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Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V. & Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two long-term instrumental climatic data bases of the People's Republic of China

Description: Two long-term instrumental data bases containing meteorological observations from the People's Republic of China (PRC) are described. These data sets were compiled in accordance with a joint research agreement signed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the PRC Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on August 19, 1987. CAS has provided records from 265 stations, partitioned into networks of 60 and 205 stations which each provide good geographical coverage of the PRC. The 60-station network data contain monthly measurements of barometric pressure, air temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, sunshine duration, cloud amount, wind direction and speed, and number of days with snow cover. Detailed station histories are presented for all 60 stations. The 205-station network data contain monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals; however, station histories are not currently available. Sixteen stations from these data sets (13 from the 60-station, 3 from the 205-station) have temperature and/or precipitation records which begin prior to 1900, whereas the remaining stations began observing in the early to mid 1900s. Records from the 262 stations extend through 1988; the remaining three station records extend through the early 1980s. These data can be used in defining regional climate changes, establishing relationships between regional and large-scale climates, and in studying the climatic impacts of urbanization and increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. Additional uses could include examining impacts of periodic events such as volcanic eruptions or the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These data sets represent the most comprehensive, long-term instrumental Chinese climate data presently available.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Kaiser, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Historical Climatology Network daily temperature and precipitation data

Description: This document describes a data base containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation amounts from 138 US stations. These stations are a specially chosen subset of the 1219-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina). The daily data network (herein referred to as the HCN/D) consists of stations considered to be the best of those from the HCN, selected to provide reasonably homogeneous spatial coverage of the contiguous US after considering the temporal homogeneity of each station's observing times, instrument types/positions, and surroundings. The data for each station extend through 1987, and most station records are complete for at least 80 years. The daily resolution of these data lends maximum flexibility for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of the more commonly used monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum/minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. Other applications of the data include planning and risk assessment in areas such as agriculture, natural resource exploration, and construction. This document describes how the stations in the HCN/D were selected, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, describes the format and contents of the magnetic tape, and provides reprints of literature pertinent to the collection and application of daily climate data.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Kaiser, D.P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.; Karl, T.R. & Brower, W.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

Description: This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A. & Daniels, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glossary: Carbon dioxide and climate

Description: This Glossary contains definitions of selected CO{sub 2}-related terms as well as tables containing information related to CO{sub 2} and climate. Each term is defined with an emphasis on its relationship to CO{sub 2} and climate. Many of the definitions are then followed by a more detailed description of the term and its use. References to the literature from which the definitions were taken are listed at the end of the Glossary.
Date: August 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

Description: This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO[sub 2] by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Weiss, R.F.; Van Woy, F.A.; Salameh, P.K. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)) & Sepanski, R.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

Description: This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J. & Stoss, F.W. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

Description: The earth' s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5[degrees]C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth's global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5[degrees]C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Daniels, R.C. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Gornitz, V.M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); Mehta, A.J. & Lee, Saychong (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

Description: During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Cushman, R.M. & Stoss, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

Description: This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Sepanski, R. J.; Boden, T. A. & Daniels, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

Description: This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Burtis, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

Description: This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO{sub 2} by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Weiss, R. F.; Van Woy, F. A.; Salameh, P. K. & Sepanski, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

Description: This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude [times] 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Gornitz, V.M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) & Daniels, R.C. (Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends '91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

Description: The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends '91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends '91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports's five chapters. The chapters are Atmospheric CO[sub 2],'' Atmospheric CH[sub 4],'' Other Trace Gases,'' CO[sub 2] Emissions,'' and Temperature.'' Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends '91 is found in Appendix C.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J. & Stoss, F.W. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

Description: This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Burtis, M.D. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two long-term instrumental climatic data bases of the People`s Republic of China

Description: Two long-term instrumental data bases containing meteorological observations from the People`s Republic of China (PRC) are described. These data sets were compiled in accordance with a joint research agreement signed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the PRC Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on August 19, 1987. CAS has provided records from 265 stations, partitioned into networks of 60 and 205 stations which each provide good geographical coverage of the PRC. The 60-station network data contain monthly measurements of barometric pressure, air temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, sunshine duration, cloud amount, wind direction and speed, and number of days with snow cover. Detailed station histories are presented for all 60 stations. The 205-station network data contain monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals; however, station histories are not currently available. Sixteen stations from these data sets (13 from the 60-station, 3 from the 205-station) have temperature and/or precipitation records which begin prior to 1900, whereas the remaining stations began observing in the early to mid 1900s. Records from the 262 stations extend through 1988; the remaining three station records extend through the early 1980s. These data can be used in defining regional climate changes, establishing relationships between regional and large-scale climates, and in studying the climatic impacts of urbanization and increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. Additional uses could include examining impacts of periodic events such as volcanic eruptions or the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These data sets represent the most comprehensive, long-term instrumental Chinese climate data presently available.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Kaiser, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Historical Climatology Network daily temperature and precipitation data

Description: This document describes a data base containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation amounts from 138 US stations. These stations are a specially chosen subset of the 1219-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina). The daily data network (herein referred to as the HCN/D) consists of stations considered to be the best of those from the HCN, selected to provide reasonably homogeneous spatial coverage of the contiguous US after considering the temporal homogeneity of each station`s observing times, instrument types/positions, and surroundings. The data for each station extend through 1987, and most station records are complete for at least 80 years. The daily resolution of these data lends maximum flexibility for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of the more commonly used monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum/minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ``event size`` frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. Other applications of the data include planning and risk assessment in areas such as agriculture, natural resource exploration, and construction. This document describes how the stations in the HCN/D were selected, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, describes the format and contents of the magnetic tape, and provides reprints of literature pertinent to the collection and application of daily climate data.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Kaiser, D. P.; Hughes, P. Y.; Mason, E. H.; Karl, T. R. & Brower, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends `91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

Description: The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends `91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends `91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports`s five chapters. The chapters are ``Atmospheric CO{sub 2},`` ``Atmospheric CH{sub 4},`` ``Other Trace Gases,`` ``CO{sub 2} Emissions,`` and ``Temperature.`` Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends `91 is found in Appendix C.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Boden, T. A.; Sepanski, R. J. & Stoss, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historic land use and carbon estimates for South and Southeast Asia: 1880--1980

Description: This document describes the contents of a digital data base containing estimates of land use change and the carbon content of vegetation for South and Southeast Asia for the years 1880, 1920, 1950, 1970, and 1980. These data were originally collected for climate modelers, so they could reduce the uncertainty associated with the magnitude and time course of historical land use change and of carbon release. For this data base, South and Southeast Asia is defined as the countries of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The most important change in land use over the 100 year period was the conversion of 107 {times} 10{sup 6} ha of forest/woodland to categories with lower biomass. Land thus transformed accounted for 13.5% of the total area of the study region. The estimated total carbon content of live vegetation in South and Southeast Asia has dropped progressively, from 59 {times} 10{sup 9} Mg in 1880 to 27 {times} 10{sup 9} Mg in 1980. Throughout the study period the carbon stock in forests was greater than the carbon content in all other categories combined, although its share of the total declined progressively from 81% in 1880 to 73% in 1980. The data base itself was developed in Lotus 1-2-3{trademark} using a sequential bookkeeping model. The source data were obtained at the local and regional level for each country from official agricultural and economic statistics from historical geographic and demographic texts, reports, and articles; and from any other available source. Because of boundary changes through time and disparities between the validity, availability, and scale of the data for each country, the data were aggregated into 94 ecological zones. The resulting data base contains land use and carbon information for 94 ecological zones and ...
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Daniels, R. C.; Richards, J. F. & Flint, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

Description: This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T. A.; Sepanski, R. J. & Stoss, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

Description: The earth` s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5{degrees}C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth`s global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5{degrees}C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Daniels, R. C.; Gornitz, V. M.; Mehta, A. J.; Lee, Saychong & Cushman, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

Description: During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Cushman, R. M. & Stoss, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T. A.; Brounshtein, A. M.; Faber, E. V. & Shashkov, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glossary: Carbon dioxide and climate

Description: This Glossary contains definitions of selected CO{sub 2}-related terms as well as tables containing information related to CO{sub 2} and climate. Each term is defined with an emphasis on its relationship to CO{sub 2} and climate. Many of the definitions are then followed by a more detailed description of the term and its use. References to the literature from which the definitions were taken are listed at the end of the Glossary.
Date: August 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department