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Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

Description: Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.
Date: September 1997
Creator: Jungst, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contact-Resistance Symposium, Bendix Aviation Corporation, Kansas City Division, Sandia Corporation, June 14, 1957, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Description: The objectives of the conference were to accomplish an interchange of information and study the determination of contact resistance. The effect of contacts on AEC production problems is discussed. Otber discussions are presented one applications of contact devices, present testing criteria, materials and process variables, process controls, and future development plans. (T.R.H.
Date: May 1958
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Confidence Limit Computer

Description: Introduction: Confidence limits as a mathematical tool are applicable to many development engineering and production engineering situations. In order to make confidence limits readily available to engineers, a computer was designed which will approximate certain confidence limits.
Date: April 1960
Creator: Muench, Joseph O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Presented at the Eighth Meeting of the Supersonic Wind-Tunnel Assoc., Seattle, Wash. Oct. 1957. The Dampometer represents a harmonically damped oscillation by a rotating vector in such a way that the length of the vector is proportional to the damping. The device was designed for use with a forced oscillation dynamic testing, and its modification for use with a free oscillation rig is described. (T.R.H.)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Maydew, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiple-Source Schlieren System (Transonic Wind Tunnel)

Description: A flow visualization system was developed for the Sandia Corporation 12 x 12-inch transonic blowdown wind tunnel. -The arrangement comprises a multiple- source schlieren system with sharp focusing properties to keep the perforated plexiglas side walls out of focus. The detailed mechanical design of the schlieren system is not completed. However, a bench-type setup representative of the final system has been made at the wind tunnel. The system is shown and each component is discussed briefly. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Spahr, H. R. & Kyrlach, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Presented at the Eight Meeting of the Supersonic Wind- Tunnel Association, Seattle, Wash., Oct. 1957. The two control systems are compared for nominal stagnation pressures of 16 and 34 psia. The improved performance of system B has resulted in increased Mach number capability of the tunnel, improved Mach number control during a run, and an increase in the run frequency. (W.L.H.)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Maydew, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Presented at ihe Ninth Meeting of the Supersonic Wind-Tunnel Assoc., Univ. of Southern Calif., and U. S. Naval Air Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, Calif., Apr. The Sandia 12 x 12-inch, transonic, blowdown tunnel facility is being equipped with a 10-channel digital datagathering system. The design and operation of ihe system are discussed. (W.J.H.)
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Botner, W T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An annlysis of those problems connected with handling of the most common items in stores, warehouses, and yards is presented. Present methods are reviewed and new developments are discussed. It is concluded that chief among areas of improved techniques lies in the reduction of the number of times individual items have to be handled. (J.H.D.)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Flaxbart, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The assessment (by ground testing) of effects of mechanical actions, thermal and chemical interactions, and nuclear reactions upon tue safety of nuclear power sources that are intended for aerospace applications is discussed. Progress in general studies and in testing of SNAP-9A and -10A is reviewed. (T.F.H.)
Date: September 1, 1963
Creator: Colp, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A metbed was introduced for combining the techniues of classical Lanchester theory of combat with those of game theory toward the end of selecting optimal strategies in combat with special weapons. In the application of this method to the example in which only the defender had atomic weapons,. it was showm that the attacker always chose either to disperse his troops the maximum amount or not to disperse his troops at all. The defender always chose to employ a mixed strategy consisting of the weapon systems of either two intermediate weapons or four small weapons. If both the defender amd attacker hnd access to atomic weapons, then the opticmal strategy for the attacker was to employ the weapon system consisting of four small weapons and to use a mixed stratregy for the dispersion of his troops. On the other hand, the defender never dispersed his troops amd always used a mixed strategy for tee - weapon systems. In the example where the defender has a fixed weapon system and chooses to optimize his aiming procedure, it was shown that the optimal aiming procedure does not involve only the aimimg procedures which are optimal against each of the fixed dispersion patterns for the attacker. The model discussed in this paper is far from realistic, but the authors feel that certain interesting trends may be obtained by such elementary discussions. Two ways in which to approach more reslism are to introduce into the combat the time at which the different groups become engaged amd to obtain a more realistic model for the basic group. (auth)
Date: February 19, 1957
Creator: Hale, J.K. & Wicke, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department