36 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

District heating system, College Industrial Park, Klamath Falls, Oregon

Description: The College Industrial Park (CIP) is located to the northwest of the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) campus. Waste water from the OIT campus geothermal heating system flows through an open ditch to the south of the Park. Being aware of this, city personnel have requested the Geo-Heat Center design a distribution network for the Park to eventually utilize an estimated 600 GPM of the 130/sup 0/F waste water. Geothermal water from each campus building is discharged into storm drains which also collect surface run off from parking lots, roofs and grounds. Waste water temperatures are generally between 120/sup 0/F and 130/sup 0/F, however, it may drop as low as 90/sup 0/F when mixing occurs with large amounts of surface run off. Peak heating load requirements for the OIT campus are estimated to be 17.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour for 567,000 square feet of space. Peak flow rate of geothermal fluid to satisfy this load is then 593 GPM based on a net 60/sup 0/F temperature differential. Three wells are available to supply the necessary flow. A Lithium-Bromide Absorption Chiller (185 ton) was installed in 1980 to provide space cooling. The chiller requires a constant flow rate of 550 GPM and discharges 170/sup 0/F water to the storm drains during summer months.
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

Description: The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.
Date: February 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Konocti Harbon Inn, Kelseyville, California

Description: Konocti Harbor is a large resort complex, located on the shore of Clear Lake, in Kelseyville, California. A number of buildings on the property, including a 25,000 square foot lodge, 101 motel units and 48 apartment units are heated by the large water-to-water heat pumps, using water from the lake as a heat source. Due to low winter occupancy rates, these machines are run at very low capacity. In addition, a number of buildings are operated on electric resistance and propane backup boilers. This mode of operation results in a relatively high cost compared to the actual heating requirements. Since these systems were originally designed for low temperature water (125/sup 0/F supply 10/sup 0/..delta..t), a low temperature geothermal resource could potentially displace some of the conventional fuel currently used. The potential for geothermal use at the Konocti Harbor Inn is explored.
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating facilities for the MGM Grand Hotel, Reno, Nevada

Description: The MGM Grand Hotel-Reno is located adjacent to an area with a well-documented geothermal resource. Currently, there is a number of entities seeking to determine the exact nature of the resource at the MGM site. This report concerns itself with identifying current natural gas loads within the MGM complex which could be met by geothermal should a source become available. The two principle assumptions upon which the following material is based are (1) that a source of 190/sup 0/F or higher temperature water is available and (2) all systems discussed would be installed in parallel with existing systems. That is, existing systems would remain in place providing 100 percent backup for the geothermal systems.
Date: September 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indian Springs School, Big Bend, California

Description: The Indian Springs School building, which was constructed in three phases beginning in the early 1950's, is heated entirely by electric resistance unitary equipment. In addition, a swimming pool is also heated with an electrical resistance device. The construction is characterized by large glass areas (single glaze) and relatively low insulation levels. Together, these facts result in substantial costs for electrical demand and consumption. Two hot springs are located in the Big Bend area exhibiting temperatures of 136 and 180/sup 0/F. In addition to the springs, the domestic water well at the school produces 72/sup 0/F water. As a result of their high utility costs and the local geothermal manifestations, the feasibility of geothermal use at Indian Springs School was explored. In the course of this study, it was determined that the mechanical systems at the school currently have little control. It is strongly recommended that the school investigate the possibility of having an energy audit performed. This should be done prior to the consideration of any alternative heating system. This study examined primarily a ground water heat pump system for the school, based on the available 72/sup 0/F water at the site.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington State

Description: Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modifications for geothermal-heating system for Kingswood Apartments, Klamath Falls, Oregon

Description: The Kingswood Apartments, located on Eberlein Street in Klamath Falls, are currently heated by a geothermal well producing 118/sup 0/F water. Geothermal water from the well is piped directly through fan coil units in each of the 117 apartments and disposed of in the storm sewer system. Since the installation of the system in 1975, a large number of corrosion failures of the finned tube coils have occured with increasing frequency. This corrosion is probably the result of small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) dissolved in the geothermal water. This constituent is not compatible with the copper of which the finned coils are made. The possibility of modifying the existing, open type piping system to a closed loop/heat exchanger design to minimize the current corrosion problems is explored.
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon

Description: Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.
Date: August 14, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District-heating system, La Grande, Oregon

Description: The area suggested for district heating feasibility study encompassed slightly over 400 acres extending north and south from the geographic center of the city. This district was subdivided into 8 areas, which include the Grande Ronde Hospital, Eastern Oregon State College, La Grande school district, one institutional area, one commercial area and three residential areas. Basic space heating loads developed for the various areas after a survey by county personnel and computation using a computer program form the basis for this economic feasibility study.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal-heating facilities for Carson Elementary School and Wind River Middle School

Description: Carson Elementary School and Wind River Middle School are located in Carson, Washington, adjacent to the Wind River. Both schools are operated by the Stevenson-Carson School District. Carson Elementary, comprised of 49,000 square feet, was constructed in several phases beginning in 1951. The construction is variable, but is characterized by large expanses of single glass and uninsulated masonry areas. An oil fired steam boiler supplies a variety of terminal equipment. Wind River Middle School was built in 1972 and, as a result, exhibits much greater insulation levels. The 38,000 square foot structure is heated entirely by an electric resistance terminal reheat system. Carson Hot Springs Resort, located approximately one half mile from the schools, exhibits temperatures of 124/sup 0/F. In addition, geological work is in progress to better define the local geothermal resource. The feasibility of geothermal use at the school for space heating purposes is examined.
Date: February 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal heating facilities for Frontier Inn, Susanville, California

Description: The Frontier Inn, located in Susanville, California, is a 38 unit motel composed of six major sections (coffee shop, A frame units, apartments, back units, two story units and office). These sections were built over a number of years and exhibit widely varying types of construction. Space heating is provided by primarily electric resistance equipment with some propane use. Domestic hot water is provided primarily by propane with some electric resistance. The coffee shop uses fuel oil for both space and domestic hot water heating. The City of Susanville is currently in the process of installing a geothermal district heating system. Although the motel site is not located in the area of present construction activity, it is expected that the pipeline will be extended in the near future. This study examines the potential of retrofitting the existing heating facilities at the Frontier Inn to geothermal.
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final administrative report for technology transfer and information dissemination, January 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

Description: The Geo-Heat Center was established in 1974 as a result of an International Geothermal Conference held at Oregon Institute of Technology for the purpose of providing an information exchange and technology transfer on the direct use of geothermal from both the USA and international sources. This was accomplished by establishing an information dissemination program, conducting applied research and working on site specific feasibility study projects in seven western states by means of a USDOE sponsored technical assistance program. This report covers the period from January 1, 1982 to March 31, 1983 which provided a public service in the form of a Quarterly Bulletin, technology transfer and a Region X Geothermal Report. The tasks accomplished are summarized.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Lienau, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of geothermal applications for greenhousing and space heating on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

Description: Although little is known about the geothermal resources under the Pine Ridge Reservation, there seem to be good possibilities of a resource hot enough to provide heating for greenhouses, at least in the northeast portion of Shannon County. At the present time, there do not appear to be resources hot enough to provide direct use space heating of residential or commercial buildings near any of the existing population centers. Space heating using water source heat pumps may be economical and should be considered for new construction of larger heat users such as the proposed hospital at Pine Ridge. Further resource investigation is recommended, particularly more surface geology and water chemistry work. Test drilling will be required to confirm the availability of both direct use and heat pump required temperatures and flows. It is estimated that geothermal energy could be delivered to a greenhouse operation in northeast Shannon County for $4.71 per million Btu's. This compares to $11.67 for propane, the least expensive competing conventional fuel. Other factors such as availability of qualified labor, market demand, transportation, availability of power, etc. must be considered. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Culver, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

College of Idaho Geothermal System, Caldwell, Idaho

Description: There appears to be a good potential for a 160{sup 0}F resource at the College of Idaho site. Both existing well data and recent geologic and hydrologic investigations suggest that such a temperature should be available at a depth of approximately 3500 feet. Use of a temperature in the 160{sup 0}F range would not permit a 100% displacement of present natural gas use for space and domestic hot water. Because these systems were typically designed for 200{sup 0}F water or low pressure steam (approx. 220{sup 0}F), the performance of the existing equipment would be less than peak building requirements. However, even without major system modifications (the cost of which would be unreasonable), a geothermal system based on the above resource temperature would be capable of displacing about 78% of current natural gas consumption attributable to space and domestic hot water heating. The system outlined in the report would consist of a 3500 foot production well which would supply geothermal fluid to 12 major buildings on campus. Geothermal water would be passed through heat exchangers in each building. The heat exchangers would deliver heat to the existing heating loops. Most buildings would still require a small amount of input from the existing boiler during the coldest periods of the year. After having passed through the system, the geothermal water would then be injected into a disposal well. This is a key factor in the overall economics of the system. The assumption has been made that a full depth (3550 foot) injection well would be required. It is possible, though unclear at this point, that injection could be accomplished at a shallower depth into a similar aquifer. Since the injection well amounts to 24% of the total system capital cost, this is an important factor.
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: Rafferty, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community heat-pump system, Klamath County, Oregon

Description: The possibility of heating 47 proposed homes on a new development site using ground water source heat pumps is discussed. The Shield Crest tract is located approximately five miles southeast of downtown Klamath Falls, Oregon. Two moderate capacity (greater than 450 gpm) warm water wells are located on the property. The pumping temperatures are 78/sup 0/F for No. 2 Well, neither temperature is hot enough for direct space heating. Temperature profiles of the wells indicate that a temperature hot enough for direct heating (about 110/sup 0/F or above) cannot be found at reasonable depth. Since direct geothermal heating is not a practical alternative, the tract will be all-electric since this is the only energy source in the area. This study addresses the economic feasibility of a community heat pump system that would reduce the amount of electrical energy required to service the homes.
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance evaluation of Ormat unit at Wabuska, Nevada. Final report

Description: Three nominal 24 hour tests under summer, winter and spring weather conditions, were run on an Ormat geothermal binary power generation machine. The machine, located at TAD's Enterprises in Wabuska, Nevada is supplied with approximately 830 gpm of geothermal water at 221/sup 0/F and has two spray cooling ponds. During the tests, temperature, pressure, and flows of geothermal water, freon, cooling water and instantaneous electrical production were recorded hourly. At least once during each test, energy consumption of the well pump, freon feed pump and cooling water pumps were made. Power output of the machine is limited by spray pond capacity. Net output ranged from 410.2 kW during summer conditions when cooling water was 65/sup 0/F to 610.4 kW during winter conditions when cooling water was 55/sup 0/F. Net resource utilization ranged from 1.005 Whr/lb during the summer test to 1.55 Whr/lb during the winter test. Spray pond performance averaged 63% for the fall and winter tests. Availability of the Ormat unit itself during the eight month test period was generally good, averaging 95.5%. Overall system availability, including well pumps, cooling system and electric grid was somewhat less - averaging 83%.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Culver, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California

Description: Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Culver, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

Description: The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of geothermal potential for Ashland

Description: Recent work in the Ashland area has identified a low temperature geothermal resource on the order of 65-90/sup 0/F. This report concentrates on utilization of the low temperature resource through the use of water source heat pumps. Water-to-air heat pumps were examined for residential, commercial and industrial sectors in two applications; space heating and process heating. In the residential sector, the most attractive areas for heat pump use appear to be those not currently served by city water or natural gas service. Simple payback periods for these applications vary from 9.5 years to well over 20 years depending upon the specific characteristics of the site. In the commercial sector, heat pump use for space heating of government funded office type structures appears to be a viable option. This is particularly true if air conditioning is used. The payback periods for heat pump use in commercial office buildings and retail establishments, however, are beyond the values generally considered attractive by private entities.
Date: May 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct use developments in the United States

Description: Direct heat use of geothermal energy in the United States is recognized as one of the alternative energy resources that has proven itself technically and economically, and is commercially available. Developments include space conditioning of buildings, district heating, groundwater heat pumps, greenhouse heating, industrial processing, aquaculture, and swimming pool heating. Forty-four states have experienced significant geothermal direct use development in the last ten years. The total installed capacity is 5.7 billion Btu/hr (1700 MW/sub t/), with an annual energy use of nearly 17,000 billion Btu/yr (4.5 million barrels of oil energy equivalent). In this report we provide an overview of how and where geothermal energy is used, the extent of that use, the economics and growth trends. The data is based on an extensive site data gathering effort by the Geo-Heat Center in the spring of 1988, under contract to the US Department of Energy. 100 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G. & Lund, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal heating system for the Children's Museum of Utah

Description: The results of a study to determine the engineering and economic feasibility of using the Wasatch Hot Spring resource for space heating of the Children's Library building are presented. The Wasatch Hot Spring with a reported flow of about 63 gpm (240 l/min) at an average temperature of 104/sup 0/F is not capable of furnishing the needed heat for the Children's Museum building. The underground paths along which the thermal waters flow to their outlets at the Warm Springs Fault are not presently known. It is possible if the thermal water ascends from the deep layers of the earth along the Warm Springs Fault that increased geothermal flow at a higher temperature can be produced by drilling into the fault. Assuming that sufficient geothermal fluid quantity is produced by drilling in the area, an analysis is made of a geothermal heating system for the building based on different fluid temperatures. It is assumed that the present and planned heating systems be left intact with the gas fired boilers taking over during cold periods when the geothermal system fails to provide sufficient heat. Economic analysis shows that the geothermal system is very attractive, even for the lowest geothermal fluid temperature considered (110/sup 0/F).
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Karlsson, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating system, City of Caliente, Nevada

Description: An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140{sup 0}F water available to the Mark West Development, about five miles to the west of the city. The city district heating system is based on a supply water temperature of 175{sup 0}F and 120{sup 0}F return temperature. The capital cost estimate for Option 1 is $3,140,000. The resultant savings in conventional energy cost over a 20 year project life, assuming 12% bond financing, show a present worth of $4,074,000. This shows that the project should be economically feasible. The capital cost for Option 2 is estimated to be $4,230,000. The additional cost of Option 2 over Option 1, $1,090,000, will have to be recovered by the fee charged to the Mark West Development users for the water made available to them. Since, however, this use is unknown an evaluation of the economic feasibility of Option 2 cannot be made at this time.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Karlsson, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department