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THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR-ATR FINAL CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Description: The results of a study are presented which provided additional experimental-loop irradiation space for the AECDRD testing program. It was a premise that the experiments allocated to this reactor were those which could not be accommodated in the MTR, ETR, or in existing commercial test reactors. To accomplish the design objectives called for a reactor producing perturbed neutron fluxes exceeding 1O/sup 15/ thermal n/cm/sup 2/-sec and 1.5 x 1O/sup 15/ epithermal n/cm/sup 2/-sec. To accommodate the experimental samples, the reactor fuel core is four feet long in the direction of experimental loops. This is twice the length of the MTR core and a third longer than the ETR core. The vertical arrangement of reactor and experiments permits the use of loops penetrating the top cap of the reactor vessel running straight and vertically through the reactor core. The design offers a high degree of accessibility of the exterior portions of the experiments and offers very convenient handling and discharge of experiments. Since the loops are to be integrated into the reactor design and the in-pile portions installed before reactor start-up, it is felt that many of the problems encountered in MTR and ETR experience will cease to exist. Installation of the loops prior to startup will have an added advantage in that the flux variations experienced in experiments in ETR every time a new loop is installed will be absent. The Advanced Test Reactor has a core configuration that provides essentially nine flux-trap regions in a geometry that is almost optimum for cylindrical experiments. The geometry is similar to that of a fourleaf clover with one flux trap in each leaf, one at the intersection of the leaves, and one between each pair of leaves. The nominal power level is 250 Mw. The study was carried out in enough detail ...
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: deBoisblanc, D.R. et al
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALOG SOLUTION OF A MODEL OF THE SOURCES OF ELUTRIATABLE FINES IN THE FLUIDIZED BED CLACINATION PROCESS

Description: A model is proposed which depicts the sources of elutriatable fines in the fluidized bed calcination process as being in two major groups, spray drying mechanisms and attrition mechanisms. Based on this model, equations are derived which express the rate of change of the concentration of a chemical tracer material in the elutriated fines, following introduction of the tracer into the feed and following its removal from the feed. This system has been simulated on an analog computer, and by matching the computer simulation to results from an actual calciner run, the rates of generation of fines by each of the two groups of mechanisms has been determined; the same technique results in an estimate of the amount of these fines remaining in the fluidized bed. Agreement between postulated results and results of actual experimental tests lends credence to the usefulness of this analytical technique. (auth)
Date: February 28, 1964
Creator: Grimmett, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT ON FUEL ELEMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR FY 1963

Description: Progress in fuels and materials development is reported. Irradiation tests on powdered UAl/sub 3/ intermetallic compounds demonstrated good stability and fission gas retention capabilities. Developmental aluminum powder metal products showed good corrosion resistance at high temperatures while retaining excellent high temperature strength. All of the fuel compositions tested (UO/sub 2/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and UAl/sub 3/ in aluminum matrices) exhibited density decreases under irradiation. Tensile tests on sandwich-type fuel plates at elevated temperatures indicated that the fuel plate strength is strongly influenced by the core material rather than dependent primarily on the cladding material as was found true of lower (MTR) temperatures. Three capsules containing beryllium were inserted in the ETR, in order to determine strength, gas release, and growth during a high-temperature (600--800 deg C) irradiation. An MTR fuel element employing advanced metallurgical techniques to optimize the hydraulic and heat transfer characteristics was fuily irradiated in the MTR. The fuel element consisted of 32 plates containing 250 g U/sup 235/ in a U/sub 3/O/ sub 8/--Al dispersion. A prototype ETR fuel element was made without side plates. (M.C.G.)
Date: November 25, 1963
Creator: Gibson, G. W.; Graber, M. J. & Francis, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARMF II REGULATING ROD READOUT AND SHIM ROD DRIVE AND POSITION DISPLAY

Description: A description of the digital readout and drive portion of the Advanced Reactivity Measurement Facility II is presented along with the philosophy used in selecting the system block diagram and components, accuracy considerations, and a preliminary evaluation of performance and usability. The presentation discourages duplicating of the equipment; advantage should be taken of the opportunity to improve upon it. To this end guideposts are provided as well as a documentation of those aspects of the design that are considered worthy of duplication. (auth)
Date: September 25, 1963
Creator: Little, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, JULY-SEPTEMBER 1962

Description: Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies, directed at adapting the hydrofluoric acid process to continuous dissolution-complexing in order to increase the capacity of the ICPP process, resulted in two successful approaches to the complexing-feed adjustment step. Continuous in-line adjustment (conversion of uranium(IV) to uranium(VI) necessary for extraction) was accomplished in one minute or less at approximately 90 deg C; surges of dissolver product from the operating dissolver up to 1.9 times the flow sheet rate did not inhibit the oxidation of the uranium at this temperature. Batchwise mixing in air of dissolver product solution with complexer solution oxidized the uranium within two minutes at 23 deg C or higher. Further studies of continuous zirconium dissolution indicated that precipitation of uranium at the acid inlet can be a problem, probably because of local concentration gradients of free HF, which result in conditions of low uranium solubility. Control of dissolver acid composition by electrical conductance measurement appeared possible due to the linear relationship of conductance with acid concentration. Aluminum alloy dissolution rates in nitric acid were found to vary significantly, depending on the type and amount of alloying agent. Silicon, nickel, and copper in the alloy significantly decreased the dissolution rate. Batch dissolution times for standard test coupons ranged from 14 minutes for a high purity aluminum to 1400 minutes for an alloy containing 2.9 percent silicon. In the electrolytic dissolution of Nichrome in a bench-scale basket dissolver, the substitution of titanium for niobium as the anode basket material significantly reduced the contact resistance. Current interruption due to contact failure was essentially eliminated, and contact resistance on the titanium was sufficiently low that increasing solution resistance due to acid depletion became a major contributor to current decline as dissolution progressed. The indirect solution-contact electrolytic dissolution principle was further studied, producing data on electrode ...
Date: December 28, 1962
Creator: Bower, J.R. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMPUTER GENERATION AND TESTING OF RANDOM NUMBERS

Description: The need for random numbers, particularly in regard to Monte Carlo applications, andd the multiplicative mixed congruential methods most commonly used to obtain random numbers are discussed. Both methods involve somewhat arbitrary parameters. Proofs for the lengths of period for both methods and a derivation of an expression for the serial correlation coefficient in terms of the parameters of the mixed congruential method are presented. The results of a series of statistical tests made to determine satisfactory parameters are listed. The length of run test was found to be the most powerful test in that it rejected the largest number of parameters as unsatisfactory. The multiplicative method (for the parameters tested) was superior to the mixed congruential method. The multiplicative method multiplier lambda = 2/sup 18/ + 3 satisfactorily passed all tests and has a short multiply time. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1963
Creator: Gannon, L.J. & Schmittroth, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A GELATIN-FILTRATION HEADEND FOR FUEL REPROCESSING SOLUTIONS FROM SILICON- CONTAINING ALUMINUM ALLOYS

Description: A laboratory study of a gelatin headend process for feed from silicon- containing aluminum fuels and plant salvage solutions is described. The optimum conditions for the gelatin treatment of fuel solutions were to boil a 0.1 to 0.5N nitric acid solution with 100 milligrams of gelatin per liter for 30 minutes. This treatment improved filtration rates and decreased the surface activity of the filtrate for TBP extraction. A number of possible flowsheets for fuel solutions are presented using gelatin treatment and filtration. An adequate treatment was not found for salvage solutions of unknown composition because a gelatin dosage which was satisfactory for all solutions could not be selected. The optimum treatment for a salvage solution which was grossly contaminated with zirconium, soluble and colloidal silica, and dibutyl phosphate was to boil a 1N acid deficient solution with 600 milligrams of gelatin per liter, filter, and use a Hexone extraction system. A silicic colloid in fuel processing solutions was characterized as a surface active material by this study. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1959
Creator: Newby, B.J. & Paige, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR JANUARY- MARCH 1960

Description: 9 > ? ( ing schedule included MTR, ETR, and other aluminum-type fuels that were processed through the TBP headend at 75 to 100% of flowsheet rates and through the Hexone second and third cycle extraction system at up to l5O% of flowsheet values, achieving an over-all recovery of 99.60%. In carrying out basic studies on aqueous zirconium processing, results obtained during the potentiometric titration of zirconium-fluoride-nitric acid solutions with sodium hydroxide were explained by a mechanism in which the untitrated zirconium fluoride species is converted to a fluozirconate and further hydrolysis proceeds via a fluozirconate route. A modified Zirflex flowsheet for processing 2.5% U-Zr alloy fuels is proposed as a result of bench scale dissolution studies on unirradiated PWR plates that showed that dissolver solutions could be stabilized by adding aluminum nitrate and nitric acid. that higher ammonium fluoride concentrations increased the dissolution rate, that higher hydrogen peroxide concentrations lowered the dissolution rate and decreased solution stability, and that ammonia removal by boiling with or without air sparging had little effect on the reaction. Density curves for Zirflex solutions are reported. First tests of the pilot plant for continuous dissolution of zirconium-type elements have indicated that the dissolution rate is approximately four times as great as predicted on the basis of batch dissolution rates and comparison with the rate ratio for batch vs. continuous dissolution of aluminum, which was used to establish the dissolver size. The continuous dissolution rate for a 2% zirconium- 98% uranium element was approximately proportional to the acid feed rate and reached l9O kg/day at an acid feed rate of 36 l/hr (11M nitric acid, 0.30M hydrofluoric acid, and 0.35M aluminum nitrate). Development of new waste treatment methods is influenced by waste volumes and the associated storage costs involved. A survey of current and proposed ...
Date: July 13, 1960
Creator: Slansky, C.M.; Warzel, F.M. & Bower, J.R. Jr. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MECHANISM OF ELECTROREDUCTION OF CHROMIC ION AT THE MERCURY CATHODE

Description: The mechanism of reduction for chromium(III) ion to chromium(II) at the mercury cathode was studied in 0.1M KNO/sub 3/. Data obtained at varying temperature and solution composition from polarograms gave values for DELTA H*, DELTA S*, and DELTA F* which indicated that two mechanisms were involved. At potentials more positive than the polarographic half-wave potential, the mechanism appeared to be simple electron transfer from the electrode to the chromium(III) ion in solution. When the potential was more negative than the half-wave, potential electron exchange between the reduced chromium ion near the electrode surface and a chromium(III) ion in solution became appreciable. Values for the heat of activation for the reduction of chromium(III) to chromium(II) in 0.1M KNO/sub 3/ for the electron transfer and exchange reaction mechanisms were determined to be 34.7 and 27.0 kcal mole/sup -1/, respectively. (auth)
Date: May 20, 1960
Creator: McLain, M.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MODIFICATIONS FOR THE STR FUEL RECOVERY PROCESS

Description: In a program directed toward the optimization of the process chemistry of the STR hydrofluoric acid method of reprocessing zirconium-uranium alloy fuels, it was shown that the process can be modified to dissolve homogeneously fuels of higher uranium content by either hydrogen peroxide oxidation or dilution of the dissolver solution. Rate of corrosion of Monel was acceptable with both methods of dissolution. Phase and stability studies of the solvent extraction feed and waste solutions indicated that higher concentrations of zirconium and uranium could be used in the process streams. Metastable solutions were obtained when the currently used STR raffinate solutions were evaporated. This operation was not favored for flowsheet use. The batch and continuous dissolution and solvent extraction flowsheets are given embodying the principal results of this study. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1960
Creator: Parrett, O.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NON-DESTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE TRANSIENT TESTS OF THE SPERT I-D, FULLY ENRICHED, ALUMINUM-PLATE-TYPE CORE: DATA SUMMARY REPORT

Description: This report is a documentation of the experimental data from each test of the series performed in the Spert I reactor with the type D, fully enriched, aluminum plate-type core. The series of tests consisted of step-wise insertions of excess reactivity under conditions of ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The data obtained from each test are presented in tabular form and as plots of the time behavior of reactor power, fuel plate surface temperature, and pressure. Composite figures, displaying the behavior with time, of fuel plate temperatures and pressures at various positions in the reactor are included. Correlated data figures displaying measured test data as functions of asymptotic reactor period are also included. (auth)
Date: November 27, 1963
Creator: Zeissler, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERFORMANCE OF THE TBP PROCESS FOR ALUMINUM FUELS IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT, 1955-1956

Description: Observations of the performance of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant as modified for continuous dissolution and TBP lst cycle extraction, as to process chemistry and process engineering are reported for the initial plantscale full-irradiation-level operating run. As-operated flowsheets, the results of plant scale tests of the continuous dissolver, and fission prcduct decontamination data are emphasized. (auth)
Date: January 30, 1958
Creator: Rohde, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PLANT TESTS ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF NITROUS OXIDE OVER A HEATED RHODIUM CATALYST

Description: Plant scale tests were conducted to determine the feasibility of decomposing the nitrous oxide in dissolver off gases with a heated rhodium catalyst. The test results from two fixed bed reactors operating on off gases containing between 14.2 and 19.8 vol.% nitrous oxide show that the nitrous oxide content can be reduced to less than 0.05% with catalyst bed outlet at 1300 to 1500 deg F and space velocities at 472 to 700 hr/sup -//sup 1/. Rate constants appear to be comparable to those reported in the literature. Suggestions are made for the design of a permanent installation. (auth)
Date: April 17, 1961
Creator: Lakey, L.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PNEUMATIC ATOMIZING NOZZLES IN FLUIDIZED BED CALCINING. I. CALIBRATION TESTS

Description: The results of test stand studies of a pneumatic atomizing nozzle to be used in the Demonstrational Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are presented. Atomization and performance characteristics are described. The liquid feed control system for the Demonstrational Waste Calciner is compared with results of bench scale tests, and recommendations are made for improving the system. (auth)
Date: May 12, 1961
Creator: Legler, B M & Stevens, J I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS REPORT ON FUEL ELEMENT DEVELOPMENT AND ASSOCIATED PROJECTS

Description: ; 9 < 4 6 9 7 ; 6 8 7 6 sting Deactor (MTR) has sought to develop improved, economical, long-life fuel assemblies through a comprehensive study of various fuel compositions, enrichments, claddings, burnable poisons, fuel and poison distributions, and fuelelement geometry optimization. The core materials, including uranium -- aluminum alloys, uranium oxide -aluminum cermets, thorium, thorium oxide, boron, gadolinium, dysprosium, and iridium, are tested in pilot-plant scale by irradiating them as sandwich type sample fuel plates. In the procurement of these sample plates, fabrication techniques were developed and evaluated for incorporation of all the fuels and poisons (except Ir/sub 2/O/sub 3/) into cores of aluminum or aluminum alloys. Methods were developed to minimize "dog-boning" and to produce graded fuels. Some of the sample plate compcsitions have been irradiated to high burn-up, i.e., over 50% of the U/sup 235/ content, and have operated successfully in the MTR for seven or more cycles. The irradiated uranium-- aluminum alloy and uranium oxide-- aluminum cermet fuel plates have shown excellent dimensional stability and good corrosion resistance to long-term irradiation. However, some of the thorium oxide fuel plates failed during one cycle of irradiation because of blistering, rupturing, or forming of pinholes in the cladding. The isostatic bonding procedure used to bond aluminum plates to the ThO/sub 2/ cores is apparently not adequate for reactor use. The sample fuel plate work has demonstrated the suitability of high wt.% uranium oxide--aluminum fuels for testing reactors, indicated the potential of systematically varying the fuel loading within a single plate, and experimentally verified the applicability of burnable poisons for reducing reactivity changes resulting from fuel burnup. The Deactivity Measurement Facility has proved to be an excellent nondestructive analytical tool for determination of fuel and poison burn-up. This program has stimulated several new developments and revealed many ...
Date: August 16, 1960
Creator: Francis, W.C. & Craig, S.E. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROPOSAL FOR AN ADVANCED ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR-ETR II

Description: The results of a study are presented which was directed at providing additional experimental loop irradiation space for the AEC-DRD testing program. It was a premise that the experiments allocated to this reactor were those that could not be accommodated in the MTR, ETR, or in existing commercial test reactors. To accomplish the design objectives called for, a reactor producing perturbed neutron fluxes exceeding 10/sup 15/ thermal neutrons per square centimeter per second and 1.5 x 10/sup 15/ epithermal neutrons per square centimeter per second. To accommodate the experimental samples, the reactor fuel core is four feet long in the direction of experimental loops. The vertical arrangement of reactor and experiments permits the use of straight and vertical loops penetrating the top cap of the reactor vessel. The design offers a high degree of accessibility of the exterior portions of the experiments and offers very convenient handling and discharge of experiments. Since the loops are to be integrated into the reactor design and the in-pile portions installed before reactor startup, it is felt that many of the problems encountered in MTR and ETR experience will cease to exist. Installation of the loops prior to startup will have an added advantage in that the flux variations experienced in experiments in ETR every time a new loop is installed will be absent. ETR II (formerly called ETR IV) has a core configuration which provides essentially nine flux-trap regions in a geometry which is almost optimum for cylindrical experiments. The geometry is similar to that of a four-leaf clover with one flux trap in each leaf, one at the intersection of the leaves, and one between each pair of leaves. The nominal power level is 250 Mw. The study was carried out in enough detail to permit the establishment of the design parameters ...
Date: March 17, 1960
Creator: deBoisblanc, D R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department