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Investigation of the use of fly-ash based autoclaved cellular concrete blocks in coal mines for air duct work. Final report, January 25, 1993--December 31, 1994

Description: Coal mines are required to provide ventilation to occupied portions of underground mines. Concrete block is used in this process to construct air duct walls. However, normal concrete block is heavy and not easy to work with and eventually fails dramatically after being loaded due to mine ceiling convergence and/or floor heave. Autoclaved cellular concrete block made from (70{plus_minus}%) coal fly ash is lightweight and less rigid when loaded. It is lighter and easier to use than regular concrete block for underground mine applications. It has also been used in surface construction around the world for over 40 years. Ohio Edison along with eight other electric utility companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and North American Cellular Concrete constructed a mobile demonstration plant to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block from utility fly ash. To apply this research in Ohio, Ohio Edison also worked with the Ohio Coal Development Office and CONSOL Inc. to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block not only from coal ash but also from LIMB ash, SNRB ash, and PFBC ash from various clean coal technology projects sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the potential for beneficial use of fly ash and clean coal technology by-products in the production of lightweight block.
Date: June 19, 1995
Creator: Horvath, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ohio Coal Research Consortium fifth year final reports summary, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

Description: As part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research programs focused on: (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants, and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of eleven studies in these areas.
Date: December 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

Description: The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.
Date: February 29, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant

Description: A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where ...
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Ashworth, R.A.; Webner, R.L. & Keener, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of transport process involved in FGD. Final repot, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The objectives of this five year plan of study are to experimentally obtain a basic understanding of (1) turbulent flow structure of the mixing zone and it influence on particle dispersion, (2) the effect of particle loading on turbulent properties and mixing, (3) the effect of jet entrainment, (4) water spray-sorbent interaction, sorbent wetting and mixing, (5) investigate the flow field where certain ratios of jet velocity to flu gas velocity result in regions of negative flow and define onset o negative flow, and (6) sorbent reactivity in immediate mixing zone. In the first two years of the project a sorbent injection facility which can simulate the conditions encountered in COOLSIDE set up was designed and built. Non-intrusive laser based diagnostic tools PDA/LDA were used for flow characterization of particle laden jet in cocurrent flows. In the third year a new technique called TTLDV which combines particle transit time in measurement volume of LDV and LDV velocity measurements to simultaneously obtain non-spherical lime particle size and velocity was developed. Better sorbent injection schemes were investigated spray occurrent flow tests were conducted. During the fourth year the spray cocurrent flow interaction data was analyzed. A criterion was developed for predicting the flow reversal which results in deposition of water droplets on the duct wall (Table 3). The flow reversal occurs when the spray has entrained all the cocurrent flowing stream. The criterion is based upon the mass flow rate of the two phases. The criterion successfully predicted the flow reversals encountered in the experiments and will be a very useful practical tool. Lime laden jet occurrent flow interactions tests were completed. Tests on the swirling nozzle have been conducted. The single phase data have been analyzed while the two phase glass particle laden jet data is being analyzed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Kadambi, J.R.; Tien, J.S.; Yurteri, C.; Kadaba, V. & Assar, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Handling, transport and dispersion of sorbent powder for in-furnace injection. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The focus of this project is on sorbent injection technologies using dry, calcium-based sorbents for high-sulfur coal flue gas desulfurization. The goal is to provide research findings on handling, transport and dispersion of sorbent powder, aimed at improving SO{sub 2} (to at least 90%) removal and increasing sorbent utilization in a cost-effective fashion. The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental aspects of powder technology relevant to the fine sorbent powders, and to provide means of improving sorbent performance through superior dispersion and reduced dispersed particle size. This project is in two phases, Phase 1 ``Powder Characterization`` and Phase 2 ``Powder Mechanical Properties``. Phase 1 involves characterization of the sorbents in terms of their electrostatic properties. The triboelectric charging of powders are studied in detail by measuring sorbent charging as a function of material properties as well as transport conditions. A variety of sorbents are tested, including laboratory-made lignohydrates, calcite, dolomite, dolomitic hydrate and hydrated lime. The effects of transport tube material and gas properties, specifically humidity and velocity on the extent of sorbent charging are also investigated. A population balance model is developed to account for the particle size distribution for powder dispersion through gas-solid injection nozzles. The variations of the transition probability with the booster air velocities is examined. Simulation of particle size distributions under some operating conditions is conducted. Phase 2 investigates the flow properties of several calcium-based sorbents under different handling and transporting conditions. Effect of moisture content, as an important handling condition, on these properties is examined. Determined properties has been analyzed to study their effect on the transport and handling processes.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Fan, L.S.; Abou-Zeida, E.; Liang, S.C. & Luo, Xukun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: Dry regenerative sorption processes have recently attracted increasing attention in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) because of their several advantages over the conventional wet-scrubbing processes. Dry sorbents are usually made by coating a transition or alkaline earth metal precursor on the surface of a porous support. Major disadvantages of these sorbents prepared by the conventional methods include relatively poor attrition resistance and low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity. The physical and especially chemical attrition (associated with the sulphation-oxidation-reduction cycles in the process) deteriorates the performance of the sorbents. The low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity is primarily due to the small surface area of the support. Materials with a high surface area are not used as the supports for FGD sorbents because these materials usually are not thermally stable at high temperatures. In the past year, the research supported by Ohio Coal Development Office was focused on synthesis and properties of sol-gel derived alumina and zeolite sorbents with improved properties for FGD. The sol-gel derived alumina has large surface area, mesopore size and excellent mechanical strength. Some alumina-free zeolites not only posses the basic properties required as a sorbent for FGD (hydrophobicity, thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength) but also have extremely large surface area and selective surface chemistry. The major objectives of this research program were to synthesize the sol-gel derived sorbents and to explore the use of the zeolites either directly as adsorbents or as sorbent support for FGD. The research was aimed at developing novel FGD sorbents possessing better sorption equilibrium and kinetic properties and improved physical and chemical attrition resistance.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Lin, Y.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selenium emission control at high temperatures with mineral sorbents, Final report, September 1, 1993--August 13, 1994

Description: The focus of this project is on toxic heavy metal removal by sorbent injection in the upper-furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. Selenium is chosen as the candidate heavy metal to be studied because of its high volatility and associated difficulty in removal. The preliminary sorbent screening experiments were performed in a differential reactor, built in the first year of this project. A host of sorbents, such as, alumina, kaotinite, limestone and also hydrated lime were tested at a reaction temperature of 900{degrees}C, and for reaction duration of 4 hrs. The reason for choosing these minerals was because of their proven moderate to high capability of lead and cadmium capture, and also for moderate selenium capture at high temperatures, reported by recent studies. The sorbent screening experiments have used selenium dioxide as the Se source, since in the oxidizing atmosphere of the furnace, that is reported to be the existing form of selenium species. The preliminary sorbent screening experiments have shown that Ca(OH){sub 2} is the most promising sorbent for selenium capture out of all the sorbents tested. A careful review of the sorption results for Ca(OH){sub 2} has also revealed the strong possibility for occurrence of a chemical reaction. Since Se belongs to group VI of the periodic table along with sulfur, and shares many common properties with the latter, formation of a calcium selenite (CaSeO{sub 3}) or selenate (CaSeO{sub 4}) compound is likely by the reaction of CaO with SeO{sub 2}. The captured selenium has exhibited poor leachability in water, a property which is also shared by CaSeO{sub 4}. The presence of CaSeO{sub 4} is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis of the sorbent sample. Preliminary studies for investigating the effect of temperature on SeO{sub 2}/Ca(OH){sub 2} reaction have shown that the percent of water-leachable selenium increases with ...
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Fan, L.S.; Ghost-Dastidar, A.; Mahuli, S. & Agnihotri, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

Description: Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Lani, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zimmer slipstream magnesium hydroxide recovery demonstration. Volume I of II. Final report, April 1, 1993--May 31, 1995

Description: Dravo Lime has for many years supplied magnesium containing lime in the ranges of 3-6% MgO. Several years ago Dravo Lime realized the potential operating savings its FGD customers could benefit from if magnesium could be recovered from FGD waste streams. As a result, several different proprietary processes have been developed for the recovery of magnesium hydroxide. These recovery processes include steps for magnesium hydroxide separation, purification, and crystal growth. The process implemented at The Cincinnati Gas Electric Company`s Wm. H. Zimmer Station was piloted by Dravo Lime Company at Allegheny Power System`s Mitchell Station near Monongahela, PA during the fourth quarter in 1989 and first quarter in 1990. This pilot work was the foundation for further development of the ThioClear process at Dravo`s pilot plant at CG&E Miami Fort Station. The ThioClear process is a closed loop version of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process with the same unit operations and products but also including an absorber tower for scrubbing flue gas. Testing at Miami Fort of the ThioClear process led to improvements in separation of magnesium hydroxide from gypsum that are part of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process installed at Zimmer Station.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

Description: The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Wu, M. & Winschel, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. & Meyers, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.
Date: May 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic studies of dry sorbents for medium temperature application. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The purpose of this project is to study the fundamental nature of the sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F to 1200{degrees}F available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focus is on the fundamental mechanisms of sorbent-flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first three years of research. During the fourth year, the interference of carbonation reaction to sulfation reaction was studied as well as the concentration dependency of the sulfation reaction. The data to date showed that the carbonation did not interfere the sulfation reaction rate for reactions taking place less than 1 second. However, there was significant decrease in carbonation conversion when the sulfation reaction took place simultaneously. The levels of SO{sub 2} concentration had negligible effects on reaction rates when the concentration was maintained above 3000 ppM. An n-th order deactivation kinetic model was also developed during the fourth year to model the kinetics of various reactions. This model is particularly useful for the dry sorbent reactions, since the apparent rate constants rapidly decrease during the first 1 second of exposure to various gaseous reactants.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C. & Wang, Zhenwei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of new sorbents to remove mercury and selenium from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) are two of the volatile trace metals in coal, which are often not captured by conventional gas clean up devices of coal-fired boilers. An alternative is to use sorbents to capture the volatile components of trace metals after coal combustion. In this project sorbent screening tests were performed in which ten sorbents were selected to remove metallic mercury in N{sub 2}. These sorbents included activated carbon, char prepared from Ohio No. 5 coal, molecular sieves, silica gel, aluminum oxide, hydrated lime, Wyoming bentonite, kaolin, and Amberite IR-120 (an ion-exchanger). The sorbents were selected based on published information and B&W`s experience on mercury removal. The promising sorbent was then selected and modified for detailed studies of removal of mercury and selenium compounds. The sorbents were tested in a bench-scale adsorption facility. A known amount of each sorbent was loaded in the column as a packed bed. A carrier gas was bubbled through the mercury and selenium compounds. The vaporized species were carried by the gas and went through the sorbent beds. The amount of mercury and selenium compounds captured by the sorbents was determined by atomic absorption. Results are discussed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Shiao, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: A search is being carried out for new calcium-based S0{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives for the current year include the study of sorbents made from Ca(OH){sub 2}, from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, and from portland cement. They also include the study of sorbents made from model compounds. During this year, sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2} were investigated. The results show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents in which the Si-to-Ca reactant ratio is low can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2}. Sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and natural SiO{sub 2} or natural SiO{sub 2} sources were also studied. The results obtained show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents and calcium silicate hydrate sorbents, C-S-H sorbents, can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and diatomite, pumice or perlite, minerals that are readily available. In addition. sorbents prepared from Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and {beta}-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and from mixtures of these compounds and SiO{sub 2} were studied. The results secured demonstrate that very good C-S-H rich sorbents can be prepared from these compounds and from mixtures of them with SiO{sub 2}. They also provide information useful for interpreting the cement sorbent results. Sorbents prepared from cement and from mixtures of cement and natural SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} sources were investigated as well. The results secured show that cement and mixtures of it with diatomite, pumice or perlite rapidly yield excellent sorbents with the proper reaction conditions.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Kenney, M.C.; Chiang, R.K. & Fillgrove, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zimmer slipstream magnesium hydroxide recovery demonstration. Volume II of II. Appendices

Description: Dravo Lime has for many years supplied magnesium containing lime in the ranges of 3-6% MgO. Several years ago Dravo Lime realized the potential operating savings its FGD customers could benefit from if magnesium could be recovered from FGD waste streams. As a result, several different proprietary processes have been developed for the recovery of magnesium hydroxide. These recovery processes include steps for magnesium hydroxide separation, purification, and crystal growth. The process implemented at The Cincinnati Gas Electric Company`s Wm. H. Zimmer Station was piloted by Dravo Lime Company at Allegheny Power System`s Mitchell Station near Monongahela, PA during the fourth quarter in 1989 and first quarter in 1990. This pilot work was the foundation for further development of the ThioClear process at Dravo`s pilot plant at CG&E Miami Fort Station. The ThioClear process is a closed loop version of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process with the same unit operations and products but also including an absorber tower for scrubbing flue gas. Testing at Miami Fort of the ThioClear process led to improvements in separation of magnesium hydroxide from gypsum that are part of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process installed at Zimmer Station. This document contains the Appendices for this report.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of toxic metallic emissions formed during the combustion of Ohio coals. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The objective of the project was to characterize metallic emissions from representative coals and develop strategies for their control. Though metallic emissions from coal combustors have been extensively studied, more studies need to be performed to better characterize the interaction of various species which is required for the selection and design of sorbents for effective control of these emissions. Some coals are rich in sulfur, and utilities using these coals will have to use some form of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). A technique for FGD is the use of calcium based sorbents, and the degree of metals capture of these sorbents under different conditions will be researched. The objective of the first year of the study was to understand the evolution of metallic aerosol size distributions and the capture characteristics of various sorbents. Also, the metallic emissions resulting from the combustion of two seams of Ohio coals were to be characterized. Studies on the evolution of the metallic aerosol size distributions have been completed and the use of silicon and calcium based sorbents for capture of lead species has been examined. Co-injection of metallic compounds along with organometallic silicon indicated a high degree of capture of lead in a certain temperature regime. Preliminary results with calcium based sorbents also indicate capture of metallic species. To gain a further understanding of the capture processes, in situ optical diagnostic studies were performed in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Spectroscopic studies (laser induced fluorescence coupled with particle scattering) were performed to help understand the mechanisms of metallic species capture.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Biswas, P.; Owens, T.M. & Wu, Chang-Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and structural evolution of sorbents at high temperatures. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The focus of this project is on furnace sorbent injection technology using dry, calcium-based sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The goal is to provide fundamental research kinetics and the effects of sorbent properties, aimed at improving S0{sub 2} removal and increasing sorbent utilization in a cost-effective fashion. The fourth year work has been carried out in three phases: (1) structural evolution of sorbent, (2) modified sorbent studies, and (3) development of mathematical model. The results, their interpretation, and discussions are the primary focus of this report.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Fan, L.S.; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Mahuli, S. & Agnihotri, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal testing and toxics characterization. Milestone report, phase 1

Description: This report describes the work completed in the first phase of the Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} Removal Testing and Toxics Characterization test program. Tasks covered in this report as specified in the Statement of Work included: Task 1.2.0 Equipment Modification and Reagents Procurement; Task 1.3.0 Testing at the 5 kW Scale; Task 1.3.1 Temperature Enhanced Fe(III)EDTA Reduction; Task 1.3.2 Electrolytic Cell Fe(III) EDTA Reduction; Task 1.3.3 Chemical Regeneration Agents Testing; Task 1.3.4 Combination of Strategies; Task 1.4.0 Data Analysis and Phase I Report. Proposed in Task 1.3.4 are combinations of regeneration methods (based on data generated in Tasks 1.3.1 to 1.3.3) that gave the best results at the lowest possible cost. The Test Plan approval (Task 1.1.0) was previously submitted under separate cover.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Whitcomb, J.; Tseng, Shiaw & Lani, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: In spray dryer flue gas desulfurization, lime slurry is injected into a spray dryer where it contacts with the hot flue gas and desulfurization occurs. This process is complex owing to the heat and mass transfer which must take place. One of the most important fundamental steps in the scrubbing process is the rate at which lime dissolves from the solid particle in the slurry drop and becomes available for reaction with the absorbed sulfur dioxide. This dissolution rate to a large extent controls the degree of reactivity and is the rate controlling step for this process. However, studies on this dissolution rate have been very few and its magnitude under a variety of operating conditions is not well known. This research has as its objective, the study and understanding of the lime dissolution rate. This understanding should lead to a better method of predicting and optimizing spray dryer performance for flue gas desulfurization.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. & Wang, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of fly ash in heavy metal removal from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The primary objective of this work is to study the fundamental phenomena involved in the sorption of trace chalcophilic elements by fly ash at high and medium temperatures. Chalcophiles are the low-boiling trace elements that are volatilized during pulverized coal combustion and are transferred to the gas phase, e.g., As, Pb, Cd and Se. The main focus of this work is investigating the sorption phenomena of a representative chalcophile, arsenic (As) on fly ashes at temperatures representative of the upper-furnace region (850--1200{degree}C) and the economizer section (375--600{degree}C). Arsenic is chosen because it is a highly toxic chalcophile and shows some affinity for fly ash but is also emitted from the stack as vapor and aerosol particles. The two temperature zones have been chosen because most of the dry-sorbent injection technologies are being developed for application in these two regions. Also, various fly ash samples from different sources are being studied because their chemical composition and subsequently their chemical sorption characteristics would show a great deal of variation depending on their source. In the first year of this project, it was proposed to conduct isothermal sorption experiments in a differential reactor system. The first year`s work was divided into two phases; namely (1) design, construction, testing and trouble-shooting of the differential reactor assembly and the analytical instrumentation, and, (2) designing experiments and conducting sorption studies in the differential reactor system.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bavarian, F.; Mahuli, S.; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Agnihotri, R. & Fan, L.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

Description: The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ohio Coal Testing and Development Facility - Construction and operation. Final report

Description: On June 14, 1987, the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) executed a grant agreement with ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICF Kaiser) for the planning and design (Phase I) of a Demonstration Advanced Technology Coal Preparation Facility. Subsequently, on December 1, 1990, OCDO executed a grant agreement with the American Electric Power Service Corporation (AEPSC) through its subsidiary, the Ohio Power Company, for the final design and construction (Phase II), testing and operation (Phase III), and marketing and future operation (Phase IV) of the facility. These phases were subcontracted to ICF Kaiser. AEPSC co-sponsored the project and donated a site at the Central Ohio Coal Company`s Unionville Coal Preparation Plant for locating the test plant. Central Ohio Coal supplied coal handling services, waste-product disposal, and water. The Ohio Power Company provided project oversight, electric power, and the test coals. The test results from the operation of the 30 tph advanced coal cleaning plant demonstrated that combining conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies was a cost-effective method to reduce sulfur emissions of Ohio coals. The following is a summary of the key findings of this project.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Ferris, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department