the problems of radial motion of spherical and cyclindrical bodies of an incompressible inviscid fluid, with an initial kinetic energy, and subjected to pressure on the outer (or equivalently, inner) boundary. These solutions have bearing on the inertial stability of ejecta in hypervelocity impact and of explosively compressed shells. 15 figs.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Passman, S.L. & Grady, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fluxless laser soldering for electronic packaging

Description: Conventional soldering typically requires the use of reactive fluxes to promote wetting. The resulting flux residues are removed primarily with halogenated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the mandated phaseout of CFCs by the year 2000, there has been a concentrated effort to develop alternative, environmentally compatible manufacturing and cleaning technologies that will satisfy the restrictions placed on CFCs, but still yield high quality product. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating a variety of alternative fluxless soldering technologies which can be applied to electronic packaging. Laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere has shown great potential as an environmentally compatible process. The effects of laser heating with a 100 watt CW Nd:YAG laser, joint design, and base/filler metal reactions on achieving fluxless wetting with good metallurgical bonds were examined. Satisfactory Ni-Au plated Kovar{reg sign} solder joints were made with 80In-15Pb-5Ag and 63Sn-37Pb (wt. %) solder alloys in a slightly reducing cover gas. Wetting generally increased with increasing laser power, decreasing laser beam spot size, and decreasing part travel speed. The materials and processing interaction effects are identified and discussed.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hosking, F M & Keicher, D M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Oil-shale material properties

Description: The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kipp, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Full-scale facility for evaluating lost circulation materials and techniques

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built a full-scale facility for the evaluation of lost circulation materials and techniques under simulated down-hole geothermal wellbore conditions. System capabilities include a maximum temperature of 400/sup 0/F, maximum allowed working pressure of 1150 psi, and a variable pumping rate up to 280 gpm at 1000 psi. The system will be utilized to evaluate candidate lost circulation materials and techniques that may be useful to solving geothermal well drilling lost circulation problems.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Loeppke, G. E. & Caskey, B. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Benchmarking numerical predictions with force and moment measurements on slender, supercavitating bodies

Description: High-speed water-entry is a very complex, dynamic process. As a first attempt at modeling the process, a numerical solution was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for predicting the forces and moments acting on a body with a steady supercavity, that is, a cavity which extends beyond the base of the body. The solution is limited to supercavities on slender, axisymmetric bodies at small angles of attack. Limited data were available with which to benchmark the axial force predictions at zero angle of attack. Even less data were available with which to benchmark the pitching moment and normal force predictions at nonzero angles of attack. A water tunnel test was conducted to obtain force and moment data on a slender shape. This test produced limited data because of waterproofing problems with the balance. A new balance was designed and a second water tunnel test was conducted at Tracor Hydronautics, Inc. This paper describes the numerical solution, the experimental equipment and test procedures, and the results of the second test. 8 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hailey, C.E.; Clark, E.L. & Cole, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

Description: The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Kinoshita, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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