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Electromagnetic properties of nuclei at high spins

Description: A photon emitted by an excited state is likely to carry away, at most, 1 or 2 h-bar of angular momentum. Therefore, a profusion of photons is needed to deexcite the rapidly rotating states of nuclei formed by heavy-ion reactions. The study of electromagnetic properties has become the primary source of information on nuclear structure at high spins and, also, at the warm temperatures present in the initial stage of the electromagnetic cascade process. The purpose of this paper is a review of the E1, M1, and E2 properties of such highly excited states. 42 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Leander, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Department of Energy High School Student Supercomputing Honors Program: A follow-up assessment

Description: The US DOE High School Student Supercomputing Honors Program was designed to recognize high school students with superior skills in mathematics and computer science and to provide them with formal training and experience with advanced computer equipment. This document reports on the participants who attended the first such program, which was held at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during August 1985.
Date: January 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shell effects on the E1 moments of Ra-Th nuclei

Description: Large systematic shell effects on intrinsic E1 moments are found, which should modulate any E1 moment induced by ..beta../sub 3/ deformation. The calculated shell effects can explain an emerging trend for E1 data in Ra-Th nuclei, if and only if the gross ..beta../sub 3/-induced polarization of finite nuclear matter goes in the same direction as the lightning rod effect. 16 references.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Leander, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991

Description: The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Johnson, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977

Description: Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Nuclear Era

Description: The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S. & Phung, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation dose estimates for copper-64 citrate in man

Description: Tumor imaging agents suitable for use with positron emission tomographs are constantly sought. We have performed studies with animal-tumor-bearing models that have demonstrated the rapid uptake of copper-64. The radiation dose estimates for man indicate that the intravenous administration of 7.0 mCi would result in radiation doses to the kidney of 9.8 to 10.5 rads with other organs receiving substantially less radiation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Crook, J.E.; Carlton, J.E.; Stabin, M. & Watson, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Training and technology statistical report, October 1979-September 1980

Description: A total of 839 trainees were enrolled at TAT during the 1979 to 1980 training year. Section One of this statistical report includes information on only those 613 trainees who exited training between October 1, 1979, and September 30, 1980. Demographic, educational, and employment data on the 613 exiting trainees - graduates and nongraduates - are summarized. There were 478 graduates (78% of concluding trainees), of whom 459 were available for placement. Profile summaries of graduates and nongraduates are tabulated. Of the 459 available for placement, 432 were placed in jobs with beginning wages averaging $6.34 per hour. The estimated annual income for those who were placed, assuming 2080 h/y, was $13,187. The majority of graduates, 85.8%, were unemployed at the time they entered TAT. The remainder, 14.2% of graduates, reported wages averaging $3.62 per hour at entry to training. Projected on an annual basis, those graduates employed at entry earned $7529. Compared to the average starting wage of placed TAT trainees on their first jobs after graduation, $13,187, their increased earnings were $5658 or a 75% increase after training. During the training year there were 135 trainees who did not graduate. Exit information on these nongraduates is presented. In addition to industrial skills training, TAT offers trainees who do not have a high school diploma or its equivalent the opportunity to work on the General Education Development (GED) by studying at TAT. Thirty-five trainees received their GED certification during the 1979 to 1980 training year. Supplementary statistical data on TAT enrollments, training and placement from 1966 to 1980 is provided.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Papers on the nuclear regulatory dilemma

Description: The four papers contained in this report are titled: (1) From Prescriptive to Performance-Based Regulation of Nuclear Power; (2) Nuclear Regulatory Reform: A Technology-Forcing Approach; (3) Improving the Regulation of Nuclear Power; and (4) Science and Its Limits: The Regulators' Dilemma. These four papers investigate issues relating to the long-term regulation of nuclear energy. They were prepared as part of the Institute for Energy Analysis' project on Nuclear Regulation funded by a grant from the Mellon Foundation and a smaller grant by the MacArthur Foundation. Originally this work was to be supplemented by contributions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and from the Department of Energy. These contributions were not forthcoming, and as a result the scope of our investigations was more restricted than we had originally planned.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Barkenbus, J.N.; Freeman, S.D. & Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

Description: A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Reister, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNISOR facility: recent developments and future directions

Description: The UNISOR isotope separator is described. This facility is presently on line to the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, and will also be on line to a 25-MV folded tandem accelerator when the latter is completed. Intended primarily for the study of nuclei far from stability by means of radioactive-decay spectroscopy, the facility is designed and has been expanded to do multiple experiments simultaneously. This ability makes possible the completion of many studies that can expose the systematic behavior of nuclear structures over a relatively wide mass range. Aspects of the facility discussed include the following: the isotope separator itself, ion sources, available heavy-ion beams and beam handling equipment, collection systems, and data acquisition and handling. 3 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Spejewski, E.H. & Mlekodaj, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for /sup 99/Tc

Description: Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10/sup 5/ y) is produced in the fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for /sup 99/Tc as 2 x 10/sup 8/ Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data wer found on the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, /sup 99/Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for /sup 99/Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of /sup 99/Tc and Na/sup 99/TcO/sub 4/ are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and /sup 99/Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E. & Carlton, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-related scientists and engineers: a statistical profile of recent entrants into the work force, 1978

Description: This report examines the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates are also compared to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities. Information is based on the results of the 1976 and 1978 National Surveys of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, and the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy. Tabulations are included for the first time on employment involving specific energy sources and activities. Other characteristics discussed include educational level, salary, primary work activity, type of employer, and the proportion of graduates who found employment in their major field.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Bell, Sharon E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

Description: As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Coleman, J. & Inhaber, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epistemological considerations in the extrapolation of metabolic data from non-humans to humans. [Validity of interspecies extrapolation]

Description: The rationale underlying interspecies extrapolation of metabolic data has been based primarily on pragmatic concerns. Little attention has been given to the extent to which such extrapolations have a firm epistemological basis. The strength of this approach for model-free (purely empirical) extrapolation and for extrapolation involving a variety of theoretical constructs is examined in this paper. An attempt is made to provide some understanding of the degree of confidence that can be placed in the extrapolation of metabolic data from one species to another. Published results for a wide variety of radionuclides are analyzed and the importance of these results to the field of nuclear medicine is explored. Problems inherent in the logic of extrapolation are then delineated in view of these historical data.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Crawford, D.J. & Richmond, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear criticality safety training: guidelines for DOE contractors

Description: The DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter V, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. This guide has been developed as an aid to implementing the Chapter V requirements pertaining to nuclear criticality safety training. The guide outlines relevant conceptual knowledge and demonstrated good practices in job performance. It addresses training program operations requirements in the areas of employee evaluations, employee training records, training program evaluations, and training program records. It also suggests appropriate feedback mechanisms for criticality safety training program improvement. The emphasis is on academic rather than hands-on training. This allows a decoupling of these guidelines from specific facilities. It would be unrealistic to dictate a universal program of training because of the wide variation of operations, levels of experience, and work environments among DOE contractors and facilities. Hence, these guidelines do not address the actual implementation of a nuclear criticality safety training program, but rather they outline the general characteristics that should be included.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Crowell, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less-than-baccalaureate degree)

Description: Current projections indicate that in addition to the 10,100 technician positions and 6100 existing operator positions in the nuclear power industry, another 9100 technicians and 9700 operators will be required over the next decade. With 56 nuclear plants currently in operation and an additional 35 plants under construction, it is essential that trained technical personnel be available for employment in the nuclear utilities. Because of the growing demand for technicians in the nuclear utility industry, this report has been prepared to identify the nuclear-related, less-than-baccalaureate, technical educational programs provided by academic institutions and to ascertain both the current number of students and the maximum number that could be trained, given present staff and facilities. The data serve as a gauge for the proportion of technician training required by the nuclear industry that can be provided by academic institutions.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Howard, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-line multiwavelength photometer for the determination of heavy metal concentrations

Description: An in-line photometer has been developed for continuous monitoring of uranium and plutonium concentrations in high radiation environments of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The instrument is equipped with multiple narrow band interference filters to monitor sample transmission in the 400- to 800-nm range. The filters are mounted in a rotating filter wheel which is located in front of a stationary tungsten halide light source. The monochromatic light from the respective optical filters is transmitted through a fiber optic cable of up to 10 m in length to the in-line sample flow cell located within the reprocessing area. A similar length of cable returns the optical signal to the photometer where the light intensity is detected with a photomultiplier tube, amplified, and processed with an LSI-11 computer system.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Bostick, D.T.; Strain, J.E.; Dixon, D.M.; McCue, D.D. & Bauer, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976

Description: This analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers uses the 1976 National Science Foundation National Sample data on 50,000 scientists and engineers who were in the labor force at the time of the 1970 Census. The energy-related scientists and engineers have characteristics quite similar to those of all scientists and engineers. However, energy-related scientists and engineers report slightly higher educational attainment as well as a higher incidence of supplemental training. Energy-related engineers generally are not much older than their counterparts who did not report energy-related work. Energy-related scientists, however, are older than their counterparts and can be expected to experience losses from death and retirement at a rate about 12 percent higher than the rate for all scientists over the next decade.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Finn, M. G. & Bain, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

Description: A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J. & Fry, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

Description: Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R. & Shirley, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

Description: This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: Giachetti, R.T. (Giachetti (Richard T.), Ann Arbor, MI (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary direct heat geothermal resource assessment of the Tennessee Valley region

Description: A preliminary appraisal of the direct heat geothermal energy resources of the Tennessee Valley region has been completed. This region includes Kentucky, Tennessee and parts of adjacent states. Intermediate and deep aquifers were selected for study. Basement and Top-of-Knox structure and temperature maps were compiled from oil and gas well data on file at various state geological survey offices. Results of this study indicate that the New Madrid seismic zone is the only area within the region that possesses potential for direct heat utilization. In other areas geothermal energy is either too deep for economical extraction or it will not be able to compete with other local energy resources. The only anomalously high temperature well outside the New Madrid seismic zone was located in the Rome Trough and near the central part of the eastern Kentucky coal basin. Geothermal energy in that region would face strong competition from coal, oil and natural gas.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Staub, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy sources for the future

Description: The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).
Date: April 1, 1977
Creator: Duggan, J. L. & Cloutier, R. J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department