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Effect of phosphorus on the swelling and precipitation behavior of austenitic stainless steels during irradiation

Description: It has been observed that increasing the volume fraction of the needle-shaped iron phosphide phase in austenitic stainless steels tends to inhibit void swelling during neutron irradiation. An earlier analysis showed that this effect could not be accounted for in terms of enhanced point defect recombination at particle-matrix interfaces. The behavior of the iron phosphide phase has been further examined using dual ion beam irradiations. It was found that the particle-matrix interface serves as a site for the nucleation of a very fine dispersion of helium bubbles. It is thought that since a high number density of cavities lowers the number of helium atoms per cavity, the irradiation time for the cavities to accumulate the critical number of gas atoms for bias-driven growth is correspondingly increased. Although the phosphide phase nucleates rapidly, it eventually undergoes dissolution if either the G or Laves phase develops with increasing dose.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K. & Rowcliffe, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ion confinement and radiation losses in the Advanced Toroidal Facility

Description: Collapses of stored energy are typically observed in low-density ({anti n}{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}) extensively gettered ATF plasmas when the electron density rises to the ECH cutoff point, and the central heating is supplied only by neutral- beam-injection (NBI). However, the decline of stored energy can be avoided if the density is raised rapidly to about 5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the collapses: (1) impurity radiation, (2) excitation of an electron instability driven by the neutral beams, or (3) poor coupling of the beam ions to the thermal plasmas. Detailed spectroscopic studies of plasma cleanliness as a function of the gettering procedure have shown that radiation is an unlikely candidate for initiating collapses, although it may become an important loss mechanism once the electron temperature has fallen to a low level. No specific electron instability has yet been identified with injection, but recent experimental and computational work indicates that losses by shinethrough and charge exchange strongly influence the evolution of low-density plasmas. This report discusses the beam particle losses, thermal ions, and the evolution of radiation profiles.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Isler, R. C.; Colchin, R. J.; Wade, M. R.; Lyon, J. F.; Fowler, R. H.; Rome, J. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design description of the large coil test facility pulse coil

Description: The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being constructed to test up to six large superconducting coils of the configuration needed for tokamak reactors. In order to subject these test coils to conditions which simulate the magnetic environment of an operating tokamak, it is necessary to provide transient vertical fields at the test coil. The LCTF does this by means of a pulse coil set which can be positioned in the bore of each coil. The coils are tested one at a time while the remaining five test coils provide a background toroidal field. Since the pulse coil set is a part of the facility and not considered as a developmental item, it is designed to utilize conventional coil materials and fabrication techniques. The operating environment and magnitude of the induced loads make this coil set somewhat unique. This paper discusses the required operating parameters, the operating environment and loads, as well as the design features of the coils.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hussung, R.O.; Queen, C.C. Jr. & Chipley, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

Description: Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Ambrose, K. R.; Callahan, A. P.; McPherson, D. W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

Description: Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Shultz, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Description of interview data regarding Pittsburgh and confluence toxic chemical accidents

Description: Evacuation is the protective action most often recommended in response to chemical releases in the United States. The appropriateness of a decision to evacuate depends on whether the affected areas can be cleared of residents before it is contaminated by the chemical release. In determining whether an evacuation can be completed in time, emergency officials must consider both technical and behavioral aspects. The technical components can be readily conceived and quantified. In contrast, the behavioral components are much more abstract and more difficult to estimate. This report summarizes the univariate analysis of responses to surveys conducted in two communities where evacuation was recommended following train derailments involving hazardous chemicals. The surveys were designed to identify the actions taken by residents upon receiving the emergency warning; determine when people received the warning, decided to take action, and implemented the action; and ascertain factors that might explain the nature and timing of their actions. The surveys were conducted in the Bloomfield section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in the town of Confluence, Pennsylvania. The study confirms that compliance with an emergency warning to evacuate varies and that potentially dangerous delays can be expected. Significant differences were noted, however, in the rate and speed of compliance in the two communities. The surveys provide information on several factors that may be useful in determining the reasons for differences in the responses from the two communities as well as differences among individual respondents. Such factors include the time of day when the accident occurred, where the respondent was at the time, whether the family was together, previous disaster experience, pet ownership, the content of the warning message, and demographic characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L. & Sorensen, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Management plan for the Nuclear Standards Program

Description: This Management Plan was prepared to describe the manner in which Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide technical management of the Nuclear Standards Program. The organizational structure that has been established within ORNL for this function is the Nuclear Standards Management Center, which includes the Nuclear Standards Office (NSO) already in existence at ORNL. This plan is intended to support the policies and practices for the development and application of technical standards in ETN projects, programs, and technology developments as set forth in a standards policy memorandum from the DOE Program Director for Nuclear Energy.
Date: November 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Review of PGDP assessment of criticality safety problems in increasing product assay to 5 wt % /sup 235/U

Description: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) performed an evaluation of the PGDP facilities to determine the feasibility of increasing product assay from 2.0 wt % to 5.0 wt % /sup 235/U and to determine the impact of this increase on plant criticality safety; their conclusions are reported in KY-710. This report critiques the methods used and conclusions reached in KY-710. 4 figures, 5 tables.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Petrie, L.M.; Turner, J.C. & Stewart, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of the radiological survey at 113 Avenue E, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ081)

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 113 Avenue E, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ081), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 5 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D. & Floyd, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Influence of irradiation on the tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel weldments

Description: Weldments in the first wall and front sections of the blanket of a fusion reactor will be exposed to approximately the same operating conditions as will the base metal. Thus the irradiation response of weld metal, of the weld heat affected zones in the base metal, and of the base metal are all of equal concern. Austenitic stainless steels will most likely be joined by a gas tungsten arc welding process. Welds have been made by this process between sections of 6-mm-thick (0.25 in.) base plate of type 316 in the 20%-cold-worked condition, with either type 316 or 16-8-2 stainless steel filler metal. Rod tensile specimens were cut through the welds, containing weld meta in the central gage portion. Weld-contaning tensile specimens have been irradiated in HFIR at 55/sup 0/C and throughout the temperature range 280 to 620/sup 0/C. The neutron fluences ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 x 10/sup 26/ n/m/sup 2/ (> 0.1 MeV). The corresponding displacement damage levels range from 4.5 to 12.1 dpa, and the helium generation from the thermal neutron captures in nickel resulted in 100 to 550 at. ppM He.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Wiffen, F.W.; Edmonds, D.P.; Horak, J.A. & King, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Imprecision of dose predictions for radionuclides released to the atmosphere: an application of the Monte Carlo-simulation-technique for iodine transported via the pasture-cow-milk pathway

Description: The shortcomings of using mathematical models to determine compliance with regulatory standards are discussed. Methods to determine the reliability of radiation assessment models are presented. Since field testing studies are impractical, a deficiency method, which analyzes the variability of input parameters and the impact of their variability on the predicted dose, is used. The Monte Carlo technique is one of these methods. This technique is based on statistical properties of the model output when input parameters inserted in the model are selected at random from a prescribed distribution. The one big assumption one must make is that the model is a correct formulation of reality. The Gaussian plume model for atmospheric transport of airborne effluents was used to study the pasture-cow-milk-man exposure pathway and the dose calculated from radioiodine (/sup 131/I) transported over this pathway. (DMC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Schwarz, G. & Hoffman, F. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Subcriticality measurements for two coupled uranyl nitrate solution tanks using /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis methods

Description: The subcriticality of two interacting solution tanks was determined using /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis methods. These experiments were the first test of this method for an interacting system with materials (in this case, uranyl nitrate) typical of nuclear materials in processing plants. The experiments were performed to test the conclusions from previous interaction experiments with uranium metal discs for a fissile system with moderation, and to provide data to test theoretical models for coupled systems. The uranium metal experiments showed that the subcritical neutron multiplication factor, k/sub eff/, could be determined using point kinetics without any correction for spatial effects from measurements with the source and detectors located adjacent to the same cylinder, whereas for source-detector configurations with either the source and/or detectors adjacent to different cylinders, a model which incorporates the coupling is required to obtain subcriticality. In the previous experiments with two coupled uranium metal cylinders, the measurements were performed at frequencies (<50 kHz) much lower than the break frequencies (>1 MHz) for the metal discs. Thus, many aspects of the theory relating to the relationships between various spatial models could not be verified in previous experiments. These measurements and their interpretation have shown that (1) point kinetics interpretation of the measured ratios of spectral densities yields the subcritical neutron multiplication factor when the source and detectors are located in or adjacent to one of the cylinders of uranyl nitrate, and (2) the coupling reactivity can be obtained by incorporating a third neutron detector adjacent to the cylinder without the source using the kinetics model of Difilippo, which includes one additional spatial mode in the direction of the coupling.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D. & King, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

Description: The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Houlberg, L. M.; Hawkins, G. T. & Salk, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dynamic considerations in the development of centrifugal separators used for reprocessing nuclear fuel

Description: The development of centrifugal separators has been a key ingredient in improving the process used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The separators are used to segregate uranium and plutonium from the fission products produced by a controlled nuclear reaction. The separators are small variable speed centrifuges, designed to operate in a harsh environment. Dynamic problems were detected by vibration analysis and resolved using modal analysis and trending. Problems with critical speeds, resonances in the base, balancing, weak components, precision manufacturing, and short life have been solved.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Strunk, W.D.; Singh, S.P. & Tuft, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Compact ignition tokamak design studies

Description: Viewgraphs are given on the following objectives of the design study: (1) develop core module concept, (2) develop a method to apply preload, (3) perform sufficient analysis to demonstrate total concept is structurally sound, (4) develop component fit-up and assembly scheme, and (5) minimize size and cost. (MOW)
Date: January 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2. Revision 1

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2 was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the cask complies with the applicable regulations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Box, W. D.; Klima, B. B.; Seagren, R. D.; Shappert, L. B.; Watson, C. D. & Aramayo, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Capture in the 1. 15-keV iron resonance

Description: The 1.15-keV resonance in iron is important to reactors in that a major part of the iron capture integral is due to this one resonance. This resonance is also a good test case for capture gamma-ray detectors, which are meant to have an efficiency independent of gamma-ray energy spectra, because this resonance has an unusually hard spectrum and other iron resonances do not. There have been severe discrepancies among different groups who have measured the capture area and transmission of this resonance. A new measurement, employing C/sub 6/F/sub 6/ liquid scintillators and pulse-height weighting to effect total energy detection, has been made of the ratio of the capture area of the 22.8-keV resonance relative to that of the 1.15-keV resonance. The 22.8-keV resonance has a relatively soft gamma-ray spectrum and there is agreement on the capture area. The results (2.91 +- 0.17) agree well with transmission measurements and confirm the applicability of total energy detectors for use on capture resonances with very hard capture gamma-ray spectra.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Weston, L.W. & Todd, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Automatic data-acquisition and communications computer network for fusion experiments

Description: A network of more than twenty computers serves the data acquisition, archiving, and analysis requirements of the ISX, EBT, and beam-line test facilities at the Fusion Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The network includes PDP-8, PDP-12, PDP-11, PDP-10, and Interdata 8-32 processors, and is unified by a variety of high-speed serial and parallel communications channels. While some processors are dedicated to experimental data acquisition, and others are dedicated to later analysis and theoretical work, many processors perform a combination of acquisition, real-time analysis and display, and archiving and communications functions. A network software system has been developed which runs in each processor and automatically transports data files from point of acquisition to point or points of analysis, display, and storage, providing conversion and formatting functions are required.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Kemper, C.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CALOR89: The code system for calorimeter analysis and design

Description: As part of a strong experimental high energy physics program, a substantial effort must be involved in calculational analysis of the detector system. The calculational capability must be fundamentally sound and based on previous interchange between theoretical calculations and experimental test programs. The CALOR89 system for analyzing calorimeters offers a solid approach for investigating all facets of detector systems and has been used in many calculational studies. CALOR89 is one of two major code systems recommended for analysis of SSC detector systems. 15 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Gabriel, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

Description: The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Das, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electromechanical three-axis development for remote handling in the Hot Experimental Facility

Description: A three-axis closed-loop position control system has been designed and installed on an overhead bridge, carriage, tube hoist for automotive positioning of manipulation at a remotely maintained work site. The system provides accurate (within 3 min) and repeatable three-axis positioning of the manipulator. The position control system has been interfaced to a supervisory minicomputer system that provides teach-playback capability of manipulator positioning and color graphic display of the three-axis system position.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Garin, J.; Bolfing, B.J.; Satterlee, P.E. & Babcock, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Drop testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [TRUPACT-I and a TMI-2 defueling canister]

Description: Two different types of packages, the TRUPACT-I shipping system and a TMI-2 defueling canister, were recently subjected to a series of drop tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing programs for the two packages are described.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Shappert, L. B. & Box, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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