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Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

Description: Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.
Date: July 1, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

Description: Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided thorough characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions. In this final report, we provide detailed descriptions of our results from this three-year study, completed in 2012 following a one-year no cost extension.
Date: November 5, 2012
Creator: Chorover, Jon; Perdrial, Nico; Mueller, Karl; Strepka, Caleb; O’Day, Peggy; Rivera, Nelson et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen-Assisted IC Engine Combustion as a Route to Hydrogen Implementation

Description: The 'Freedom Car' Initiative announced by the Bush Administration has placed a significant emphasis on development of a hydrogen economy in the United States. While the hydrogen-fueled fuel-cell vehicle that is the focus of the 'Freedom Car' program would rely on electrochemical energy conversion, and despite the large amount of resources being devoted to its objectives, near-term implementation of hydrogen in the transportation sector is not likely to arise from fuel cell cars. Instead, fuel blending and ''hydrogen-assisted'' combustion are more realizable pathways for wide-scale hydrogen utilization within the next ten years. Thus, a large potential avenue for utilization of hydrogen in transportation applications is through blending with natural gas, since there is an existing market for natural-gas vehicles of various classes, and since hydrogen can provide a means of achieving even stricter emissions standards. Another potential avenue is through use of hydrogen to 'assist' diesel combustion to permit alternate combustion strategies that can achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency. This project focused on developing the underlying fundamental information to support technologies that will facilitate the introduction of coal-derived hydrogen into the market. Two paths were envisioned for hydrogen utilization in transportation applications. One is for hydrogen to be mixed with other fuels, specifically natural gas, to enhance performance in existing natural gas-fueled vehicles (e.g., transit buses) and provide a practical and marketable avenue to begin using hydrogen in the field. A second is to use hydrogen to enable alternative combustion modes in existing diesel engines, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, to permit enhanced efficiency and reduced emissions. Thus, this project on hydrogen-assisted combustion encompassed two major objectives: (1) Optimization of hydrogen-natural gas mixture composition and utilization through laboratory studies of spark-ignition engine operation on H{sub 2}-NG and numerical simulation of the impact of hydrogen blending on the physical ...
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Boehman, Andre & Haworth, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

Description: The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.
Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Lee, Kwang Y.; Yin, Stuart S. & Boehman, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

Description: The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation capability ...
Date: December 26, 2005
Creator: Lee, Kwang Y.; Yin, Stuart S. & Boheman, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving Corrosion Behavior in SCWR, LFR and VHTR Reactor Materials by Formation of a Stable Oxide

Description: The objective of this study is to understand the influence of the alloy microstructure and composition on the formation of a stable, protective oxide in the environments relevant to the SCWR and LFR reactor concepts, as well as to the VHTR. It is proposed to use state-of-the art techniques to study the fine structure of these oxides to identify the structural differences between stable and unstable oxide layers. The techniques to be used are microbeam synchrotron radiation diffraction and fluorescence, and cross-sectional transmission electron microcopy on samples prepared using focused ion beam.
Date: December 21, 2009
Creator: Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert; Li, Ning; Allen, Todd & Was, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the eighth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in State College, PA to review and select projects for SWC co-funding; (2) Participation in the 2006 PA CleanEnergy Expo Energy Theater to air the DVD on ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; (3) New member additions; (4) Improving communications; and (5) Planning of the fall technology meetings.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Joel L. & Elder, Sharon L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Nomination and election of the Executive Council members for the 2006-07 term, (2) Finalize and release the 2006 Request for Proposals (RFP), (3) Invoice and recruit members, (4) Plan for the spring meeting, (5) Improving communication efforts, and (6) Continue distribution of the DVD entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Joel L. & Elder, Sharon L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract awards for the nine projects selected at the 2006 Spring meeting; (2) Continue distribution of the DVD on ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; (3) Improving communications; (4) New member recruitment; (5) Identify SWC projects to be showcased for booth exhibition, preparing an exhibit, promoting and marketing for the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo organized by the OK Marginal Well Commission, Oklahoma City, OK; and (6) Identify projects and draft agenda for the fall technical workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Joel L. & Elder, Sharon L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the sixth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organized and hosted two technology transfer meetings; (2) Collaborated with the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) to host a Natural Gas Outlook conference in Pittsburgh, PA; (3) Provided a SWC presentation at the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) meeting in Jackson Hole, WY; and (4) Completed and released a stripper well industry documentary entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering America's Forgotten Wells''.
Date: January 24, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Joel & Elder, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Phase Fracture-Matrix Interactions Under Stress Changes

Description: The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multi-phase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) counter-current fluid transport between the matrix and the fracture, (c) studying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture and two-phase flow, and (d) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress, on the nature of the rock, and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual and detailed descriptions of the process are shown in the report. Both extensional and shear fractures have been considered. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective was to understand the impact of the fracture, its ...
Date: December 7, 2005
Creator: Grader, A.S.; Elsworth, D.; Halleck, P.M.; Alvarao, F.; Alajmi, A.; Karpyn, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

Description: The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale-up purposes was limited due to funding constraints. ...
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

Description: This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Keolian, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic-Scale Chemical, Physical and Electronic Properties of the Subsurface Hydride of Palladium

Description: We employed low-temperature, extreme-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the roles of subsurface hydride (H) and deuteride (D) in the surface reconstruction and surface reactivity of Pd{110}. Specifically, we gained the ability to tailor the surface structure of Pd{110} both by preparation method and by deposition of deuterium from the gas phase. We observed thiophene at low coverage on Pd{110} to determine its adsorption orientation and electronic structure through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) – namely, conductance spectroscopy and differential conductance imaging. We developed the methods necessary to coadsorb D adatoms with thiophene molecules, and to induce the reaction of individual molecules with predefined subsurface H or D features. In the case of Pd{110}, we found a much more pronounced effect from subsurface D, as it is influenced by the surface directionality. These experiments facilitate an understanding of the role of surface and subsurface H and D in heterogeneous catalytic processes, specifically in the hydrodesulfuization (HDS) of thiophene, an important and ubiquitous component found to be detrimental to petroleum refining.
Date: January 20, 2014
Creator: Weiss, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreducens

Description: To provide the scientific understanding required to allow DOE sites to incorporate relevant biological, chemical, and physical processes into decisions concerning environmental remediation, a fundamental understanding of the controls on micro-organism growth in the subsurface is necessary. Specifically, mobility of metals in the environment, including chromium, technetium and uranium, is greatly affected by the process of dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR), which has been shown to be an important biological activity controlling contaminant mobility in the subsurface at many DOE sites. Long-term maintenance of DMR at constant rates must rely upon steady fluxes of electron donors to provide the maintenance energy needed by organisms such as Geobacter sulfurreducens to maintain steady state populations in the subsurface.
Date: October 28, 2013
Creator: Tien, Ming & Brantley, Susan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

Description: The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.
Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Chemical-Mechanical Couplings that Define Permeability Modifications in Pressure-Sensitive Rock Fractures

Description: This work examined and quantified processes controlling changes in the transport characteristics of natural fractures, subjected to coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical (TMC) effects. Specifically, it examined the effects of mineral dissolution and precipitation mediated by mechanical effects, using laboratory through-flow experiments concurrently imaged by X-ray CT. These were conducted on natural and artificial fractures in cores using water as the permeant. Fluid and mineral mass balances are recorded and are correlated with in-sample saturation, porosity and fracture aperture maps, acquired in real-time by X-ray CT-imaging at a maximum spatial resolution of 15-50 microns per pixel. Post-test, the samples were resin-impregnated, thin-sectioned, and examined by microscopy to define the characteristics of dissolution and precipitation. The test-concurrent X-ray imaging, mass balances, and measurements of permeability, together with the post-test microscopy, were used to define dissolution/precipitation processes, and to constrain process-based models. These models define and quantify key processes of pressure solution, free-face dissolution, and shear-dilation, and the influence of temperature, stress level, and chemistry on the rate of dissolution, its distribution in space and time, and its influence on the mechanical and transport properties of the fracture.
Date: April 25, 2007
Creator: Elsworth, Derek; Grader, Abraham & Brantley, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

Description: Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; ...
Date: January 15, 2008
Creator: Macdonald, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararaja, Balaji; Smith, Morgan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Storage Technology Consortium

Description: Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.
Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Joel L. & Elder, Sharon L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach to Regional Ocean Modeling

Description: In this collaborative research project between Pennsylvania State University, Colorado State University and Florida State University, we mainly focused on developing multi-resolution algorithms which are suitable to regional ocean modeling. We developed hybrid implicit and explicit adaptive multirate time integration method to solve systems of time-dependent equations that present two signi#12;cantly di#11;erent scales. We studied the e#11;ects of spatial simplicial meshes on the stability and the conditioning of fully discrete approximations. We also studies adaptive #12;nite element method (AFEM) based upon the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and superconvergent gradient recovery. Some of these techniques are now being used by geoscientists(such as those at LANL).
Date: November 8, 2013
Creator: Du, Qiang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides

Description: This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Burgos, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department