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Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Falls City, Texas

Description: Results of a radiological survey conducted at the Falls City, Texas, site in July 1976 are presented. There are seven partial to fully stabilized tailings piles, and an overburden pile from an open-pit mine. Above ground gamma-ray exposure rate measurements show moderate levels of contamination throughout the area with a maximum exposure rate of 500 ..mu..R/hr above tailings pile 2. The average exposure rate over the different areas varied from 14 ..mu..R/hr over the southwest end of tailings pile 7 to 207 ..mu..R/hr over the northeast end of the same pile. Analyses of surface soil and dry-wash sediment samples, as well as calculations of subsurface /sup 226/Ra distribution, serve to define the spread of tailings around the area. Water erosion of the tailings is evident, but, because of abundant growth of vegetation on the tailings piles, wind erosion probably is not a major problem.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Haywood, F. F.; Christian, D. J.; Loy, E. T.; Lorenzo, D. & Ellis, B. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Rigid muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon interaction in transition metals

Description: Progress in calculating the electron-phonon parameters of transition metals has been based on either the rigid muffin-tin approximation (RMTA) or the fitted modified tight-binding approximation (FMTBA). The RMTA has been shown to be remarkably accurate for average electron-phonon properties, but there are indications that RMTA matrix elements may be too small at low momentum transfer. An attempt is made to demonstrate these assertions concerning the accuracy of RMTA and the numerous electron-phonon calculations are placed in a broader perspective by a demonstration of how they can be used to explain the trends in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling among the transition metals and the A-15 compounds. (GHT)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Butler, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear safety guide TID-7016 Revision 2

Description: The present revision of TID-7016 Nuclear Safety Guide is discussed. This Guide differs significantly from its predecessor in that the latter was intentionally conservative in its recommendations. Firmly based on experimental evidence of criticality, the original Guide and the first revision were considered to be of most value to organizations whose activities with fissionable materials were not extensive and, secondarily, that it would serve as a point of departure for members of established nuclear safety teams, experienced in the field. The reader will find a significant change in the character of information presented in this version. Nuclear Criticality Safety has matured in the past twelve years. The advance of calculational capability has permitted validated calculations to extend and substitute for experimental data. The broadened data base has enabled better interpolation, extension, and understanding of available, information, especially in areas previously addressed by undefined but adequate factors of safety. The content has been thereby enriched in qualitative guidance. The information inherently contains, and the user can recapture, the quantitative guidance characteristic of the former Guides by employing appropriate safety factors. In fact, it becomes incumbent on the Criticality Safety Specialist to necessarily impose safety factors consistent with the possible normal and abnormal credible contingencies of an operation as revealed by his evaluation. In its present form the Guide easily becomes a suitable module in any compendium or handbook tailored for internal use by organizations. It is hoped the Guide will continue to serve immediate needs and will encourage continuing and more comprehensive efforts toward organizing nuclear criticality safety information.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Thomas, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Excitation of giant resonances via direct reactions

Description: Experimental measurements of electric giant multipole resonances are discussed. The parameters of the giant quadrupole resonance are now firmly established by an extensive set of measurements. The GQR is providing a significant influence in other areas of nuclear physics. The monopole resonance has now been established and its observation has provided the first direct measure of the nuclear compressibility. A strong case for the existence of a giant octupole resonance is now being made through a variety of hadron reactions. However, the supply of giant multipole resonances has not been exhausted. The newer techniques such as higher energy proton scattering, charge exchange reactions, heavy-ion scattering and pion reactions offer considerable hope for identifying new resonances during the next few years.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Bertrand, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Note on the cryostatic stability of superconducting composites

Description: A careful discussion is given of the ''equal area condition'' developed by Maddock et al. In order to make the essential points as clear as possible, analytical solutions are derived under simplifying assumptions (simple model for heat transfer by nucleate and film boiling liquid helium; constant heat conduction and specific heat) instead of using more realistic but less controllable computer calculations. A quantitative definition of the concept of a long wire is given. Numerical examples for the Maddock transition characterized by the equal area condition are given for a long superconducting composite with linear cooling and for a liquid helium-cooled resistance wire of finite length. In addition, cases are shown where instead of applying the equal area stability condition, time-dependent solutions should be considered.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Gauster, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Owen, P. T.; Michelson, D. C. & Knox, N. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preparation of Charge Materials for Ornl Electromagnetic Isotope Separators

Description: SEPARATORS. C. W. Sheridan, H. R. Gwinn, and L. O. Descriptions are given of procedures, techniques, and equipment used to prepare charge materials for electromagnetic isotope separators at ORNL. Data on ion outputs during processing, charge consumption rates, and process efficiencies are given for 54 elements. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Sheridan, C W; Gwinn, H R & Love, L O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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WELDING AND BRAZING OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE RADIATORS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS

Description: Procedures were developed for fabricating highperformance radiators and heat exchangers for the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Program. These components, which contain multitudes of tube-to-tube sheet and tube-to-fin joints, are similar in design to those under consideration for a variety of space vehicle applications. In order to ensure reliability of the tube-to-tube sheet joints, techniques producing welds of extremely high quality were used and back brazing of the welds with a suitable alloy was incorporated. High-temperature brazing was also incorporated to attach high-conductivity fins to Inconel tubes in the radiators. The selection of a suitable brazing alloy for these applications was dependent upon several factors, including corrosion and oxidation resistance, flow point, and mechanical properties. A Ni- Si-B alloy was found to be adequate from all these considerations. Special brazing procedures were developed to obtain satisfactory flowability of this brazing alloy on tube-to-fin joints. The suitability of these fabrication procedures for the very stringent service conditions to which the radiators and heat exchangers were subjected was demonstrated by testing full-size components under operating conditions. (auth)
Date: February 20, 1962
Creator: Slaughter, G.M. & Patriarca, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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GAS-COOLED REACTOR PROGRAM QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1961

Description: Progress is reported on investigations in support of the Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor, the Pebble-Bed Reactor Experiment, Advanced reactor design and development, test facilities, components, and materials. Topics covered include EGCR physics, EGCR performance analyses, structural investigations, EGCR component and materials development and testing, EGCR experimental facilities, PBRE physics and design studies, fueled-graphite investigations, clad fuel development, design studies of advanced power plants, experimental investigations of heat transfer and fluid flow, development of equipment anmd test facilities. and fabrication studies. (M.C.G.)
Date: February 1, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report, September 1961

Description: Nine samples of ThO/sub 2/ -UO/sub 2/ prepared as part of the solgel process development studies showed no consistent effects from small variations in several process parameters. The reaction of methane and copper oxide was studied. Engineering studies of the continuous dissolution of simulated U-Zr-Sn fuels in 6.5 M NH4F, 0.6-1.0 M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, 0.1 M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ were continued in modified 6-in.-dia. equipment. A total of 1642 kg of U from NaK bonded SRE Core I fuel rods wad dejacketed to date/su Initial operability tests of the 250 ton prototype shear unit showed a number of minor modifications are warranted. Center tube temperatures measured in a vertical 64 tube electrically heated simulated fuel element bundle were very near those previously obtained in the horizontal position. A 304 SS tube containing eutectic NaK was dissolved by HF in fused saIt at a tube wall penetration rate of approximates 2 mils/hr. Partial differential equations were derived from the concentration of unreacted UF/sub 6/ as a function of time and position in a sphere of NaF during sorption of UF/sub 6/. Calcium nitrate solution was added directly to the pot calciner during Purex feeding to give smoother operation of the feeding system. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Whatley, M. E.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Ryon, A. D.; Suddath, J. C. & Watson, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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State of the art of pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems

Description: This report was prepared at the request of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to clarify the development status of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) and to place in perspective the problems which are yet to be solved before commercialization of the concept is practical. This report, in essence, supersedes the interim report published in 1979, Assessment of the State of the Art of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. A brief overview of the PFBC concept is included citing potential advantages and disadvantages relative to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and conventional pulverized coal plants. A survey of existing and developing PFBC experimental facilities is presented in some detail which includes the major accomplishments at the respective facilities. Recent data on plant emissions, turbine/gas cleanup systems, and overall efficiency are provided. Findings of several design studies are also discussed. The results of recent gas turbine and cascade tests have been encouraging although the full assessment of the accomplishments have not been made. The delay in construction of the Grimethorpe plant causes further delay in proof-testing full-size, rotating turbomachinery. Several parameters are recommended for further assessment in design studies including: (1) effect of turbine life on cost of power; and (2) effect of reduced gas turbine inlet temperature and pressure on cost of power.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Graves, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRT CORROSION SAMPLES--ADDITIONAL DATA ON SPECIMENS REMOVED PRIOR TO RUN NO. 20

Description: Results of the examinations of corrosion specimens exposed in the HRT are presented. Specimens examined include core screen samples, core specimen array No. 1, blanket specimen array No. 2, core solution line specimen arrays No. 103 and 103A, and blanket solution line specimen array No. 203. These data include corrosion rates, computed from specimen weight-changes, and results of chemical analyses of scales removed from the specimens or specimen holders. A summary is included of the HRT operating schedule during exposure of the specimens and of the status of examinations for the specimens removed from the reactor prior to run 20. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Baker, J.E.; Silverman, M.D.; Jenks, G.H. & Olsen, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Murgatroyd-an Ibm 7090 Program for the Analysis of the Kinetics of the Msre

Description: The IBM 7090 program Murgatroyd is a revised and extended version of the IBM 704 program PET-I, which solves (by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta procedure) the coupled firstorder differential equations for power, delayed neutron concentration, and temperature in a one-region reactor as a function of time, given an input reactivity variation represented by a series of linear ramps. The basic extensions were those which were necessary to include the effects of the separate heat capacities and temperature coefficients of the fuel sait and graphite in the MSRE, and of heat transfer between the fuel and graphite. In addition, the input and output sections of the previous program were modified to facilitate the use of the program in extensive parameter studies, and a calculation of the pressure rise in the core was included. Typical running times are of the order of l2 milliseconds per time step; a calculation of a 30-second power history using a 10 millisecond time step requires about 36 seconds of machine time. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Nestor, C. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division, Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report, February 1962

Description: In the operation of 6-in.-dia. foam-liquid columns, increase in either the liquid flow or foam flow caused increased channeling with increased HTU. Flooding values for the Immi mixer-settler were obtalned using the amine extraction final cycle Pu flowsheet. Two tests of the addltlon of uranyl nitrate to a thoria sol were made, one of which gave a good product and the other a product which disintegrated during calcination. Material balances for 22 waste calcination runs are summarized. (auth)
Date: August 23, 1962
Creator: Whatley, M. E.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Ryon, A. D.; Suddath, J. C. & Watson, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PILOT PLANT SHUTDOWN AND Pu-Al PROCESSING

Description: The large aqueous pilot plant facilities at ORNL were cleaned and are being put in standby condition. Experience was gained during the year as anion exchange was used to recover more than one kg of plutonium left in the exploded evaporator system. This experience is being applied to a new recovery program just beginning in cell 1 of Building 4507. (auth)
Date: September 25, 1961
Creator: Bresee, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

Description: Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Webb, J. W.; Eddlemon, G. K. & Reed, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division, Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report, June 1961

Description: An interfacial viseometer was built for use in an interfacial phenomena study. Installation of a 6-in.-ID foam separation column system was completed. The dispersiondrying-sintering characteristics of six low-nitrate batches of thoria sol material were studied. The average effective porosity of the CuO pellets used for reactor helium purification was determined to be 0.0545 for H/ sub 2/ transport and 0.0526 for CO transport. In continuous Zirflex dissolution studies, no H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ decomposition was observed when 10% H/sub 2/O/sup 2 was fed into boiling dissoivent through a water-cooled nozzle and the oxygen concentration in the scrubbed off-gas could be used to control the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration in the dissolver. The free fluoride in Zirflex solutions must be maintained above 1 molar in order to prevent uranium precipitation at low concentrations of uranium even though the F/sup -//U ratio exceeds 100. Chopped stainless steel-clad UO/sub 2/ sections were leached in a 4 stage pyrex leacher model using 6, 7, and 8 M nitric acid as the dissolvent. The temperature distribution expected within fuel elements consisting of square arrays of tubes was calculated for shipping conditions assuming heat to be transferred only by radiation. HETS values were calculated for uranium stripping under 5% TBP flowsheet conditions. Very fine particles were obtained by quenching fused salt droplets in water. A waste calcinatron run was made using TBP-25 waste and the close coupled evaporator-calciner system. (auth)
Date: January 23, 1962
Creator: Whatley, M. E.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Ryon, A. D.; Suddath, J. C. & Watson, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stochastic model of radioiodine transport

Description: A research project has been underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the objective to evaluate dose assessment models and to determine the uncertainty associated with the model predictions. This has resulted in the application of methods to propagate uncertainties through models. Some techniques and results related to this problem are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Schwarz, G. & Hoffman, F.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BRAZING OF CERAMICS. Progress Report

Description: Brazing alloys such as 48 Ti-48 Zr-4 Be (wt%) and 49 Ti-49 Cu-2 Be (wt%) have been found to readily flow on oxide and graphite ceramics. Two demonstrati on fuel element assemblies were fabricated to illustrate the usefulness of these procedures for nuclear applications. One of these assemblies contained graphite tubes and end caps which were brazed to a molybdenum hanger. The second demonstration fuel element was composed of a compartmented aluminum oxide plate to which aluminum oxide cover plates were brazed. (R.J.S.)
Date: November 1, 1962
Creator: Fox, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

Description: Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B. & Guerin, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Recording Equipment for Internal Friction Measurements

Description: An apparatus was developed for recording internal friction data in such a manner as to circumvent many of the laborious and time-consuming observations and calculations usually associated with these measurements. An optical lever is used and the passage of the beam across the scale is detected by photoconductive cells. The cells are strategically located so that, when their signals are fed through a multichannel switching circuit to the pens of an operation recorder, a plot of the logarithm of the vibrational amplitude versus the number of cycles is recorded on the chart. From the definitmon of the logarithmic decrement, ( delta ), it can be shown that the slope of this curve is - delta . The apparatus is inexpensive and requires a minimum of maintenance. It has been used for accurate determinations of values of delta from below 0.0001 up to 0.3. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1961
Creator: Stephenson, R. L. & McCoy, H. E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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