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RELAP5 Model of the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System

Description: This report describes the RELAP5 models that have been developed for the Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS). The models are intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the VV PHTS, and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the models and to examine general VV PHTS transient behavior. The models can be used as a starting point to develop transient modeling capability in several directions including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc, and are not intended to represent the final VV PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, heat exchanger control may not be necessary, and that temperatures within the vacuum vessel during decay heat operation remain low.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L & Kim, Seokho H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RELAP5 Model of the First Wall/Blanket Primary Heat Transfer System

Description: ITER inductive power operation is modeled and simulated using a system level computer code to evaluate the behavior of the Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) and predict parameter operational ranges. The control algorithm strategy and derivation are summarized in this report as well. A major feature of ITER is pulsed operation. The plasma does not burn continuously, but the power is pulsed with large periods of zero power between pulses. This feature requires active temperature control to maintain a constant blanket inlet temperature and requires accommodation of coolant thermal expansion during the pulse. In view of the transient nature of the power (plasma) operation state a transient system thermal-hydraulics code was selected: RELAP5. The code has a well-documented history for nuclear reactor transient analyses, it has been benchmarked against numerous experiments, and a large user database of commonly accepted modeling practices exists. The process of heat deposition and transfer in the blanket modules is multi-dimensional and cannot be accurately captured by a one-dimensional code such as RELAP5. To resolve this, a separate CFD calculation of blanket thermal power evolution was performed using the 3-D SC/Tetra thermofluid code. A 1D-3D co-simulation more realistically models FW/blanket internal time-dependent thermal inertia while eliminating uncertainties in the time constant assumed in a 1-D system code. Blanket water outlet temperature and heat release histories for any given ITER pulse operation scenario are calculated. These results provide the basis for developing time dependent power forcing functions which are used as input in the RELAP5 calculations.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L & Kim, Seokho H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

Description: The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Badger, Philip C; Perlack, Robert D & Davis, Stacy Cagle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

Description: Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W & Syed, Azam M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

Description: Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Miller, William A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TASK 2.5.5 NATURAL EXPOSURE TESTING IN CALIFORNIA

Description: Airborne particulate matter that settles on a roof can either reflect or absorb incoming solar radiation, dependent on the chemical content and size of the particles. These light scattering and absorption processes occur within a few microns of the surface, and can affect the solar reflectance of the roof. Wilkes et al. (2000) tested 24 different roof coatings on a low-slope test stand and observed about a 25% decrease in the solar reflectance of white-coated and aluminum-coated surfaces as the time of exposure increased; however, the decrease leveled off after 2 years. SPRI Inc. and its affiliates studied the effect of climatic exposure on the surface properties of white thermoplastic single-ply membranes and determined that membranes lose from 30 to 50% of their reflectance over 3 years (Miller et al. 2002). The CMRC and its affiliates AISI, NamZAC, MBMA, MCA and NCCA exposed unpainted and painted metal roofing on both steep- and low-slope test roofs and found that after 3 years, the painted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) metal roofs lost less than 5% of their original reflectance (Miller et al. 2004). The results of the three different weathering studies are very interesting in terms of their solar reflectance after 3 years of exposure. The white thermoplastic membrane and white ceramic coating with white topcoat had original reflectance measures that were about 20 percentage points higher than the painted metal; however, after 3-years of field exposure the solar reflectance of the painted metal exceeds that of the thermoplastic membrane and equals that of the coating. The long-term loss of reflectance appears driven by the ability of the particulate matter to cling to the roof and resist being washed off by wind and or rain. Miller et al. (2002) discovered that aerosol deposition introduced biomass of complex microbial consortia onto the test roofs ...
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Miller, William A; Cheng, Mengdawn; New, Joshua Ryan; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem & Berhahl, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

Description: The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Pinkston, Daniel; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G & Sease, John D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

Description: The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Zaltash, Abdolreza
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

Description: Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Miller, William A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final CRADA Report ORNL-00-0609, Real-Time Control of Diesel Combustion Quality

Description: Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques developed from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical techniques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion instabilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation of this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of advanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion systems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experimental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL. The objectives are to: (1) Explore and establish boundaries of high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes on a DDC heavy-duty diesel engine; (2) Improve fundamental understanding of combustion instabilities for use in the development of predictive controls and diagnostics; and (3) Develop and ...
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Wagner, Robert M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report on the Transportation Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium Held at USCAR, March 3 and 4, 2010

Description: This report summarizes results from an invited two-day colloquium of twenty-nine combustion engine experts from academia, industry, and national labs that was convened March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium was held at the request of The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) to review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from theoretical and practical perspectives. In the ensuing discussions, the experts were able to reach a broad consensus on some important questions regarding current fuel efficiency limits. They also identified technology barriers and recommended specific near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE's consideration. Internal combustion engines currently play a dominant role in U.S. transportation and are expected to continue to do so well beyond 2020 [1]. Because of this, the Department of Energy (DOE) has placed high priority on promoting technologies that maximize combustion engine fuel efficiency while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Identification of the most promising paths to achieve these goals has recently become more complicated as non-traditional transportation fuels and hybrid electric vehicles become widely available. To reassess the state of combustion engine science and identify new opportunities for technology breakthroughs, an invited colloquium of combustion engine experts was convened on March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium objectives were: (1) Review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from both theoretical and practical perspectives; (2) Arrive at a consensus on the theoretical and practical fuel efficiencies that can be achieved; and (3) Recommend near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE to consider in developing their strategic planning for reaching efficiency goals. This report ...
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Daw, C Stuart; Graves, Ronald L; Caton, Jerald A & Wagner, Robert M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Innovative Technique for Evaluating the Integrity and Durability of Wind Turbine Blade Composites

Description: Wind turbine blades are subjected to complex multiaxial stress states during operation. A review of the literature suggests that mixed mode fracture toughness can be significantly less than that of the tensile opening mode (Mode I), implying that fracture failure can occur at a much lower load capacity if the structure is subject to mixed-mode loading. Thus, it will be necessary to identify the mechanisms that might lead to failure in blade materials under mixed-mode loading conditions. Meanwhile, wind turbine blades are typically fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric materials, e.g. fiber glass composites. Due to the large degree of anisotropy in mechanical properties that is usually associated with laminates, the fracture behavior of these composite materials is likely to be strongly dependent on the loading conditions. This may further strengthen the need to study the effect of mixed-mode loading on the integrity and durability of the wind turbine blade composites. To quantify the fracture behavior of composite structures under mixed mode loading conditions, particularly under combined Mode I (flexural or normal tensile stress) and Mode III (torsional shear stress) loading, a new testing technique is proposed based on the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT). As a 2002 R&D 100 Award winner, SNTT is a novel fracture testing technology. SNTT has many advantages over conventional fracture toughness methods and has been used to determine fracture toughness values on a wide spectrum of materials. The current project is the first attempt to utilize SNTT on polymeric and polymer-based composite materials. It is expected that mixed-mode failure mechanisms of wind turbine blades induced by typical in-service loading conditions, such as delamination, matrix cracking, fiber pull-out and fracture, can be effectively and economically investigated by using this methodology. This project consists of two phases. The Phase I (FY2010) effort includes (1) preparation of testing ...
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Wang, Jy-An John & Ren, Fei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

Description: Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) ...
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Miller, William A; Cherry, Nigel J; Allen, Richard Lowell; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ronnen, Levinson et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR LEU Conversion using COMSOL

Description: The research documented herein was funded by a research contract between the Research Reactors Division (RRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering Department (MABE). The research was governed by a statement of work (SOW) which clearly defines nine specific tasks. This report is outlined to follow and document the results of each of these nine specific tasks. The primary goal of this phase of the research is to demonstrate, through verification and validation methods, that COMSOL is a viable simulation tool for thermal-hydraulic modeling of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core. A secondary goal of this two-dimensional phase of the research is to establish methodology and data base libraries that are also needed in the full three-dimensional COMSOL simulation to follow. COMSOL version 3.5a was used for all of the models presented throughout this report.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Freels, James D; Bodey, Isaac T; Lowe, Kirk T & Arimilli, Rao V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Computing Facility Operational Assessment, FY 2010 Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Cray XT5 supercomputer, Jaguar, kicked off the era of petascale scientific computing in 2008 with applications that sustained more than a thousand trillion floating point calculations per second - or 1 petaflop. Jaguar continues to grow even more powerful as it helps researchers broaden the boundaries of knowledge in virtually every domain of computational science, including weather and climate, nuclear energy, geosciences, combustion, bioenergy, fusion, and materials science. Their insights promise to broaden our knowledge in areas that are vitally important to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation as a whole, particularly energy assurance and climate change. The science of the 21st century, however, will demand further revolutions in computing, supercomputers capable of a million trillion calculations a second - 1 exaflop - and beyond. These systems will allow investigators to continue attacking global challenges through modeling and simulation and to unravel longstanding scientific questions. Creating such systems will also require new approaches to daunting challenges. High-performance systems of the future will need to be codesigned for scientific and engineering applications with best-in-class communications networks and data-management infrastructures and teams of skilled researchers able to take full advantage of these new resources. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) provides the nation's most powerful open resource for capability computing, with a sustainable path that will maintain and extend national leadership for DOE's Office of Science (SC). The OLCF has engaged a world-class team to support petascale science and to take a dramatic step forward, fielding new capabilities for high-end science. This report highlights the successful delivery and operation of a petascale system and shows how the OLCF fosters application development teams, developing cutting-edge tools and resources for next-generation systems.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Bland, Arthur S Buddy; Hack, James J; Baker, Ann E; Barker, Ashley D; Boudwin, Kathlyn J.; Kendall, Ricky A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

Description: This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Boudreaux, Philip R & New, Joshua Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

Description: Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Wang, Jy-An John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

Description: California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual ...
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Miller, William A; New, Joshua Ryan; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender & Ronnen, Levinson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Report: Scalable Parallel Algorithms for High Dimensional Numerical Integration

Description: We implemented a scalable parallel quasi-Monte Carlo numerical high-dimensional integration for tera-scale data points. The implemented algorithm uses the Sobol s quasi-sequences to generate random samples. Sobol s sequence was used to avoid clustering effects in the generated random samples and to produce low-discrepancy random samples which cover the entire integration domain. The performance of the algorithm was tested. Obtained results prove the scalability and accuracy of the implemented algorithms. The implemented algorithm could be used in different applications where a huge data volume is generated and numerical integration is required. We suggest using the hyprid MPI and OpenMP programming model to improve the performance of the algorithms. If the mixed model is used, attention should be paid to the scalability and accuracy.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Masalma, Yahya & Jiao, Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) announced in January 2002 a new cooperative research effort. Known as FreedomCAR (derived from ''Freedom'' and ''Cooperative Automotive Research''), it represents DOE's commitment to developing public-private partnerships to fund high risk, high payoff research into advanced automotive technologies. Efficient fuel cell technology, which uses hydrogen to power automobiles without air pollution, is a very promising pathway to achieve the ultimate vision. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric motor technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency. In supporting the development of advanced vehicle propulsion systems, the APEEM subprogram has enabled the development of technologies that will significantly improve efficiency, costs, and fuel economy. The APEEM subprogram supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership through a three phase approach intended to: (1) identify overall propulsion and vehicle related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements and then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors and PE; and (3) determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle ...
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Olszewski, Mitchell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Report: Toward a Scalable Algorithm to Compute High-Dimensional Integrals of Arbitrary Functions

Description: Neutron experiments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) frequently generate large amounts of data (on the order of 106-1012 data points). Hence, traditional data analysis tools run on a single CPU take too long to be practical and scientists are unable to efficiently analyze all data generated by experiments. Our goal is to develop a scalable algorithm to efficiently compute high-dimensional integrals of arbitrary functions. This algorithm can then be used to integrate the four-dimensional integrals that arise as part of modeling intensity from the experiments at the SNS. Here, three different one-dimensional numerical integration solvers from the GNU Scientific Library were modified and implemented to solve four-dimensional integrals. The results of these solvers on a final integrand provided by scientists at the SNS can be compared to the results of other methods, such as quasi-Monte Carlo methods, computing the same integral. A parallelized version of the most efficient method can allow scientists the opportunity to more effectively analyze all experimental data.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Snyder, Abigail C. & Jiao, Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction of uranyl nitrate solutions with amberlite IRC-72 cation exchange resin at 30/sup 0/C: a kinetic investigation for the HTGR fuel recycle plant

Description: A kinetic investigation of the reaction of uranyl nitrate solution with Amberlite IRC-72 cation exchange resin was conducted at 30/sup 0/C under conditions similar to those anticipated for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel refabrication facility. A simplified mass transfer analogue expression was developed to evaluate the effects of process parameters on the resin loading rate. Correlation of the experimental data with the integrated rate expression depended only on the determination of the reaction velocity constant and the limiting distribution coefficient for uranium in the system. 5 tables, 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Shaffer, J. H.; Shockley, W. E. & Evans, III, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design concept and testing of an in-bundle gamma densitometer for subchannel void fraction measurements in the THTF electrically heated rod bundle. [PWR]

Description: A design concept is presented for an in-bundle gamma densitometer system for measurement of subchannel average fluid density and void fraction in rod or tube bundles. This report describes (1) the application of the design concept to the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) electrically heated rod bundle; and (2) results from tests conducted in the THTF.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Felde, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

Description: This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department