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Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

Description: This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of RBS and NRA in the fabrication of carbon based devices

Description: We have used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) as well as resonant backscattering as analytical tools in fabricating carbon based drug delivery bio-implants, electrodes for batteries, and devices to entrap or filter specific toxins. Precursor is resol C{sub 7}H{sub 8}O{sub 2} liquid, which converts to fully cured phenolic resin C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O (sp gr 1.25) on heating at 170 C. This resin further transforms with no change in shape to glassy carbon (sp gr 1.45) on heating to 1000 C. Final product consists of long ribbon-like molecules of sp2 carbon atoms aggregated locally to form subcrystalline domains arranged randomly in space. RBS and NRA were used in measuring the porosity before and after activation, in concentration profiling of stored drugs before and after leaching, in detecting low level light element impurities, and in detecting changes in the structure of the device due to fabrication.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Maleki, H.; Evelyn, A.L. & Poker, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

Description: The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration

Description: A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.
Date: August 30, 1999
Creator: Mahan, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1999

Description: This is the twenty-sixth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and its reported separately.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Rowcliffe, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent extraction of technetium from alkaline waste media using bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6

Description: The crown ether bis-4,4`(5`)[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 can be utilized in a solvent-extraction process for the removal of technetium as pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from solutions simulating highly radioactive alkaline defense wastes (``tank wastes``) stored at several sites in the United States. The process employs non-halogenated and non-volatile diluents and modifiers and includes an efficient stripping procedure using only water. More than 95% of the pertechnetate present at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M in Melton Valley (Oak Ridge, TN) and Hanford (Washington) tank-waste simulants was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts using 0.02 M bis-4,4`(5`)[(tertbutyl)cyclohexano]- 18-crown-6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar{reg_sign} M diluent at 25 C. Similarly, for both simulants, more than 98% of the pertechnetate contained in the solvent was back-extracted following two cross-current stripping contacts using deionized water.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J. & Moyer, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and safety plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This HASP describes the process for identifying the requirements, written safety documentation, and procedures for protecting personnel involved in the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. Objective of this project is to place 19 former isotope production facilities at ORNL in a safe condition in anticipation of an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance.
Date: August 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I

Description: This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BUGLE-96: A revised multigroup cross section library for LWR applications based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3

Description: A revised multigroup cross-section library based ON ENDF/B-VI Release 3 has been produced for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. This new broad-group library, which is designated BUGLE-96, represents an improvement over the BUGLE-93 library released in February 1994 and is expected to replace te BUGLE-93 data. The cross-section processing methodology is the same as that used for producing BUGLE-93 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. As an added feature, cross-section sets having upscatter data for four thermal neutron groups are included in the BUGLE-96 package available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. The upscattering data should improve the application of this library to the calculation of more accurate thermal fluences, although more computer time will be required. The incorporation of feedback from users has resulted in a data library that addresses a wider spectrum of user needs.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: White, J.E.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O. & Roussin, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass material oxidation and dissolution system: Converting miscellaneous fissile materials to glass

Description: The cold war and the development of nuclear energy have resulted in significant inventories of miscellaneous fissile materials (MFMs). MFMs include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel (SNF), (3) certain hot cell wastes, and (4) many one-of-a-kind materials. Major concerns associated with the long-term management of these materials include: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns. waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by converting the MFMs to glass for secure, long-term storage or repository disposal; however, conventional glass-making processes require oxide-like feed materials. Converting MFMs to oxide-like materials with subsequent vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), which directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride (NaCl) stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. However, significant work is required to develop GMODS further for applications at an industrial scale. If implemented, GMODS will provide a new approach to manage these materials.
Date: March 19, 1996
Creator: Forsberg, C.W. & Ferrada, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design of the folded waveguide for PBX-M and TFTR

Description: The folded waveguide (FWG) antenna is an advanced Cyclotron Range of Frequencies launcher being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The FWG offers a drastic increase in radio frequency (RF) power density over typical loop antennas. It also results in internal electric fields of much lower magnitude near the plasma. It is scheduled for installation on either the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) or the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) tokamak in January 1996. The design objective is to provide an FWG that can withstand the thermal loads and disruption scenarios and meet the space constants of both machines. The design is also intended to be prototypical for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The FWG is fully retractable, and maintenance operations can be performed while the vessel remains under vacuum. The FWG can operate in fast-wave mode, or it can be retracted, rotated 90{degrees}, and reengaged for the ion-Bernstein wave launch. The polarizing plate completely covers the front of the antenna, except for slots cut at every other gap between with plates of other configurations such as a 0-{pi} dipole plate.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Fogelman, C.H.; Bigelow, T.S. & Yugo, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

Description: This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R. & Wright, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electroforming cell design tool development

Description: The Electroforming Advisor (EFA) team has developed a prototype of an EFA, an easy-to-use design and computational problem solving environment for Electroforming. A primary goal is to enable electroformers to optimally design a cell that would make a part right the first time and with minimum cost. Computer simulations can be carried out much faster than experimentation and without hazardous waste production. The EFA prototype uses the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and the Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) capabilities of the Intergraph Engineering Modeling System coupled with the simulation capabilities of a locally developed three-dimensional boundary element code, BEPLATE. 1 ref., 7 figs.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Giles, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

Description: Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H. & Jendrucko, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of ground freezing for environmental restoration at waste area grouping 5, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: A study to evaluate the feasibility of using ground freezing technology to immobilize tritium contaminants was performed as part of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Technology Demonstrations initiated by the WAG 6 Record of Agreement. The study included a review of ground freezing technology, evaluation of this technology for environmental restoration, and identification of key technical issues. A proposed ground freezing demonstration for containment of tritium at a candidate Oak Ridge National Laboratory site was developed. The planning requirements for the demonstration were organized into seven tasks including site selection, site characterization, conceptual design, laboratory evaluation, demonstration design, field implementation, and monitoring design. A brief discussion of each of these tasks is provided. Additional effort beyond the scope of this study is currently being directed to the selection of a demonstration site and the identification of funding.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Gates, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determinations of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at part-per-trillion (ng/L) concentrations in contaminated groundwaters and drinking waters featuring carbon-based membrane extraction disks

Description: A new solid phase extraction procedure extracts N- Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at part-per-trillion (ng/L) concentrations from aqueous samples using a C{sub 18} (reversed-phase) membrane extraction disk layered over a carbon-based extraction disk. The reversed-phase disk removes nonpolar water-insoluble neutrals and is set aside; the carbon-based disk is extracted with a small volume of dichloromethane. NDMA is quantitated in the organic extract using a gas chromatograph equipped with both a short-path thermal desorber and a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND). The Method Detection Limit for the procedure is 2 ng of NDMA/L; the analyte recovery is approximately 57%. A related procedure substitutes a standard automatic sampler for the short-path thermal desorber, and is suitable for determining NDMA in heavily-contaminated aqueous samples. The Method Detection Limit for the `high-level` procedure, which employs an automatic sampler, is 180 ng of NDMA/L, with an analyte recovery of approximately 64%.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Connolly, G. & Hayes, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow blockage analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor

Description: The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor was designed to provide a research tool with capabilities beyond those of any existing reactors. One portion of its state-of-the-art design required high-speed fluid flow through narrow channels between the fuel plates in the core. Experience with previous reactors has shown that fuel plate damage can occur when debris becomes lodged at the entrance to these channels. Such debris disrupts the fluid flow to the plate surfaces and can prevent adequate cooling of the fuel. Preliminary ANS designs addressed this issue by providing an unheated entrance length for each fuel plate so that any flow disruption would recover, thus providing adequate heat removal from the downstream, heated portions of the fuel plates. As part of the safety analysis, the adequacy of this unheated entrance length was assessed using both analytical models and experimental measurements. The Flow Blockage Test Facility (FBTF) was designed and built to conduct experiments in an environment closely matching the ANS channel geometry. The FBTF permitted careful measurements of both heat transfer and hydraulic parameters. In addition to these experimental efforts, a thin, rectangular channel was modeled using the Fluent computational fluid dynamics computer code. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data to benchmark the hydrodynamics of the model. After this comparison, the model was extended to include those elements of the safety analysis that were difficult to measure experimentally. These elements included the high wall heat flux pattern and variable fluid properties. The results were used to determine the relationship between potential blockage sizes and the unheated entrance length required.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Stovall, T.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Felde, D.K. & Park, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of meteorology in assessing energy externalities: application of the damage function approach

Description: This paper describes a methodology for estimating energy externalities. These externalities are environmental, health, and other damages and benefits that traditionally have not been considered as part of the cost of producing and consuming goods and services. An example of externalities is the effect on human health from exposure to ozone formed by NO{sub x} and other emissions from electric power plants. These damages are valued adversely by individuals (and by society) but are not reflected in the price of electricity. The damage function approach is a methodology which is used for developing quantitative estimates of externalities. This paper describes the five major steps in the damage function approach, focuses on the use of ozone models in that framework, and points out the effects of meteorological variables on estimates of ozone concentrations.
Date: September 14, 1993
Creator: Lee, R.; Miller, R.L. & McIlvaine, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of ambient gas pressure on pulsed laser ablation plume dynamics and ZnTe film growth

Description: Epitaxial thin films of nitrogen-doped p-ZnTe were grown on single-crystal, semi-insulating Ga-As substrates via pulsed laser ablation of a stoichiometric ZnTe target. Both low pressure nitrogen ambients and high vacuum were used. Results of in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and time-resolved ion probe measurements have been compared with ex situ Hall effect and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. A strong correlation was observed between the nature of the film`s surface during growth (2-D vs. 3-D, assessed via RHEED) and the ambient gas pressures employed during deposition. The extended defect content (assessed via cross-sectional TEM) in the region >150 mn from the film/substrate interface was found to increase with the ambient gas pressure during deposition, which could not be explained by lattice mismatch alone. At sufficiently high pressures, misoriented, columnar grains developed which were not only consistent with the RHEED observations but also were correlated with a marked decrease in Hall mobility and a slight decrease in hole concentration. Ion probe measurements, which monitored the attenuation and slowing of the ion current arriving at the substrate surface, indicated that for increasing nitrogen pressure the fast (vacuum) velocity distribution splits into a distinct fast and two collisionally-slowed components or modes. Gas controlled variations in these components mirrored trends in electrical properties and microstructural measurements.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Rouleau, C.M.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Allard, L.F.; Strauss, M.A.; Cao, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended ALIs and DACs for 10 CFR part 220: A consistent numerical set

Description: Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20 contains numerical data for controlling the intake of radionuclides in the workplace or in the environment. These data, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), do not provide a numerically consistent basis for demonstrating compliance with the limitation on dose stated in the regulation. This situation is largely a consequence of the numerical procedures used by the ICRP which did not maintain, in a strict numerical sense, the hierarchial relationship among the radiation protection quantities. In this work recommended values of the quantities in Appendix B to CFR Part 20 are developed using the dose coefficients of the applicable ICRP publications and a numerical procedure which ensures that the tabulated quantities are numerically consistent.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Eckerman, K.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the technical viability of reactor options for plutonium disposition

Description: Various reactor concepts for the disposition of surplus Pu have been proposed by reactor vendors; not all have attained the same level of technical viability. Studies were performed to differentiate between reactor concepts by devising a quantitative index for technical viability. For a quantitative assessment, three issues required resolution: the definition of a technical maturity scale, the treatment of ``subjective`` factors which cannot be easily represented in a quantitative format, and the protocol for producing a single technical viability figure-of-merit for each alternative. Alternatives involving the use of foreign facilities were found to be the most technically viable.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Primm, R.T. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ductile grinding of Ba(Sr)TiO{sub 3} detector substrates

Description: Several precision machining techniques have been applied to barium strontium titanate wafers as deterministic replacements for lapping, polishing and reticulation. Surface finishes approaching polish quality have been achieved in less time than normally required, leading to potentially lower manufacturing costs for uncooled FPA`s.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Kahl, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

Description: The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: McClung, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal-hydraulic studies of the Advanced Neutron Source cold source

Description: The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was to be a user-oriented neutron research facility producing the most intense steady-state flux of thermal and cold neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the production of cold neutrons was a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410-mm-diam sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel`s inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design were performed with heat conduction simulations of the vessel walls and multidimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This report presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that were planned to verify the final design.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Williams, P.T. & Lucas, A.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department