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Analysis of tritium releases to the atmosphere by a CTR

Description: Removal by atmospheric processes of routinely and accidentally released tritium from a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) was investigated. Based on previous studies, the assumed form of the tritium for this analysis was HTO or tritiated water vapor. Assuming a CTR operation in Morris, Illinois, surface water and ground-level air concentration values of tritium were computed for three space (or time) scales: local (50 Km of a plant), regional (up to 1000 Km of the plant), and global. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1975
Creator: Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F. & Dana, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Association of long-lived radioactivity with sediment along the Columbia River shoreline, islands, bottom and slough areas

Description: Since deactivation of the last once-through cooling production reactor in January 1971, radioactivity associated with sediments or biota in the Columbia River attributable to past Hanford operations decreased to very low levels. Currently only a few long-lived radionuclides are measurable and generally due to the association of these radionuclides with sediments in the river. The data available from several different monitoring programs provide a preliminary description of the extent, concentration, and physical form of these radionuclides. Data are presented on $sup 137$Cs, $sup 60$Co, $sup 65$Zn, and $sup 152$Eu in sediments sampled in 1974. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Fix, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomagnetic effects: a consideration in fusion reactor development

Description: Fusion as a power source is receiving an increasing amount of attention. Several designs have been proposed and the feasibility of each alternative is being studied. As we move closer to a working design, attention can be paid to potential biological hazards. Large magnetic fields and the emission of tritium and lithium are unique to some fusion reactor designs. The results of a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the biological effects of magnetic fields alone and in combination with ionizing radiation are summarized in this report. The purpose of the review is to help identify areas where additional biomedical research is needed for establishing guidelines for reactor design and operation. 64 references (auth)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Mahlum, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development activities waste fixation program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1975

Description: Engineering-scale in-canister melting tests were made to evaluate the use of silicon to prevent formation of water-soluble molybdate phases in melts. The tests demonstrated that silicon metal powder added to the feed stock effectively prevents formation of such phases. A test also showed that coatings of ZrO$sub 2$ or chromium carbide on stainless steel canisters prevent oxidation during the in-can melting process. Thermal analysis of canister design concepts examined effects of type of storage, use of fins, emissivity, canister size and cracks in glass. Pressurization tests show that all types of calcine can produce very high pressures within the canister unless the calcine is post-treated at temperatures greater than 850$sup 0$C. Initial studies on the effects of alpha and recoil bombardment (from $sup 244$Cm doping) on devitrification of waste- containing glass were completed. The devitrification behavior of a waste-bearing zinc orthosilicate glass is being studied using optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and x-ray diffraction examination. Fine calcine particles were agglomerated into larger particles suitable for coating via chemical vapor deposition. Thermal stability tests of nickel and Cr$sub 7$C$sub 3$ coatings on waste calcine have been conducted, and deterioration has occurred at temperatures as low as 500$sup 0$C. Waste-containing pellets were successfully coated by plasma spraying Al$sub 2$O$sub 3$ powder. Calculations indicate that plasma spraying of large pellets is feasible on a production scale. Seven scoping runs made with a disc pelletizer indicate that it can provide a simple, inexpensive process for making high-quality pellets from calcine-frit powders. Risk assessment was used to systematically identify dominant sequences for the accidental release of radionuclides during the solidification, basin storage, and rail transport activities of high-level waste management. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: McElroy, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department